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FROM THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

THROUGH THE 

SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

kz53.^..Q.S'.. s/x:/j.2... 

g 506 Rev. Stat, prohibits the withdrawal of this book for ho/ne use. 



9730 



OFFICIAL RECORDS 



OF THE 



UNION AND CONFEDERATE NAYIES 



IN THE 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 



PUBLISHED ITNDBE THE DIRECTION OF 

The Hon. GEOBGE v. L. METEB, Secretary of the Navy, 

BY 

MR. CHARLES W.STEWART. 
Superintendent Library and Naval M^ar Records. 



By adthokity ov an Act op Congress appeoved July 31, 1894. 



SEKIES I— VOLTIME 24. 
From January 1 to May 17, 1863. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 
1911. 



CONTENTS OF PRECEDING VOLUMES. 



Volume 1. 

Operations of the cruisers from January 19, 1861, to December 31, 1862. 

Volume 2. 
Operations of the cruisers from January 1, 1863, to March 31, 1864. 

Volume 3. 
Operations of the cruisers from April 1, 1864, to December 30, 1865. 

Volume 4. 

Operations in the Gulf of Mexico from November 15, 1860, to June 7, 1861. Opera- 
tions on the Atlantic coast from January 1 to May 13, 1861. Operations on the 
Potomac and Bappahannock rivers from January 5 to December 7, 1861. 

Volume 5. 

Operations on the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers from December 7, 1861, to 
July 31, 1865. Operations of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron from April 4 to 
July 15, 1861. 

Volume 6. 

Operations of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron from July 16 to October 29, 1861. 
Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 29, 1861, to 
March 8, 1862. 

VOLXTME 7. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from March 8 to September 4, 

1862. 

Volume 8. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from September 5, 1862, to 

May 4, 1863. 

Volume 9. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from May 5, 1863, to May 5, 

1864. 

Volume 10. 
Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from May 6 to October 27, 1864. 

Volume 11. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 28, 1864, to 

Febnmry 1, 1865. 

m 



iv contents op preceding volumes. 

Volume 12. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from February 2 to August 3, 

1865. Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 29 

1861, to May 13, 1862. 

Volume 13. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from May 14, 1862, to April 7, 

1863. 

Volume 14. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from April 7 to September 30, 

1863. 

Volume 15. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October I, 1863, to Sep- 
tember 30, 1864. 

Volume 16. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 1, 1864, to 
August 8, 1865. Operations of the Gulf Blockading Squadron from June 7 to 
December 15, 1861. 

Volume 17. 

Operations of the Gulf Blockading Squadron from December 16, 1861, to February 21, 

1862. Operations of the East Gulf Blockading Squadron from February 22, 1862, 
to July 17, 1865. 

Volume 18. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from February 21 to July 14, 1862. 

Volume 19. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from July 15, 1862, to March 14, 

1863. 

Volume 20. 
Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from March 15 to December 31, 1863. 

Volume 21. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from January 1 to December 31 

1864. 

Volume 22. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from January 1, 1865, to January 31 

1866. Operations of the naval forces on Western waters from May 8, 1861 to 
April 11, 1862. 

Volume 23. 

Op€srations of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from April 12 to DecembOT 31, 1862. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
List of illustrations vii 

Preface ix-xii 

Order of compilation of Series I xni, xiv 

List of vessels of naval forces on Western waters xv 

Calendar xvi 

Naval forces on Western waters: 
Principal events — 
Union reports — 

Operations in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, January 

1 to April 30, 1863 3-91 

Joint operations connected with the capture of the Post of 

Arkansas (Fort Hindman), Ark., January 4-11, 1863 98-127 

Capture and destruction of steamers Jacob Musselman and 

Grampus No. 2, January 6 and 11, 1863 134,135 

Joint operations in White River, including captures at St. 
Charles, Devall's Bluff, and Des Arc, Ark., January 12-19, 

1863 153-160 

Detached expedition by U. S. ram Queen of the West, includ- 
ing passage of Vicksburg batteries; attack upon steamer City 
of Vicksburg, and capture of supply steamers A. W. Baker, 
Moro, and Berwick Bay in and near Red River, February 2-3, 

1863 217-224 

Capture of cotton by U. S. S. Tyler, February 3-9, 1863 225, 226 

Seizure of steamer W. A. Knapp, February 4, 1863 236-239 

Joint expedition through Yazoo Pass into Coldwater and Tal- 
lahatchie rivers, including attacks upon Fort Pemberton 

(Greenwood), February 6-April 12, 1863 243-293 

Loss of the IT. S. S. Glide by fire at Cairo, 111., February 7, 1863. 305-310 

Accident to U. S. S. Eastport, February 2, 1863 312-314 

Seizures, including steamer Rowena, by U. S. S. New Era, in 

suppression of illegal traffic, February 9, 13, 1863 332-336 

Disabling of U. S. ram Dick Fulton by Confederates, February 

10, 1863 337 

Traffic in cotton, etc., under Army authority, and seizure of 

steamers Rose Hambleton, Evansville, and Curlew, February 

11, 12, and 28, 1863 340-350' 

Attacks upon Federal vessels near Greenville, Miss., and corre- 
spondence regarding proposed retaliatory measures, February 

13 to April 7, 1863 359-363,365-367 

Second detached expedition to Red Riven by U. S. ram Queen 
of the West, supported by U. S. S. Indianola, including pas- 
sage of Vicksburg batteries by the latter, February 13; cap- 
ture of Confederate steamer Era No. 5 and of U. S. S. Queen 
of the West, February 14; also sinking of U. S. S. Indianola 
by C. S. ram WiUiam H. Webb, captured ram Queen of the 
West, and steamers Dr. Beatty and Grand Era, February 24, 

1863 370-397 

Joint expedition to Steele's Bayou, Miss., March 14-27, 1863. 474-^96, 498 
Operations of the Marine Brigade in the Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, April-Afay 29, 1863 , 529-531 

Opening of the cut-off between Arkansas and Mississippi 
Rivers by Lieut. Commander T. 0. Selfridge, April 11, 1863. . 548-551 

T 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Naval forces on Western waters — Continued. 
Principal events — Continued. 
Union reports — Continued. 

Passage of Vicksburg batteries by the fleet under Acting Rear- Page. 
Admiral Porter, April 16, 17, 1863 550-566 

Loss of U. S. tug Lily by collision with TJ. S. S. Choctaw, April 
28, 1863 585,586 

Feigned attack upon Haynes' Bluff, Miss., April 29 to May 1, 
1863.... 588-599 

Joint operations against Grand Gulf, Miss., including bombard- 
ment of the batteries, April 29, and the evacuation, May 3, 
1863 600-630 

Operations in vicinity of Greenville, Miss., including attacks 
upon Federal steamers Era and Minnesota and biuning of the 
latter, followed by destruction of property, May 2-9, 1863 637-642 

Operations in and about Red River, including occupation of 
Alexandria and attempted destruction of Fort De Russy, La., 
May 4 to 17, 1863 645-652 

Destruction of Confederate fort at Wairenton, Miss., May 10, 
1863 664 

Joint expedition to Linden, Tenn., May 12, 1863 668, 669 

Confederate reports — 

Operations in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, January 
ltoApril30, 1863 28,29 

Joint operations connected with the capture of the Post of 
Arkansas (Fort Hindman), Ark., January 4-11, 1863 128-130 

Capture and destruction of steamers Jacob Musselman and 
Grampus No. 2, January 6 and 11, 1863 136,137 

Detached expedition by U. S. ram Queen of the West, including 
passage of Vicksburg batteries; attack upon steamer City of 
Vicksburg, and capture of supply steamers A. W. Baker, Moro, 
and Berwick Bay in and near Red River, Febniary 2-3, 1863. 224, 225 

Joint expedition through Yazoo Pass into Coldwater and Talla- 
hatchie rivers, including attacks upon Fort Pemberton 
(Greenwood), February 6-April 12, 1863 294r-304 

Attacks upon Federal vessels near Greenville, Miss., and corre- 
spondence regarding proposed retaliatory measures, February 
13 to April 7, 1863 363-365,367-370 

Second detached expedition to Red River by U. S. ram Queen 
of the West, supported by U. S. S. Indianola, including pas- 
sage of Vicksburg batteries by the latter, February 13; cap- 
ture of Confederate steamer Era No. 5 and of U. S. S. Queen 
of the West, February 14; also sinking of U. S. S. Indianola 
by C. S. ram William H. Webb, captured ram Queen of the 
West, and steamers Dr. Beatty and Grand Era, February 24, 
1863 398^12 

Joint expedition to Steele's Bayou, Miss., March 14-27, 1863 496-501 

Passage of Vicksburg batteries by the fleet under Acting Rear- 
Admiral Porter, April 16, 17, 1963 566-568 

Feigned attack upon Haynes' Bluff, Miss., April 29 to May 1, 
1863 599 

Joint operations against Grand Gulf, Miss., including bombard- 
ment of the batteries, April 29, and the evacuation. May 3, 
1863 630-634 

Orders, reports, and correspondence 709-717 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

United States steamer Black Hawk Frontispiece. 

United States hospital boat Red Rover 190 

Map of Vicksburg and vicinity 221 

Map of operations of Yazoo iPass expedition 271 

Map of route of Steele's Bayou expedition 480 

Map of cut-off between Arkansas and Mississippi rivers 551 

Sketches of Confederate fortifications at Haynes' Bluff, Yazoo River, Miss. . . 591, 597 

Topography of canal connecting Walnut Bayou with Mississippi River 596 

Plan of attack on Confederate batteries at Grand Gulf, Miss 609 

United States steamer Lafayette 622 

Batteries at Grand Gulf , Miss., captured May 3, 1863 628 

Sketch of Fort De Russy, Red River, La 648 

Diagram of raft at Snyder's Mill, Yazoo River, Miss .-rT. . . 712 

VII 



PREFACE. 



The work of preparing for publication the Official Records of the 
Union and Confederate Navies, which was begun July 7, 1884, was 
organized under the superintendency of Professsor J. R. Soley, U. S. 
Navy, at that time librarian of the Navy Department, afterwards 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy. 

In August, 1890, the work of collecting these records and their clas- 
sification was ably continued by his successor, Lieutenant-Commander 
F. M. Wise, U. S. Navy, who, having received orders to sea, was 
reheved by Lieutenant-Cormnander Richard Rush, U. S. Navy, in 
May, 1893. 

The long-delayed publication was finally authorized by act of Con- 
gress approved July 31, 1894, and begun by Mr. Rush. The first 
five volumes were published under his efficient administration, and 
the important duty of organizing the office for the distribution of 
these volumes was accomplished. 

In March, 1897, Mr. Rush, having been ordered to sea, was suc- 
ceeded by Professor Edward K. Rawson, U. S. Navy, as superintend- 
ent, under whose able administration voliunes 6—14 were pubhshed. 
Professor Rawson was detached and ordered to the U. S. Naval 
Academy September 20, 1902, and was succeeded by Mr. Charles W. 
Stewart. 

No change is contemplated at present in the outUne of the plan of 
publication as approved by the Department. This plan includes only 
the use of such material as may be certified to be contemporaneous 
naval records of the war, which is divided into three series, in the 
following order of arrangement: 

I. The first series embraces the reports, orders, and correspondence, 
both Union and Confederate, relating to all naval operations on the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts and inland waters of the United States during 
the war of the rebellion, together with the operations of vessels acting 
siagly, either as cruisers or privateers, in different parts of the world. 
These reports are accompanied by occasional maps and diagrams. 

In this series the papers are arranged according to squadrons and 
flotillas, chronologically; and, as far as possible, the Union reports of 
any events are immediately followed by the Confederate reports. 



X PREFACE. 

II. The second series embraces the reports, orders, and correspond- 
ence relating to — 

1. The condition of the Union Navy in 1861, before the com- 
mencement of hostilities, and to its increase during the progress 
of the war, including the annual and special reports of the Secre- 
tary of the Navy and chiefs of the various bureaus. 

2. The construction and outfit of the Confederate Navy, in- 
cluding privateers, setting forth also the annual and special 
reports of the Confederate Secretary of the Navy and chiefs of 
bureaus. 

3. Statistical data of all vessels. Union and Confederate, as far 
as can be obtained. 

4. Returns of naval and military property captured by the 
navies of both sides during the war. 

5. Correspondence relating to naval prisoners. 

This series is also arranged chronologically in each of the above 
sections as far as practicable. 

III. The third series embraces all reports, orders, correspondence, 
and returns of the Union and Confederate authorities not specially 
relating to the matter of the first and second series. 

It is the intention of the Department to introduce throughout the 
volumes of the different series illustrations of each class or type of 
vessels referred to, in order to preserve the identity of these ships as 
they actually appeared during the war. These cuts have been repro- 
duced either from photographs of the vessels themselves or from the 
carefully prepared drawings made from of&cial sources. 

Much difficulty has been found in collecting the records, for, while 
the official reports of commanders of fleets and of vessels acting singly 
are on ffie in the Navy Department, it is found that the correspond- 
ence between flag-officers and their subordinates is frequently missing. 
Without this squadron correspondence the historical value of the 
work would necessarily be impaired, and the Department therefore 
has spared no pains to secure the letter books and papers of the chief 
actors on both sides. These papers have for the most part been 
obtained, and they have been copiously used in the compilation of 
the work. The reports of the Union commanders are full and fairly 
complete. It is to be regretted, however, that the Confederate 
records are not equally complete, due to the great difficulty found in 
collecting them, and also to the fact that a large part of the archives 
of the Confederate Navy Department was burned at the close of the 
war. Frequent careful searches throughout various parts of the 
country, conducted by a special agent of the Department, have 
brought to light many duplicates of these papers, found among the 
personal files of participants. It is hoped that the publication wiU 
revive the interest of participants in the events referred to, and lead 



PEEPAOE. XI 

them to bring to the notice of the Department the whereabouts of any 
papers bearing upon naval operations in the civil war of which they 
may have knowledge. 

The twenty-third volume of the records (Series I, vol. 23), which 
has recently been published by the Department, gives the operations 
of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from April 12 to December 
31, 1862. The present volume (Series I, vol. 24) gives the operations 
of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from January 1 to May 17, 
1863. 

The reports and correspondence are placed chronologically, with a 
distinct heading for every paper. In the record of events in which 
both sides took part the Confederate reports (where they could be 
obtained) immediately follow the Union reports, while the miscella- 
neous Confederate correspondence is placed at the end of the volume. 
Reference to the table of contents will show the context of these Con- 
federate papers. It is believed that the chronological arrangement 
of the records, in connection with the full and complete index to each 
volume, will afford ample means of reference to its contents without 
other subdivision or classification. In reports of special or single 
events, in which the papers bear specific relation to those events, the 
chronological order has been somewhat modified, and such documents 
have been placed together in the compilation. 

Charles W. Stewart, 

Compiler. 

Navy Department, 

Washington, D. 0., April, 1911. 

Note. — ^The following is an extract from the law governing the dis- 
tribution of the sets comprising the pubUcation (act of Congress 
approved July 31, 1904): 

* * * Of said number, six thousand eight hundred and forty 
copies shall be for the use of the House of Representatives, two thou- 
sand one hundred and twelve copies for the use of the Senate, and one 
thousand and forty-eight copies for the use of the Navy Department 
and for distribution by the Secretary of the Navy among officers of 
the Navy and contributors to the work. The quotas herein author- 
ized of said pubUcation for the Senate and House of Representatives 
shall be sent by the Secretary of the Navy to such libraries, organiza- 
tions, and individuals as may be designated by the Senators, Rep- 
resentatives, and Delegates of the Fifty-third Congress, it being the 
purpose of this distribution herein provided for to place these records 
in pubhc libraries, and with permanent organizations having Hbraries, 
so rar as such hbraries may exist in the several States and Territories. 
Each Senator shall designate not exceeding twenty-four and each Rep- 
resentative and Delegate not exceeding nineteen of such addresses, 
and the volumes shall be sent thereto from time to time, as they are 
published, until the publication is completed; and all sets that may 
not be ordered to be distributed ae provided herein shall be sold by the 
Secretary of the Navy for cost of pubhcation, with ten per centum 



Xn PREFACE. 

added thereto, and the proceeds of such sale shall be covered into the 
Treasury. If two or more sets of said volumes are ordered to the 
same address, the Secretary of the Navy shall inform the Senators^ 
Representatives, or Delegates who have designated the same, who 
thereupon may designate other libraries, organizations, or individuals. 
The Secretary of the Navy shall inform distributees at whose instance 
the volumes are sent. 

The following joint resolution regarding the distribution of the 
work was approved January 30, 1896: 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the 
Navy be, and he is hereby^ authorized and directed to send the undis- 
tributed copies of the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, 
both of the Union and of the Confederate navies, to such libraries, 
organizations, and individuals as may be designated before the meet- 
ing of the next Congress by the Representatives in the Fifty-fourth 
Congress of the districts whose Representatives in the Fifty-third 
Congress failed to designate the distributees of their quota of said 
Official Records or any part thereof, as authorized by the act of Con- 
gress approved July tlurty-first, eighteen hundred and ninety-four, 
and the joint resolution approved March second, eighteen hundred 
and ninety-five, to the extent and in the manner and form provided in 
said act. 

The foflowing is an extract from the act of Congress of May 28, 
1896, which increased the edition from 10,000 to 11,000 copies: 

* * * For printing, binding, and wrapping one thousand addi- 
tional copies of series one, volumes one, two, three, and four, for 
supplying officers of the Navy who have not received the work, two 
thousand four hundred dollars. 



ORDER OF COMPILATION OF NAVAL WAR RECORDS. 



SERIES I. 



1. Operations of the cruisers, 1861-1865. 

Union cruisers. 

West India (Flying) Squadron, under Acting Bear-Admlral Wilkes, U. S. N., 1862-1863. 

West India (Flying) Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admiral Lardner, U. S. N., 1863-1864. 
Confederate cruisers and privateers. 

2. Operations in the Gulf of Mexico, January to June 7, 1861. 

Surrender of the Fensacola Navy Yard. 
Cooperation of the Navy in the relief of Fort Pickens. 

3. Operations on the Atlantic Coast, January to May 13, 1861. 

Cooperation of the Navy in the attempts to relieve Fort Sumter. 
Abandonment and destruction of the Norfolk Navy Yard. 
Home Squadron, under Flag-Offlcer Fendergrast, XT. S. N. 

4. Operations on the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, 1861-1865. 

Potomac Flotilla, under Commander Ward, XJ. S. N., 1861. 
Potomac Flotilla, under Captain Craven, U. S. N., 1861. 
Potomac Fiotiila, under Lieutenant Wyman, U. S. N., 1861-1862. 
Potomac Flotilla, under Commodore Harwood, U. 5. N., 1862-1863. 
Potomac Flotilla, under Commander Parker, U. S. N., 1863-1865. 

5. Atlantic Blockading Squadrons, 1861-1865. 

Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Oflcer Stringham, U. S. N., May 13 to Sept. 23, 1861, 

West India Squadron, under Flag-OfBcer Fendergrast, U. S. N., 1861. 

Naval Defenses of Virginia and North Carolina, under Flag-Officer Barron, C. S. N. 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Officer Goldsborough, U. S. N., 1861. 
North Atlantic Bloclcading Squadron, under Kear-Admiral Goldsborough, U. S. N., 1861-1862. 

Naval Defenses of Virginia and North Carolina, under Flag-Officer Lyiich, C. S. N. 

James River Squadron, under Flag-OfBcer Buchanan, C. S. N. 

James Biver Squadron, under Flag-Offlcer Tattnall, C. S. N. 

James River Flotilla, under Commodore Wilkes, V. B. N., 1862. 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admiral Lee, U. S. N., 1862-1864. 

James River Squadron, under Fiag-Offloers Forrest and Mitchell, C. S. N. 

*Naval Defenses Inland Waters of North Carolina, under Commander Flnkney, C. S. N. 

*Naval Defenses Cape Fear River, North Carolina, under Flag-Offlcer Lynch, C. S. N. 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. N., 1864-1865. 

James River Squadron, under Flag-Offlcers Mitchell and Semmes, C. S. N. 

♦Naval Defenses Cape Fear River, North Carolina, under Flag-Offlcer PInkney, C. S. N. 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admiral Radford, TJ. S. N., 1S65. 
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Rear-Admiral Du Pont, U. S. N., 1861-1863. 

*NavaI Defenses of South Carolina and Georgia, under Flag-Offlcer Tattnall, C. S. N. 

♦Naval Defenses of Charleston Harbor, South C^olina, under Flag-Offlcer Ingraham, G. S. N. 
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, under Rear-Admiral Dahlgren, XT. S. N., 1863-1865. 

♦Naval Defenses of Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, under Flag-Offlcer Tucker, C. S. N. 

Naval Defenses of Savannah, Ga., under Flag-Officers Hunter and Tattnall, C. S. N. 

♦ The Confederate material under this head is very scant. It is therefore hoped that those who have 
any Confederate naval documents upon the subject will communicate with the Office of Naval War 
Records, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

zin 



IIV OBDEK OF COMPILATION OF NAVAL WAK RECORDS. 

6. Gulf Blockading Squadrons, 1861-1865. 

Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Ofacer Mervine, U. S. N., 1861. 
Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Offlcer McKean, U. S. N., 1861-1862. 

♦Mississippi River Defenses, under Flag-Offlcer Hollins, C. S. N. 
East Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Officer MoKean, U. S. N., 1862. 
East Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admlral Lardner, U. S. N., 1862. 
East Gulf Blockading Squadron, imder Acting Rear-Admlral Bailey, U. S. N., 1862-1864. 
East Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Captain Greene, U. S. N., 1864. 
East Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admlial Strlbling, U. S. N., 1864-1865. 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Flag-Offlcer Fanagut, U. S. N., 1862-1863. 

Mortar Flotilla, under Commander Porter, U. S. N., 1862. 

Lower Mississippi River Defenses, under Commander 3. K. Mitchell, C. S. N., 1862. 

*Mobile Defenses, under Flag-Offlcer Randolph, C. S. N. 

Trans-Mississippi Marine Department, under Major Leon Smith, C. S. A. 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Commodore Bell, U. S. N. (ad Interim), 1863. 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Rear-Admlral Farragut, U. S. N., 1864. 

♦Mobile Defenses, under Admiral Buchanan, C. S. N. 
West Golf Blockading Squadron, under Commodore Palmer, U. S. N., 1864-1865. 
West Gulf Blockadhig Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admlral Thatcher, U. S. X., 1865. 

♦Mobile Defenses, under Flag-Offlcer Farrand, C. S. N. 

7. Operations on the Western Rivers, 1861-1865. 

Naval Forces on Western Waters, under Commander Rodgeis, U. S. X., 1861. 
Naval Forces on Western Waters, under Flag-Offlcer Foote, U. S. N., 1861-1862. 

♦Mississippi River Defenses, under Flag-Offlcer Hollins, C. S. N. 
Naval Forces on Western Waters, under Flag-Offlcer Davis, U. S. N., 1862. 

♦Mississippi River Defense Fleet, under Captain Montgomery, C. S. A. 

♦Mississippi River Defenses, under Commander R. F. Pinkney, C. S. N. 

♦Mississippi River Defenses, under Flag-Offlcer Lynch, C. S. N. 
Mississippi Squadron, under Rear-Admlial Porter, U. S. N., 1862-1864. 
Mississippi Squadron, under Acting Rear-Admlral Lee, U. S. N., 1864-1865. 

♦Naval Defenses of Red River, Louisiana, under Lieutenant J. H. Carter, C. S. N. 

♦ The Confederate material under this head is very scant. It is therefore hoped that those who have 
any Confederate naval documents upon the subject will communicate with the Office of Naval War 
Records, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 



UNITED STATES VESSELS OF WAR SERVTNa IN TBE MISSISSIPPI SQUADRON, 
JANUARY 1 TO MAY 17, ISSS. 



Name. 



Abraham 

Alfred Robb 

Argosy 

Baron De Kalb 

Benton 

Black Hawk 

Brilliant 

Carondelet 

Champion No. 4 

Chillieothe 

Choctaw 

Cincinnati 

Clara Dolsen 

Conestoga 

Covington 

Cricket 

Curlew' 

Dahlia 

Duchess' 

Eastport 

Emma Duncan ». . . 

Fairplay 

Fem 

Florence * 

Forest Hose 

General Bragg 

General Lyon' 

General Pillow 

General Price 

Glide 

Great Western 

Hastings • 

Indianola 

Ivy 

James Thompson '. 

Judge Torrence 

Juliet 

Kenwood 

Ifafayettc 

Lexington 

Lily 

Linden 

Little Kebei 

Louisville 

Marmora , 

Mound City 

Naumkeag 

Petrels , 

Pittsburg 

Prairie Bird' , 

Queen City.. 

Rattler w... , 

Eed Eover 

Bomeo 

St. Clair 

Signal 

Silver Cloud 

Silver Lake 

Sovereign 

Springfield 

Thistle 

Tuscumbia 

Tyler 

William H. Brown. 



Kate. 



Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Third... 
Third... 
Third... 
Fourth. . 
Third... 
Fourtli.. 
Fourth.. 
Third... 
Third... 
Third... 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. 
Fourth. . 



Third. 



Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 



Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Third... 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 



Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Third... 
Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Third... 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Third... 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Fourth.. 
Third... 
Fourth. . 
Fourth. . 



Tonnage. 



800 
75 
219 
512 

1,000 
902 
226 
612 
115 
395 

1,000 
512 

1,200 
512 
224 
166 
196 
60 



700 



800 
50 



260 

700 

1,200 

50 
633 
127 
800 
293 
611 

50 



600 
157 
232 
1,000 
448 

50 
177 
40O 
326 
207 
512 
250 
226 
512 
171 
212 
165 
786 
175 
203 
190 
236 
236 
800 
146 

50 
665 
576 
800 



Class. 



Paddle-wheel steamer.. 
Stem-wheel steamer. . . 
Paddle-wheel steamer. . 

Ironclad 

do 

Side-wheel steamer 

Stem- wheel steamer. . . 

Ironclad 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . 

Ironclad 

Side-wheel steamer 

Ironclad 

Side-wheel steamer 

....do 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . 

....do 

....do 

... do 



Guns. 



Ironclad. 



Side-wheel steamer. . 
Screw steamer (tug) . 



Stem-wheel steanier 

Side-wheel steamer (ram) 

Paddle-wheel steamer 

Side-wheel steamer (ram) 

do 

Stem-wheel steamer 

Side-wheel steamer (ordnance) . . 

Paddle-wheel steamer 

Ironclad (side-wheel and screw) . 
Paddle-wheel steamer 



Side-wheel steamer 

Stem-wheel steamer 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 

do 

Ironclad 

Tug 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 

Screw steamer (ram) 

Ironclad (center-wheel) . . 

Stem-wheel steamer 

Ironclad (center-wheel). . 
Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 

do 

Ironclad (center-wheel). 
Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 

....do 

do 

Side-wheel steamer 

Stem- wheel steamer 

do 

do 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 

Stem-wheel steamer 

Paddle-wheel steamer.. . 

....do 

....do 

Ironclad 

Side-wheel steamer 

Paddle-wheel steamer. . . 




4 
8 

14 

16 
8 
4 

14 
4 
2 
4 

14 
1 
5 
8 
6 
8 




10 



1 
6 
6 

12 
8 

6 
3 

14 
8 

14 
6 
8 

14 
8 
9 
6 
1 
6 
4 
6 
6 
6 

6 

5 

10 
1 



1 Known also as Florence. 
' Known officially as U. S. S. Petrel. 
» Known officially as U. S. S. Hastings. 
* Known officially as U. S. S. Curlew. 
> Known also as De Soto. 
' Known also as Emma Duncan. 

' Known officially as U. S. S. Manitou; later U. S. S. Fort HIndman. 
■ Known also as Duchess. 
' Known also as Mary Miller. 
"• Formerly Florence Miller. 



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XVI 




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NAYAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

FROM JANUARY 1 TO MAY 17, 18G3. 



711°— N W B— VOL 2J^10 ^1 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 



FEOM JANTTARY 1 TO MAY 17, 1863. 



Oferations in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers from January 1 

to Afril 30, 1863. 

[Telegram.] 

Caieo, January 1, 1S63. 
Your telegram of 1st received. Keceived telegram from Colonel 
Lowe that General Dodge, at Pittsburg Landing, nearly out of 
rations. Supplies ready at Fort Henry for him- General Grant 
wishes convoy for supplies; other communication cut off; do all you 
can ; much left to your discretion. Don't be caught by falling water 
either in Cumberland or Tennessee rivers. Better not go to Madison 
if you can avoid it now. 

A. M. Pbnnock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 1, 1863. 
I have information from pilots and from Captain Fitch that it is 
impossible for our gunboats to ascend the Tennessee at this time 
drawing as much water as they do. 

Captain Fitch has orders to ascend Tennessee with part of his force 
as soon as rise will permit. 

Similar application has been made for a convoy up the Cumberland. 
Captain Fitch has been directed to detail a part of his force for 
that purpose. Have no boat to send from here at present. 

A. M. Pbnnock, 
Fleet Captain and Gomjnandant of Station. 

Colonel W. W. Lowe, 

Commanding, Fort Henry, Term. 

3 

f 



4 NAVAL, FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

[Telegram.] 

January 1, 1863. 
Gunboats can not get to Nashville just now ; probably there may be 
water in a few days. Might possibly get within 35 miles of there. 

Will be two gunboats ready to convoy in case you choose to risk the 
probability of a rise. 

LeKoy Fitch, 
LieuteTumt-Gommander. 
Major-General [H. G.] Weight, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Brigadier-General [J. T.] Boyle, 

Louisville, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

EvANSViLLE, [Ind.] , January 2, 1863. 
Cumberland River reported rising at last accounts. Two gun- 
boats in readiness to convoy supplies to Nashville. Have transports 
started? If not, when will they? 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
General Boyle, 

Louisville, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, [Ky.], January 3, 1863. 
It is of the utmost importance that supplies be got to Nashville 
Avithout delay, and I shall send the boats if they can not get nearer 
than 25 miles. It will do very well, but they should be pushed to 
Nashville if possible. I rely on you not only for convoy, but for 
getting the transports as far up as possible. 

Let me hear from you again in relation to water in the Cumberland. 

H. G. Wright, 



Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch. 



Major- General. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., January 4, 1863. 
St. Clair and Brilliant here with fuel awaiting orders. General 
Wright asks for convoy up Cumberland. I have telegraphed him I 
am ready. 

J. S. Htjrd, 
Gxvnhoat St. Clair. 

Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Cairo, III. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 5 

[Telegram.] 

Holly Springs, [Miss.], January 4, 1863—11 p. m. 

(Keceived Cairo, 5th.) 
Some light-draft gunboats now in Tennessee would be of great 
value. 

Forrest has got to the east bank, but there are strong signs of his 
recrossing in the vicinity of Savannah. 

Can any be sent? U. S. Grant, 

Major-Generai, Commanding. 
Naval Commander, Cairo. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 6, 1863. 
Have already ordered all available boats to ascend Tennessee with 
the rise. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
U. S. Grant, 

Major-General, Com,manding^ Holly Springs, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

EvANSviLLE, Ind., January 6, 1863. 
The fleet of boats, 14 in all, for Nashville, left here at 4 p. m. Gen- 
eral Boyle sent orders to have Lieutenant Fitch convoy the fleet; he is 
not here. Have gunboats at Smithland to-morrow to convoy fleet. 

F. H. Ehrman, 
Acting Quartermaster. 
Commanding Ofticer Gunboat Fleet, 

Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 5, 1863. 
Have given such orders as I deemed necessary for a convoy for your 
fleet. Two gunboats have been waiting at Smithland since yesterday. 
Commanding naval oflicer will make such arrangements as he deems 
proper on arrival of the fleet at Smithland. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Conmiandant of Station. 
F. H. Ehrman, 

Acting Quartermaster, Evansville, Ind. 



[Telegram.] 



HoLLT Springs, January 6, 1863. 
There are said to be large numbers of flatboats and other craft for 
crossing the Tennessee River hid away at the mouth of streams emp- 



6 NAVAL. FOKCES OK WESTEKN WATEES. 

tying into the Tennessee. You will therefore please request the 
gunboats, which are reported to be up the river, to use every means 
for their destruction, that the enemy may be prevented from crossing 
into West Tennessee and Kentucky. They should proceed up the 
river as far as the water will permit. 

Answer if you are in communication with the gunboats and their 
whereabouts. 

By order of Major-General U. S. Grant : 

John A. Rawlins, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Colonel W. W. Lowe, 

Fort Henry, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, [III., January 6, 1863'] — 6 p. m. 
General Grant : Two light-draft gunboats have gone up Cumber- 
land River as convoys for supplies for Rosecran's. Two have orders 
to ascend Tennessee River with rise. The fifth is disabled and now 
undergoing repair. I have no others to send. They are only bullet- 
proof. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain of Station. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to fleet Captain Pennocic, 
n. S. Navy, that the vessels of the squadron he not detained for the defense 
of Columhus, Ky. 

Jantjart 6, 1863. 
Sir : You will please not detain any of the gunboats for the defense 
of Columbus. I consider that place amply defended, and if they 
can not protect themselves they must get more troops. I am well 
posted with regard to the enemy's troops and know that Columbus 
is not, and has not been, in any danger. 

I have more work for the boats to do than those here can attend to. 

Give the commanders of vessels written orders to proceed and 

report to me wherever I may be and instruct them that they are not 

to allow themselves to be detained by any army officers unless some 

position is actually attacked. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain, Gom/mandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, [Tenn.,] January 7, 1863. 
Colonel Rawlins : The following dispatch just received fi-om com- 
manding officer at Bethel [Tenn.] : 

A man just from Florence, Ala., reports that Roddey has raised the steam- 
boat Dunbar, sunk by our gunboats last winter, and is trying to fix up her 



NAVAL FOSCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 7 

engines; also that Kirby Smith's command crossed the river about there last 
week, going to reinforce Price. He is vouched for as a Union man and one 
that is reliable. 

W. W. Sanfobd, 
Colonel, Commanding Post. 

Jee. C. Sullivan, 
Brigadier- General. 



[Telegram.] 

Holly Springs, Miss., January 7, 1863 — 6 p. m. 
All supplies not taken from the country are now brought from 
Memphis. Think it advisable to complete railroad to Columbus to 
get rolling stock on this side and possibly to hold it for short time. 
Am throwing large supply of subsistence into Corinth. With use 
of two or three light-draft gunboats the Tennessee can be used. 
Nothing from Sherman since last dispatch. Will be ready to re- 
inforce him from Memphis, if necessary. Will move heavy artillery 
from east bank of river. Is Helena, Ark., in my department? Can 
have troops at Corinth to operate from there soon as supplies can 
possibly be got there. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major- General. 
Major-General H. W. Halleck, 

General-in- Chief. 



[Telegram.] 

Holly Springs, January 8, 1863. 
Can I have gunboats at Memphis to convoy reinforcements to 
Vicksburg? I will want them by the eleventh. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General, Commanding. 
Captain Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 9, 1863. 
Will send one light-draft gunboat, bullet-proof, one-fourth 
manned. I can do no more. 

Can't you place under the command of her captain soldiers enough 
to work her guns? 

A. M. Pennock, Fleet Captain. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Holly Springs. 



[Telegram.] 

Holly Springs, January 9, 1863. 
There is no gunboat in Tennessee Kiver above Fort Henry. There 
is 10 feet water and rising. 

U. S. Grant, Major-General. 
Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy. 



8 NAVAli FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 9, 1863. 
Two light-draft gunboats have gone up Cumberland as convoy for 
supplies for General Kosecrans. Two have orders to ascend Ten- 
nessee with rise. The fifth is disabled and now undergoing repair. 
I have no others to send. They are only bullet-proof. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain an4 Gonmiandant of Station. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Holly Springs, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 10, 1863. 
You will proceed without delay up the Tennessee River and 
cooperate with the army forces there in such manner as may render 
you most efficient. If Captain Goudy is near you, pass this order 
to him and he will also proceed up the river. Acknowledge receipt 
of this telegram and inform me where Goudy is. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Chief of Staff. 
Joseph Moyer, 

Commanding V. S. Gunboat General Pillow, 

Paducah, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 10, 1863. 
Apply for coal to the army at once, and proceed up Tennessee 
Eiver. Inform Captain Goudy that it is my order that he go up 
Tennessee also. You will not leave Tennessee Eiver till further 
orders from me or Captain Fitch. Send for Captain Goudy to go 
up without delay. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Chief of Staff. 
Joseph Moter, 

Commanding U. S. Gunboat General Pillow, 

Paducah, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Mtjrfreesboro, [Tenn.], January 12, 1863 — 10 p. m. 
(Received Washington, 13th — 3:15 a. m.) 
In order that there may be cooperation between here and our gun- 
boats, please put me in communication with their commander. I 
have not as yet been able to communicate but once. 

W. S. Rosecrans, 

Major-General, 
Secretary oe the Navt. 



NAVAL POKCES ON WESTEEN WATEBS. 9 

[Telegram.] 

Navy Department, January 13, 1863. 
The Western gunboats are under command of Acting Eear-Ad- 
miral D. D. Porter, who is now at Vicksburg. You had better com- 
municate with the captain, A. M. Pennock, senior naval officer at 
Cairo, 111., who will cooperate under general instructions from 
department. 

Gideon Welles. 
Major-GeneraJ W. S. Roseceans, 

Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, IT. S. Navy, transmitting correspondence with 
Uajor-Oeneral Halleck, V. S. Army, regarding cooperation of gunboats in the 
Cumberland River. 

No. 2.] Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 19, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that I have no later news 
from the fleet than that contained in the Admiral's telegram of yes- 
terday. 

I enclose herewith a copy of a telegram received this morning from 
C. Goddard, assistant adjutant-general and chief of staff, Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., together with my answer thereto. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosures — Telegram.] 

MuRFKEESBOEO, January 17, 1863. 
Captain Pennock : General Halleck informs the general command- 
ing this department that you have 15 light gunboats at Cairo. 
The general commanding wishes them to be put into service imme- 
diately on the Cumberland River to patrol, etc. ; he also desires the 
names of the boats and officers commanding them, and a full report 
of the condition of things in your department. While the water is 
high in the Cumberland, he wishes the ferry transportation of the 
enemy to be destroyed as far up the river as possible. Most danger 
may be expected above Donelson, but good lookout should be kept 
below. General Halleck also informs the general commanding that 
15 more gunboats are in course of construction at Cairo ; they will be 
valuable for convoying transports. 

C. Goddard, 
Acting [Assistanf] Adjutamt-Generdl, Chief of Staff. 



Cairo, January 19, 1863. 
On the 1st of October last the gunboat service was transferred by 
an act of Congress from the War to the Navy Department and Rear- 



10 NAVAL. rOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Admiral Porter placed in command, -who is acting exclusively under 
the orders of the Navy Department. 

This department is his, not mine. I am acting under his orders, 
and am ordered to report only to him and to the Navy Department. 

For your information I will state that of the fifteen light-draft 
gunboats mentioned by General Halleck as being at Cairo three only 
are here; one of these has smallpox on board; one is nearly useless 
for want of steam power, and the third is under orders from the 
admiral. Of the additional fifteen spoken of as now building I" have 
no knowledge. 

I will send your communication to the a,dmiral by first opportunity. 
Previous to the admiral's leaving he sent up the Cumberland and 
Tennessee rivers all the force he has to spare, and directed their 
commanders to cooperate with the army. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Goramandant of Station. 

C. GODDARD, 

Acting [^Assistanf] Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Navt Department, January 19, 1863. 
General Rosecrans desires a naval force to protect the transports in 
the Cumberland. Can you not send vessels for the purpose? 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Senior Naval Officer, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

MuKFEEESBORO, January 20, 1863. 
Telegraphed you last evening. It is very desirable that a couple of 
good gunboats should go up the Cumberland and destroy means of 
crossing as high up as Somerset. How soon can it be done? The 
Tennessee is navigable to Florence. Please let me know as soon as 
possible, it being desirable in view of movements of troops. 

W. S. Rosecrans, 

Major- General. 
Captain A. M. Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 



Cairo, January 21, 1863. 
Last I heard of the Rohi was that she was loading a barge with 
coal on the 10th instant at Mulford mines. 



NAVAL FOBCBS ON WESTERN WATEES. 11 

Received a telegram day before yesterday from commanding officer 
of Pillow at Fort Henry that he was out of coal. Supply him if 
you can. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Commanding V. S. Gunhoat Fairplay, Paducah, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Henry, January 21, 1863. 
The services of one of the boats is needed in Tennessee River as 
soon as possible. 

Jason Goudy, 
Lieutenant, Commanding U. S. S. Alfred Rohh. 
Captains Hurd and Perkins, 

Gunboats St. Clair and Brilliant, 

[Forf] Donelson, Smithland, or Paducah. 



[Telegram.] 

MuRFREESBOEo, January 22, 1863. 
Can you not fill up your gunboat fleet ? If necessary I will make 
details from here. 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major- General. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Cairo. 



[Telegram.] 

MuRTEEESBOEO, January 22, 1863. 
Please do the best you can for me as to gunboats. Why can not 
common boats be procured and barricaded, and armed and sent up 
the river? Can not smallpox boat be cleaned and sent? I can 
furnish a detail of men if necessary. Very important that I have 
something to clear out the river. 

W. S. RoSECRANS, 

Major- Genercd. 
Captain Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 22, 1863. 
Have but two boats at my disposal. One has smallpox on board 
and the other has not sufficient motive power to stem the current. 
All other boats now here are positively ordered by the admiral to 
join him below. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandarvt of Station. 
W. S. Roseceans, 

Major-General, Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



12 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

[Telegram.] 

Caiko, III., January 22, 1863. 
There are now three light-draft gunboats in Cumberland River. 
The third, Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, went up last night. Please 
communicate with him. I can not reach him. He will cooperate 
and give all the aid he can. I have not men enough left to man a 
light-draft gunboat. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

MuKFEEESBOEO, Tenn., January 22, 1863. 
I need gunboats to be sent up the river to destroy all means of 
crossing. Captain Pennock says he has none to send. Have tele- 
graphed him, asking why common boats can not be procured, barri- 
caded, and armed, and I will detail men to man them. If boats can 
be had I will send [Gordon] Granger up there. There is 25 feet of 
water in the river. 

W. S. ROSECBANS, 

Major-General, Commanding. 
Major-General H. W. Halleck, 

General-in- Chief. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 22, 1863. 
Three light-draft gunboats now in Cumberland River, two in Ten- 
nessee. The admiral has ordered all others to join him as soon as 
possible. One light-draft boat left here now for protection of this 
place might be sent ; have not men to man her ; we are paralyzed for 
want of men. Eastport and Lafayette nearly ready, but without 



crews. 



A. M. Pennock, 
Captain and Commandant Station. 



Hon. GmEON Welles, 

Secretary Navy. 



[Telegram.] 

Navy Department, January 23, 1863. 
It is imperative that more gunboats should be sent in the Cumber- 
land and Tennessee rivers to protect the transports. Send a steamer 
immediately with this telegram to Admiral Porter. Two hundred 
men for the squadron will be transferred from the East in three or 
four days. 

GroEON Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Senior Naval Officer, Cairo, III. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 13 

[Telegram.] 

War Department, Washington, January ^3, 1863. 
I have just learned from the Assistant Secretary of the Navy that 
an express boat has been sent from Cairo to Admiral Porter, with 
orders to immediately send gunboats to the Cumberland and Tennes- 
see rivers. In the meantime it is hoped that Captain Pennock may 
give you assistance from Cairo. Offer him details of soldiers to man 
his boats. 

H. W. Halleck, 
General-in- Chief. 
Major-General Roseckans, 

Murfreesioro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 2Jf, 1863. 
The Silver Lake leaves for Cumberland River to-day. Has short 
crew. The Lexington, with heavy guns, will also leave to-morrow 
evening. No more boats to send ; with these there will be five in that 
river. Have sent a telegram from Navy Department to Admiral 
Porter by dispatch boat. Will do aU I can to assist you. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General W. S. Rosecrans, 

Murfreesboro. 



[Telegram.] 

Mtjrfreesboro, January 24., 1863. 
I am greatly obliged. Will furnish more crews if possible. Please 
let me Imow who is senior officer. 

W. S. Rosecrans, 
Major-General, Commariding. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Cairo. 

N. B. — This telegram was received after we telegraphed General 
R. that Silver Lake and Lexington had been sent to his aid. 



Instractions from the Secretary of the Navy to Fleet Captain Pennock, IT. S. 

Navy, regarding cooperation with General Rosecrans in the Tennessee and 

Cumberland rivers. 

Navt Department, January £4, 1863. 

Sir : Your No. 2, dated the 19th instant, enclosing a copy of a tele- 
gram received by you from C. Goddard, chief of General Rosecrans' 
staff, at Murfreesboro, and your reply, have been received. 

General Rosecrans telegraphed the Department that he needed the 
cooperation of the gunboats in the protection of transports on the 



14 NAVAIi FOBCES ON WESTEKK WATERS. 

Cumberland, and asked how he could communicate with the com- 
manding officer of the Western Squadron. The Department replied, 
on the 13th instant, that the commanding officer of the squadron was 
in the Arkansas, but that he could communicate with you at Cairo, 
who would cooperate with him under general instructions from the 
Department. It was in accordance with this reply, doubtless, that 
you were addressed, and although the request for cooperation was 
not in such terms as more thought would have dictated, yet your 
answer was not such as the Department desired. 

It is expected that the Mississippi Squadron will cooperate with 
the army on every occasion in whicn its cooperation is required and 
can be extended, and in an emergency such as that now on the Cum- 
berland and Tennessee rivers that every exertion will be made to 
meet it. 

The Department telegraphed you yesterday that it was imperative 
that gunboats should be sent to the Cumberland and Tennesse rivers 
to protect the transports and directed that Acting [Rear] Admiral 
Port«r be immediately advised of the fact, also that 200 more men 
for the squadron would be transferred from the East. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GmEON Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commandant A, M. Pennock, 
Senior Officer, etc., Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Louisville, January ^4, 1863. 
The Quartermaster-General at Washington directs [me] to com- 
municate with you and to request convoy of gunboats to escort supply- 
vessels up the Cumberland. I have a number of boats at Fort Donel- 
son waiting convoy. Will you please send two gunboats at once to 
convoy them to Nashville? If they could be kept running between 
Nashville and Fort Donelson it will save much time and a great deal 
of expense. Please answer. 

W. Jenkins, 
Captain and Chief Quartermaster. 
The Naval Commander. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January %5, 1863. 
Sent yesterday one more light-draft gunboat up Cumberland River, 
lightly manned. To-day Lexington will go up to remain a few days. 
Etave sent Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps in her to examine 
condition of river and report to me its requirements. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant Station. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary Navy. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 15 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Fennock, Vi. S. 
Navy, to report progress in purchase of light-draft steamers. 

January 25, 1863. 
Sir: Please report to me, by every mail, what progress is being 
made in the purchase of light-draft steamers, and when I may 
expect them. 

I see by rebel papers that one of our gunboats and a convoy have 
been destroyed by Bragg. I hope this is not so. If Lieutenant 
Fitch has gone up with only one vessel he has disobeyed his orders, 
as I directed him never to let one vessel go alone, and always to have 
two vessels together. 

As rebel accounts are not always reliable, I have placed no 
confidence in the report. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. . 
A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Clarksvilu;, January 27, 1863. 
Wheeler's and Forrest's forces are between Charlotte and the [Har- 
peth] Shoals. The gunboat Lexington was up to Shoals to-day. 
Had three cannon balls strike her. Rebels were shelled out. They 
are collecting such supplies as the country affords. Fifth Iowa Cav- 
alry captured a few of their wagons yesterday and carried them to 
Donelson. 

S. D. Brttce, 
Colonel, Commanding Post. 
General Eosecrans. 



[Telegram.] 

Nashville, January 27, 1863. 
No gunboats arrived yet. The gunboat Lexington made a recon- 
noissance from Clarksville to the [Harpeth] Shoals this morning. 

Was struck three times by enemy's guns at B , without injury. 

We succeeded in driving the rebels out. Twenty-six transports and 
four gunboats are on their way up to-night. Will arrive some time 
to-morrow. 

Egbert B. Mitchell, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding. 
Major GoDDARD, 

Assistant Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Donelson, January 27, 1863. 
As we have batteries to contend with along the river, if you please 
let Brilliant and St. Glair have each a 32-pounder of 27 hundred- 



16 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

weight. There is plenty of room to work them on the boats. I for- 
ward to you from Paducah letters asking for two more 12-pounders 
and a 30-pounder Parrott rifle for this boat. Have you received them ? 
I am in the greatest need of more boats ; have not enough to convoy 
with safety one fleet of so many transports. The channel of the river 
is so narrow. Have in this convoy up some thirty boats, all in single 
file, which makes a long line to be convoyed with only three boats. 
Have not been able to communicate with the Rohh. Will be down to 
Smithland as soon as can convoy to Nashville and back the present 
fleet. 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Captain Pennock, 

Commandant of Station. 



[Telegram.] 

Hamburg, January 27, 1863. 
I have convoyed the Raymond and barge loaded with army storefe 
for Corinth to this point. Her freight is discharged. They have 
planted batteries over me in two places. In one place, Clifton, four 
guns, well supported ; at Savannah, five guns, supported by 2,000 or 
3,000 cavalry. If you have any gunboats that you can send to my 
assistance to cooperate below, I should like them at once. I intend 
to fight my way out of the river with the transports. Let me know 
by telegraph. 

Respectfully, yours, 

Jason Gotjdt, 
Lieutenant, Gorrmhanding U. S. Gunboat Rohh. 
A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 27, 1863. 
Have received telegram to-day from Lieutenant Jason Goudy, 
commanding Robb, at Hamburg, Tenn., that enemy has placed two 
guns, well supported, at Clifton, and five guns, supported by 2,000 
or 3,000 cavalry, at Savannah, and that he desires assistance. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Com,mandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, 

Commanding Gunboat Lexington. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding Gunboat Fairplay. 

(Care Lieutenant Robert K. Riley, commanding gunboat Silver 
Lake, Smithland, Ky.) 



NAVALi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 17 

[Telegram.] 

Caiko, III., January 27, 1863. 
According to your telegram, it would be hazardous to move with- 
out aid. 

Have no gunboats to send from here. Have telegraphed your 
message to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch at Smithland. 

Apply to commanding army officer to send land force to cooperate 
with you. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Lieutenant Jason GotrDY, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding V. S. Gunboat Eobb, Hamburg, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Clarksville, January 27, 1863. 
Matters are quiet here. I have information that they design attack- 
ing me in force. I would like to have two rifled pieces to put in my 
fort — two siege guns. There are 30 boats here now and 3 gunboats. 
One went up last night without reporting. Will send fleet forward 
to-night unless otherwise ordered. General Granger has not yet 
arrived. Eebels are on south side of river, near Shoals. Reported 
5,000 strong, with eight pieces of artillery. Will keep you advised. 
I keep strong pickets at Shoals, on this side. Rebel cavalry are on 
south side, in view. 

S. D. Bruce, 
Colonel, Commanding Post. 
General Rosecrans. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters XJNrrED States Forces, 

Nashville, Tenn., January 28, 1863. 
Fleet passing Shoals at 1 p. m. without interruption. Colonel 
[Robert] Johnson's cavalry arrived this evening, considerably run 
down. 

Robert B. Mitchell, 

Brigadier- General. 
Major-General Rosecrans. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Henrt, January 28, 1863. 
Gunboats Robb and Pillow just returned (6 o'clock p. m.) from 
Chickasaw, Ala. Will leave immediately after coaling. 

Jason Gotjdy, 
Lieutenant, Commanding TJ. S. S. Alfred Robb. 

LeEgy Fitch, 

Lieutenant-Com/mander, Commanding Division, 

TJ. S. S. F airplay, Nashville. 
711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 2 



18 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January ^8, 1863. 
Your dispatch received. Will send stores by first boat to Paducah 
or Smithland. 

E. W. Dunn. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Gunboat Fairplay, Fort Donelson. 

Approved : 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Pennock, 
U. S. Navy, approving cooperative action in the Cumberland Kiver. 

January 28, 1863. 
Sir: Your communications, telegrams, etc., have been received. I 
approve of all you have done in regard to the Cumberland Eiver. 
You have authority to act as I would do if I was there, and I am 
sure you will always do what is right. I hope, though, that you will 
take every opportunity to write to these army officials and inform 
them that you have no information to give them concerning this 
department, and that General Halleck has no control here ; also, that 
I dispose of the force under my command. 

According to my own views, their own blundering gets them into 
difficulty. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAvm D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron, 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station at Cairo, III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Pennock, 
IT, S. Navy, regarding vessels for the up-river station. 

Yazoo River, January 28, 1863. 
Sir: Retain the Lexington until further orders on the up-river 
station. Lieutenant-Commander Shirk will be allowed to select 
certain officers and men from her, whom he has applied for. You 
will retain also two of the light-draft gunboats now at Cairo, to be 
attached to the up-river fleet. This will be ample for both rivers if 
properly managed. If the army officers would only notify us when 
they want a convoy, there would be no trouble. The order about 
sending the Lexington here is hereby revoked. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATBES. 19 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Fennock, 
v. S. Navy, to restrict all vessels from ascending Tennessee and Cumberland 
rivers without convoy. 

January 29, 1863. 
Sir: You will please direct Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 
and all the commanders up-river, that they will never permit any 
vessels to go up the Tennessee or Cumberland rivers unless under 
convoy, and vessels refusing to obey must be forced to do so. While 
under convoy^ they will conform to such rules as the commanding 
officer may think necessary to enforce. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAvm D. Porter, 
Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Beport of Acting Bear.Admiral Forter, IT. S. Navy, responding tc the Depart- 
ment's enquiry regarding the loss of the V. S. gunboat W. H. Sidell. 

No. 83.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 29, 1863. 

Sir: In answer to your communication, asking information about 
a gunboat burned on the Cumberland River, I have the honor to state 
that the vessel mentioned did not belong to this squadron. She .was 
called the SideU* and was, I believe, an old ferryboat, with a field- 
piece on her. 

The army undertakes sometimes to get up an impromptu navy, 
which generally ends by getting them into difficulty. There are five 
vessels of this squadron in the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, 
which are detailed for convoy, and under the management of Lieu- 
tenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, who has until the late aflFair, kept 
the rivers open, and convoyed all vessels safely through. 

I shall direct that no army vessels be allowed to ascend these rivers 
without a convoy, and I have detailed the Lexington and two more 
light-draft gunboats for the upper fleet. This will make 40 guns 
on the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. There are enough there 
now (20 guns) to take care of these rivers, but the recklessness of 
the army quartermasters is beyond anything I ever saw, and they 
employ persons who half the time are disloyal, and who throw these 
vessels purposely into the hands of the rebels. If the history of the 
army quartermasters' proceedings out here were published, the world 
would not believe that there could be so much want of intelligence in 
the country. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

♦ See Army War Records, Series I, Vol. XX, Pt I, pp. 981, 983. 



20 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January 30, 1863. 
Provisions will leave here for you at Smithland to-night. Lex- 
ington will leave to-morrow to join you. Will write. Have no Par- 
rott gun nor 32-pounder of 27-cwt. Will 33-cwt. do ? 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Comonanding Gunboat Fairplay. 
(Care U. S. Army Officer Commanding Post, Smithland, Ky.) 



[Telegram.] 

War Department, 
Washington, January 30, 1863. 
The construction and control of all gunboats for defense of Western 
rivers and convoys of transports have, by law and the orders of the 
President, been transferred to the Navy Department. Requisitions 
for convoys, etc., must be made by you on Admiral Porter. The Sec- 
retary of War opposed this arrangement; but it was made, and we 
can not change it. 

H. W. Halleck, 
General-in- Chief. 
Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Murfreesboro, January 30, 1863. 
Please communicate with Admiral Porter and inform me what 
gunboats and towboats can be made available for protection of trans- 
ports and transportation on the Tennessee and Cumberland. It is 
important I should know as early as possible. In the meantime hints 
or suggestions from you may be useful. 

W. S. Rosecrans, 

Major-General. 
Captain Pennock. 

Cairo. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, January 31, 1863. 
The Roih joined me yesterday at this place. Nothing very serious 
up Tennessee River. Have sent the Rohh and St. Clair to Paducah 
to bring up our coal barge. The smallpox is in that place. Have 
another large convoy to take to Nashville, and one to bring down ; no 
danger of either river being blockaded by the rebels. 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station, 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 21 

Kepoit of Fleet Captain 7ennock, U. S. Navy, transmitting copy of report of 

Lieutenant-Commander Phelps, XT. S. Navy, regarding conditions in the Cum- 
berland River. 

Office Mississippi Squadbon, 

Cairo, III., Janucury 31, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of the report of 
Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, whom I sent up the Cumber- 
land River to ascertain its condition and requirements. I also enclose 
certain telegrams (copies) received from Major-Gen eral Rosecrans 
and others on the subject. 

I sent you in my last dispatch a copy of a telegram from General 
Rosecrans, chief of staff, together with my answer. I now send you 
a copy of a letter to me from the Department, referring to those tele- 
grams, which I also sent copies of to Washington. 

I regret that my action was not approved by the Department. 

The engine of the Silver Lake has been repaired. 1 think she must 
be now ready for service, as the broken machinery (sent here for 
repair) has been forwarded to her on the 28th instant. 

The Lexington has left to-night for Smithland with orders to 
report to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, to whom I have suggested 
the propriety of assuming the command of her until she is detailed 
for other duty. 

The telegrams enclosed and the report from Captain Phelps will, 
I trust, in the emergency (together with the letter from the Depart- 
ment) , be my excuse for not sending her down to you. 

The " Light-Draft Flotilla " is now distributed as follows : 

Fairplay at Smithland. 

Rohh at Smithland. 

Pillow to come to Cairo for repairs. 

St. Glair up Cumberland River. 

Brilliant up Cumberland River. 

Silver Lake up Cumberland River. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Convmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — I should have mentioned that I have also sent a copy of 
Lieutenant-Commander Phelps's report to the honorable Secretary of 
the Navy. 

[Enclosure.] 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 30, 1863. 

Sir : In obedience to your order, I proceeded up the Cumberland 
River with the gunboat Lexington to Nashville, Tenn., and returned 
to this place last night. Meeting with a transport that had been 
fired upon by artillery 20 miles above Clarksville, I at once went to 
that point and, landing, burned a storehouse used by the rebels as a 
resort and cover. On leaving there to descend to Clarksville, where 
I had passed a fleet of thirty-one steamers with numerous barges in 
tow, convoyed by three light-draft gunboats under Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Fitch, the Lexington was fired upon by the enemy, who had 



22 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

two Parrott guns, and struck three times, but the rebels were quickly 
dislodged and dispersed. 

I then returned to Clarksville and, agreeable to the arrangement 
already made by Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, left that place at 
midnight with the whole fleet of boats, and reached Nashville the 
following night without so much as a musket shot having been fired 
upon a smgle vessel of the fleet. Doubtless the lesson of the previous 
day had effected this result. 

From the best information to be had, it appears that the rebels 
have a number of guns with a considerable covering force extending 
along Harpeth Shoals, a distance of some 8 or 10 miles. This force 
can readily operate upon both the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. 
Besides these guns the enemy also has several pieces about Savannah 
on the Tennessee. No steamer should be permitted to run on either 
river above Forts Henry and Donelson without the convoy of a 
gunboat. 

Lieutenant-Commander Fitch has not at present an adequate force 
to protect Government transports upon the two streams, and I would 
suggest the propriety of sending him the Lexington. Her heavy 
guns have great effect with the rebels, and while they will fire upon 
vessels immediately under the howitzers of the light-draft gunboats, 
they will not show themselves where the heavier gunboats are. I 
have no doubt, with the aid of the Lexington, Captain Fitch will be 
able effectually to protect all the Government vessels in those rivers. 
I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, - 

S. L. Phelps, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Report of Fleet Captain PenHock, XT. S. Navy, transmitting report of Xleutenant- 
Commander Phelps, V. S. Navy, regarding: conditions in the Cumberland 
River. 

Na 9.] Office Mississippi Sqttadrox, 

Cairo, III., January 31, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith the report* of Lieu- 
tenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, whom I sent up the Cumberland 
Kiver in the U. S. gunboat Lexington on special duty to examine 
the condition of that river and report its requirements to me. 

The Lexington will be sent up the river again to-night, and will 
be placed under the command of Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy 
Fitch, temporarily. That vessel had been ordered by Acting Eear- 
Admiral D. D. Porter to return to the fleet in the Lower Mississippi 
as soon as she had conveyed the prisoners captured at the Post of 
Arkansas to this place and had received some necessary repairs here, 
but deeming that the emergency of the case would excuse my action, 
and that the telegrams from the Department and General Kosecrans 
would warrant it, and knowing that much time must elapse before 
I could communicate with the Acting Rear- Admiral and receive an 
answer, I sent her, together with the Silver Lake, up the Cumberland. 

* See preceding report. 



NAVAL FORCES OK WESTERN WATERS. 23 

I shall endeavor in every way in my power to cooperate with the 
Army, and I trust that I shall be able to carry out the directions of 
the Department and Acting Eear-Admiral Porter in regard thereto 
in every respect. 

I enclose, also, a copy of a telegram just received from Lieutenant- 
Commander LeRoy Fitch, which will convey some information. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 

[Enclosure — Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., January 31, 1863. 
The Robh joined me yesterday at this place. Nothing very serious 
up Tennessee River. Have sent the Roih and St. Clair to Paducah 
to bring up our coal barge. The smallpox is in that place. Have 
another large convoy to take to Nashville and one to bring down. 
No danger of either river being blockaded by the rebels. 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Com/mandant of Naval Station. 



Letter from Uajor-Oeneral Wright, IT. S. Army, to Fleet Captain Pennock, IT. S. 
Kavy, regarding measures of protection for transports in the Cumberland 
River. 

Headquarters Department of the Ohio, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Jarmary 31, 1863. 
Captain : I have the honor to call your attention to the importance 
to the army service of keeping the line of the Cumberland River be- 
tween its mouth and Nashville constantly open to use of our steam 
transports, and request that, if within the naval means at your com- 
mand, you assign to that portion of the river an ironclad gunboat, 
plated with sufficiently heavy iron to resist field artillery, to assist 
m the above object. The Cumberland River, during its present high 
stage, affords the cheapest and most ready means of supply for the 
army under General Eosecrans, and the importance of securing the 
safe passage thereon of the many transports engaged in furnishing 
any supplies will fully justify such a disposition or a gunboat of the 
character referred to, if you have one to spare. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. G. Wright, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Naval Forces, etc., Cairo, III. 



24 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., Fehruary 1, 1868. 
Have sent your dispatch to the admiral. The vessels now under 
the command of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch to cooperate with you 
are the Lexington, Fairplay, Brilliant, St. Glair, Silver Lake, and 
Rohh. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



[Telegram. ] 

Cairo, February 3, 1863. 
Lieutenant-Commander Fitch informs me that he has arranged to 
leave Smithland or Fort Donelson every Monday to convoy loaded 
transports and to return with those which have discharged cargo. 
He telegraphs me nothing serious up Tennessee River, and no danger 
of either river being blockaded by rebels with force that he has; 
Lieutenant-Commander Phelps agrees with him in this opinion. 
Have sent all your dispatches to the admiral. As soon as I hear from 
him will communicate with you. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 



Memphis, Tenn., February 3, 1863. 
No gunboat at Memphis. We leave this evening under convoy of 



ram Switzerland. 
Captain A. M. Pennock 



A. M. Grant, 
[Acting Master, U. S. Navy.'] 



letter from Fleet Captain Pennock, TS. S. Navy, to Major-General Wright, V. S. 
Army, regarding measures of protection for transports in the Cumberland 
Eiver. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., Fehruary \, 1863. 
General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
communication of the 31st ultimo, calling my attention to the im- 
portance of keeping the Cumberland River open from its mouth to 
Nashville, and recjuesting that an ironclad gunboat, sufficiently strong 
to resist field artillery, be stationed in that river for the protection 
of transports. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 25 

There are now five light-draft gunboats (besides the U. S. gun- 
boat Leoeington, stationed there temporarily) under the command of 
Lieutenant-Commander Le Eoy Fitch, U. S. Navy, to whom has been 
assigned the duty of guarding the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennes- 
see rivers and keeping them open. He has instructions from me to 
cooperate with the Army in every way in his power. He informs me 
that he has made arrangements for gunboats to leave Smithland or 
Fort Donelson for Nashville, as a convoy for loaded transports every 
Monday, and to return immediately from Nashville with those whose 
cargo may be discharged. 

I regret that I have no heavy ironclad vessel at my disposal. I 
will, however, forward your letter to Acting Rear- Admiral Porter by 
first opportunity. I have received a communication from Brigadier- 
General Boyle to yourself, and referred to me by you, requesting 
that light-draft gunboats be placed under his orders. The naval 
officer commanding the Light-Draft Flotilla must be responsible for 
his command. He has received his orders direct from Rear- Admiral 
Porter and from myself for his guidance; much, however, is left to 
his well-known discretion. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General Commanding H. G. Wright, U. S. Army, 

Headquarters Department of Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Beport of Fleet Captain Fennock, U. S. Navy, transmitting information regard- 
ing attack by gunboats in cooperation with the Army for the relief of Fort 
Donelson (Dover), Tenn., February 3, 1863. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 9, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a report of 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, U. S. Navy, giving his account 
of his attack on the rebels who had surrounded and were attacking 
the post at Dover, Tenn. 

I had been informed that the enemy were attacking that post, but I 
felt no uneasiness in regard to the result, for I was sure that the gun- 
boats were near Fort Donelson, and that Lieutenant-Commander 
Fitch would hasten with them to the rescue of those who were so 
gallantly defending it against a very superior force. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Gunboat Fairplay, 
Off Dover, Tenn., February 4, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report that on the 3d instant I left Smith- 
land, Ky., with a fleet of transports and the gunboats Lexington, 
Fairplay, Si. Clair, Brilliant, Rohh, and Silver Lake, as convoy up 



26 NAVAL FoaCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

the Cumberland Kiver. When about 24 miles below Dover I met the 
steamer Wild Cat with a message from Colonel Harding, com- 
mandant of the post at Dover, informing me that his pickets had been 
driven in and that he was attacked in force. I immediately left the 
transports and made signal to the gunboats to follow on up as fast 
as possible. A short distance below the town I met another steamer, 
bringing the intelligence that the place was entirely surrounded. 

Pushing on up with all possible speed, I arrived here about 8 p. m. 
and found Colonel Harding's force out of ammunition and entirely 
surrounded by the rebels in overwhelming numbers, but still holding 
them in check. 

The enemy, not expecting gunboats, had unwisely posted the main 
body of his army in line of battle in the graveyard at the west end of 
the town, with his left wing resting in a ravine that led down to the 
river, giving us a chance to throw a raking fire along his lines. 

Simultaneously the gunboats opened fire up this ravine into the 
graveyard and, over into the valley beyond, where the enemy had 
horses hitched and most probably kept his reserve. 

The rebels were so much taken by surprise that they did not even 
fire a shot, but immediately commenced retreating. So well directed 
was our fire on them that they could not even carry off a caisson that 
they had captured from our forces, but were compelled to abandon it, 
after two fruitless attempts to destroy it by fire. 

After having dispersed the main body of the enemy, I stationed the 
Rohh and Silver Lake below the town to throw shell up the ravine 
and prevent the rebels from returning to carry off the wounded, while 
the Lexington, Fairplay, St. Glcdr, and Brilliant went above and 
shelled the roads leading out to the eastward. 

Supposing the retreating forces would follow the river for a short 
distance, I sent the Lexington and St. Glair on up to shell the woods, 
harass and annoy them as much as possible, while this boat and the 
Brilliant lay opposite the upper ravine and threw shells up the roads. 

About 10 p. m. we ceased firing, with the exception of now and then 
a random shell up the roads. 

At 11 p. m., learning from Colonel Harding that the enemy had 
entirely disappeared, we ceased firing and took position to guard the 
roads approaching the town. 

Although much of our firing was at random, we have the gratifica- 
tion of knowing that scarcely a projectile went amiss, and that out of 
the 140 buried to-day the gunboats can claim their share. 

Even when the Lexington and St. Clair went above, many of their 
shells fell right in the midst of the retreating rebels, killing and 
wounding many. 

It is reported that the attacking force numbered some 4,500, with 
eight pieces of artillery, under command of Major-General Wheeler, 
Brigadier-Generals Forrest and Wharton. 

It is certainly very gratifying to us to know that this entire force 
was cut up, routed, and despoiled of its prey by the timely arrival of 
the gunboats, and that Colonel Harding and his gallant little band 
were spared to wear the honors they had so fairly won. 

At first I regretted that I was not here with the gunboats sooner, 
but, upon reflection, I do not think I could better have arranged the 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 27 

time had it been in my power. Had we been here before Wheeler, he 
would not have made the attack, but most probably would have 
marched on Fort Henry. Had we arrived during the day, he would 
have seen our strength and would have retreated with but little loss. 
Arriving, as we did, after dark, and when he least expected us, and 
was so sanguine of success, we caught his forces arranged in the most 
favorable position to receive a raking fire from our guns. 

The officers and men were very ^ad to have a shot at these river 
infesters, and only regret that they did not remain within reach of 
our guns a little longer. As it is, they claim the honor of dispersing 
them and saving Fort Donelson. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch. 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Gommandant of Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



r Telegram.] 

MuEFEEESBORO, February 3, 1863. 
Wheeler's rebel force attacked Fort Donelson this afternoon. 
Don't know results. Dispatch messenger to notify fleet of it, and 
send gunboats down to help if you have them. Fleet left Louisville 
Sunday night with two brigades. Must be nearly there. 

W. S. EOSECRANS. 

Colonel S. D. Bruce, 

Clarksville. 



[Telegram.] 

Clarksvtlle, February i, 1863. 
Sent 200 cavalry down. Heard nothing as yet. Cannonading was 
heard until 2 o'clock last night. One gunboat was lying there yes- 
terday. Harding was notified the day before by messenger from here 
that they were moving in his direction. Will advise you the moment 
messenger arrives. 

S. D. Bruce, 
Colonel, Corrvmanding Post. 
Major-General Roseceans. 



[Telegram.] 



MuRFREESBORo, February 4, 1863. 
Colonel Lowe telegraphs from Fort Donelson that they have 
whipped the cavalry under Wheeler, Forrest, and Wharton. For- 
rest wounded. Rebels in full retreat. Lowe's cavalry following. 
He says they are out of rations and ammunition and are retreating 



28 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

toward Charlotte and Shelbyville and that a small force could cap- 
ture the whole. Look out for them, and do your best to catch them. 
By order of Major-General Rosecrans: 

C. GODDARD, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Brigadier-General Jefferson C. Davis, 

Franklin. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Donelson, February 6, 1863. 
Expect to leave for Nashville in the morning early. Gunboats all 
right ; did their duty here and have the satisfaction of knowing that 
we killed a rebel. 

, LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding. 
Captain A. M. Pennock. 

ITelegram. ] 

CiiARKSviLLE, February 5, 1863. 
Following is just received from Donelson : 

Donelson, [Fe'bruary'\ Jf, [1863]. 
Tour messengers of yesterday, and also the one by Mrs. Sherdin of to-day, 
are all here. The first were delayed yesterday by the enemy, who about 2 p. m., 
[February 3], attacked this post with eight guns and a force fully 4,000, under 
Wheeler, Wharton, Forrest, and Woodward. ♦ * * 

* * * We killed more than 100 of the enemy and have some 100 prisoners 
here; with the gunboats and the forces from Colonel Lowe, we got about 200 
of them. Our loss is 12 killed and about 30 wounded. * * * 

We had not more than 800 men; and our artillery ammunition giving out, 
left us nothing but the infantry, with their rifles and bayonets. Gunboats and 
a large force of infantry from below are here. 

A. C. Hakmng, 
Colonel, Commanding. 
Colonel Bruce. 

S. D. Bruce, 
Colonel, Commanding Post. 
General W. S. Rosecrans. 



Report of Major-General Wheeler, C. S. Army, commanding expedition. 

Headquarters Cavalry, February — , 1863. 

Colonel : I have the honor to report that, in obedience to instruc- 
tions, I ordered General Wharton's and a portion of General For- 
rest's brigades to proceed, with a full complement of ammunition, to 
the most favorable position on the Cumberland River to interrupt the 
navigation as far as practicable. 

I overtook the command after it had passed Franklin, and hastened 
on to the river to ascertain the state of affairs and the most favorable 
field of action. 

I here learned that the enemy, being apprised of our presence on 
the river, had determined not to send any more boats either up or 
down the river while we remained in position to interrupt their 
passage. The scarcity of forage made it impossible for me to remain 
long on the south side of the river, and all the ferryboats above-Dover 



navaij forces on westekn waters. 29 

had been destroyed. I accordingly had but the alternative to remain 
idle or attack the force at Dover. 

After maturely considering the matter, we concluded that nothing 
could be lost by attack upon the garrison at Dover, and, from the 
information we had from spies, citizens, and other sources, we had 
good reason to believe the garrison could be easily captured. 

We accordingly marched rapidly upon the place by two roads, and 
arrived in position at about 2 p. m. February 3, and commenced the 
attack, General Forrest assailing on the east side and General Whar- 
ton on the west and southwest sides. I marched to the ground with 
General Forrest's command, but, after getting him in position, I 
moved to General Wharton's brigade, which was the largest, to hasten 
him into action. * * * 

* * * Just as I left General Forrest to assist General Wharton, 
General Forrest, thinking the enemy were leaving the place, and 
being anxious to rush in quickly, remounted his men and charged the 
place on horseback. The fire from the enemy was so strong that he 
was repulsed and obliged to retire. He then dismounted and ad- 
vanced on foot. His men took and occupied the houses on the east 
side of the town, and had a plunging fire of musketry on the enemy. 
At this moment the enemy commenced running out toward the river, 
and our men in the houses seeing this, and thinking it to be a move- 
ment on our held horses, abandoned their favorable position and 
rushed back to protect them. But for this accident the garrison 
would have surrendered in a very few minutes. General Forrest then 
withdrew and discontinued the action. 

* * * After carefully surveying the works and the garrison, 
we finally concluded they were too strongly posted to continue the 
attack any further that night with success. At this time reinforce- 
ments had attacked our guards, and a large force (not less than 5,000 
strong) were moving rapidly up the river in transports, guarded by 
gunboats. 

At 8 o'clock, the enemy having ceased firing an hour before, and we 
being directly in front of their works, concluded, considering all the 
circumstances, that it would be better to retire. Accordingly we 
moved off in an orderly manner, the enemy not firing a gun. After 
mounting we moved off slowly, and the gunboats commenced a heavy 
fire, without any effect whatever and without causing a man to in- 
crease his gait from a slow walk. * * * 

The following day I learned of the force sent out to intercept our 
return, and after sending out scouts and finding the force was ad- 
vancing on our front, while the 5,000 men in my rear were enabled 
to land at any point and attack, we concluded, considering the state 
of our ammunition, it was our duty to move south of Duck River to 
replenish. We accordingly sent a scout by way of Charlotte to de- 
ceive the enemy, while, with the remainder of the command, I moved 
over the river at Centreville. 

******* 

Very respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant, 

Joseph Wheeler, 
Major-General and Chief of Cavalry. 
Colonel George William Brent, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



30 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Fort Henry, February 8, 1863. 
Wheeler's force took to the right of Charlotte and marched for 
Columbia ; then marched rapidly and left no force between here and 
Nashville. Six gunboats and fleet have arrived at Donelson from 
Nashville. Tennessee about 15 feet. 

W. W. Lowe, 
Colonel, Commanding. 
Assistant Adjutant-General, 

Department of the Cumberland. 



Report of Lieutenaut-CommandeT Fitch, XT. S. Navy, regarding convoy of trans- 
ports in the Cumherland. 

U. S. Gunboat Fairplay, 
Smithland, Ky., February 9, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report my return from Nashville, having 
landed in safety at that place with some 45 steamers. 

This makes 73 steamers and 16 barges we have convoyed safely 
through to Nashville since the river has been navigable for our boats. 
In this I have not counted the first convoy, as there was not water 
enough to get through. Counting the first convoy, we have taken 
through to Nashville over 100 steamers, all deeply loaded. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeKoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commandant Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., February 9, 1863. 
Our coal is about exhausted — ^have not enough left to run us back 
to Nashville. Am I authorized to get the two barges I spoke of 
before ? 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

CoTTomandant of Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 9, 1863. 
You can purchase one barge of coal. Mr. Boggs has made arrange- 
ments for two barges of coal to be left at Smithland. 
Have you sent a boat down for howitzers ? 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain, Gomm,andant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding U. S. 3. Lexington, Smithland, Ky. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 31 

[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., February 9, 1863. 
Have sent the St. Clair after the guns, etc. Also sent the Silver 
Lake to Paducah to leave her smallpox patients. Captain Riley will 
telegraph you from Paducah if there is no smallpox hospital at 
that place. If you send him to the hospital near Cairo, please let 
her return without a moment's delay. 

LbRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Gommander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commandant of Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram. ] 

War Department, 
Washington, February 9, 1863. 
The Secretary of War directs that Brigadier-General EUet be per- 
mitted to recruit for his Ram Fleet from the convalescents in your 
department. The men so recruited by him will be discharged from 
their regiments. 

H. W. HaiaLeck, 
General-in-Chief. 
Major-Greneral Horatio G. Wright, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 10, 1863. 
St. Clair's boilers leak and fire fronts need repair. Will try to get 
her off by to-morrow night. 

I A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding Gunboat Lexington, Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram. ] 

MuRTREESBORO, [Tenn.], February 10, 1863. 
Can't we get three gunboats and four transports up the Tennessee 
in ten days to intercept Van Dom — infantry to come from Corinth 
or Donelson and Henry and Nashville? Please answer. 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major-General. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Care General \B. 5.] Mitchell, Nashville, Tenn. 

[Endorsement.] 

This telegram not received till the I7th, 



32 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

[Telegram.] 

MtTRFREESBOKO, February 11, 1863. 

The general commanding desires you to send a gunboat to mouth 
of Stone's Eiver, to destroy ferriage at that place. 

Colonel [William] Truesdail, chief of army police, Nashville, will 
furnish a man to show where boats are concealed. 

C. GODDARD, 

Assistant Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. 

Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, 

or Senior Officer Commanding Gunboats. 

Note. — Stone's Eiver is about 20 miles above Nashville. The gun- 
boats frequently visited the place and above, hunting for ferries and 
flats. Those in Stone's Eiver can not be gotten at by gunboats; it is 
not navigable. If Colonel Truesdail knew the whereabouts of those 
flats, it was his duty to destroy them. 



[Telegram.] 

MURFEEESBORO, TeNN., 

February 11, 1863— i : 20 p. m. 
The enemy will direct all its operations to interrupt our connection. 
To prevent this it is absolutely necessary to patrol the rivers. Infor- 
mation in the possession of the commanding general and post com- 
manders must be promptly acted upon. It is, therefore, absolutely 
necessary to have the gunboats which cooperate in that work directed 
to report to and receive instructions from the general commanding, 
or, in liis absence, the commanders along the river districts. The 
officers commanding gunboats express a willingness to cooperate with 
the department, but in order to make their aid effective and prompt, 
such arrangements should be made. 

W. S. EOSECRANS, 

Major-General, Commanding. 

His Excellency Abraham Lincoin, 

President of the United States. 



[Telegram. ] 

Executive Mansion, 
Washington, February 12, 1863. 
Your dispatch about " river patrolling" received. I have called the 
Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of War, and General-in-Chief 
together and submitted it to them, who promise to do their very best 
in the case. I can not take it into my own hand without producing 
inextricable confusion. 

A. Lincoln. 
Major-General Eosecrans, 

Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 33 

Report of Fleet Captain Fennock, TS. S. Navy, transmitting reports of opera- 
tions in the Cumlierland River. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February W, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of the report * of 
Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy_ Fitch, U. S. Navy, giving an account 
of the attack of the gunboats under his command on the rebels who 
had surrounded and were attacking the post at Dover, Tenn. 

I also enclose a cojpy of his letter f to me, stating the number of 
transports convoyed by the boats of the light-draft flotilla since the 
water has been sufficiently high, and a copy of my communication of 
the 9th instant, to the honorable Secretary of the Navy, enclosing 
copies of the above report and letter, knowing that you would desire 
him to receive the information conveyed therein as soon as possible. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

ComTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 

Washington, February 12, 1863. 
Send orders to the senior naval officers in the Tennessee and Cum- 
berland rivers, respectively, to put themselves in communication with 
General Rosecrans and afford every assistance in those rivers. He 
complains of the want of cooperation on their part. 

Gideon Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander A. M. Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Kt., February 12, 1863. 
Please notify the steamers lying at Dover to have steam up and 
prepared to start up the river on my arrival there. I start imme- 
diately. 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant- CoTnmander. 

Colonel Harding, 

Commanding the Post at Dover, Cumberland River. 



* See p. 25. 
t See p. 30, 



711°— jsr w it— VQi, "lA—Vh 



34 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Headquarters Sixteenth Army Corps, 

Memphis, Tenn., February 13, 1863. 
It is of great importance that a gunboat be sent up the Tennessee 
as far as Florence or Eastport, if possible. Van Dorn is moving on 
that point, but has been delayed by our cavalry. 

S. A. HtJRLBUT. 

Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Cairo. 



ITelegram.] 

Murfreesboko, February 13, 1863. 
Please send two gunboats up Tennessee as far as Florence. Van 
Dorn, with a cavalry force, will probably try to cross at Eastport or 
Florence. 

W. S. KOSECBANS, 

Major- General. 
Captain Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 

Dover, February 13, 1863. 
The gunboats leave here to-night with the fleet of transports for 
Nashville. 

We will return here as soon as possible. How much water in the 
Tennessee ? Will notify you by telegraph on our return here. 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lie^i tenant- Commander. 
Colonel Lowe, 

Commanding forces at Fort Henry, Tennessee River. 



[Telegram.] 

Dover, [Tenn.], February 13, 1863. 
Follow us on up without a moment's delay. 

LeRoy Fitch. 
Captain Hurd, 

Commanding Gunboat St. Clair, Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 



Cairo, III., February H, 1863. 

Have just received the following from Major-General Rosecrans at 

Murf reesboro : " Please send two gunboats up Tennessee as far as 

possible to clean out everything as far as Florence. Van Dorn, with 

cavalry force, will probably try to cross at Eastport or Florence." 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 35 

Have asked him to communicate with you, and informed him that 
you would cooperate to the best of your ability. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

CoTnmanding TJ . S. Gunioat Fairplay. 
(Care U. S. Army Officer Commanding, Nashville, Tenn.) 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, February H, 1863. 
All the gunboats for protection of Cumberland and Tennessee 
rivers, six in number, have left Smithland for Nashville to convoy 
transports. Please communicate with Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, 
who will soon arrive at Nashville, if not there now. He has instruc- 
tions to cooperate with you to the extent of his ability. 

A. M. Pennock, 



Major-General Rosecrans. 



Fleet Captain, etc. 



[Telegram.] 

Memphis, February 16, 1863. 
Van Dorn is crossing at Lamb's, Bainbridge, Florence, and Seven- 
Mile Island on flats. It will take him ten days. A gunboat sent up 
there will cut his column in two. I urge you to do it at once. Please 
answer. 

S. A. HURLBUT, 

Major-General, Commanding. 

Commanding Officer Naval Forces, 

Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 15, 1863. 
Just received your tele^am. Have sent it to Captain Fitch, with 
instructions to give all assistance in his power and send two gunboats, 
if possible. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Major-General Hurlbut, 

Memphis, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 15, 1863. 
Just received telegram from Memphis from Major-General Hurl- 
but: 

Van Dom is crossing at Lamb's, Bainbridge, Florence, and Seven-Mile 
Island on flats. It will take him ten days. A gunboat sent up there will cut 
his column in two. I urge you to do it at once. Please answer. 

HuBLBUT, Major-Qeneral, 



36 NAVAL rOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

I wish two gunboats dispatched, if possible, and cooperate with the 
army to the extent of your ability. Look out for falling water in the 
Tennessee ; the boats must not be caught. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

ComTnanding U. 8. Gunboat F airplay. 

(Care U. S. Army Officer, Commanding Post, Nashville, Tenn.) 



[Telegram.] 

MuEFKEESBORO, February 16, 1863. 
It is of the utmost importance that you should patrol river with 
gunboats, as follows : One or two should make a patrol up the river 
as high as Carthage, [Tenn.]. Eebels are building gunboats up that 
way to use in operating against us ; two others should patrol between 
Donelson and Nashville. 

W. S. ROSECRANS. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRot Fitch, 

Commanding Gunboats. 



[Telegram.] 

Mtjrfreesboro, , [J.863]. 

* * * We ought to have a steady patrol between Donelson, 
Nashville, and between Nashville and head of navigation. Strong 
efforts will be made to cut the river line between Nashville and 
Dover Shoals. 

W. S. RoSECRANS. 
[Endorsement.] 

The boats are now patrolling the river between Donelson and Nash- 
ville in the most effective manner, at the same time giving convoy to 
transports. 



Keport of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding general matters at 

Cairo, 111. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 16, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith sundry telegrams rela- 
tive to sending gunboats up the Tennessee River to prevent Van 
Dorn from crossing and to sever his column. I have instructed Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Fitch to send two gunboats in that direction if 
possible and to give all the aid in his power, taking care not to be 
caught by falling water. 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 37 

I last night sent the gunboat Springfield to joint the upper fleet, 
with orders to her captain to ascend the Cumberland Eiver and re- 
port to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch for further orders on meeting 
with him, if there was a gunboat at Smithland about to ascend the 
river, which he could accompany ; otherwise to await Captain Fitch's 
arrival at Smithland and report to him then. 

I had intended to have informed the superintendent of the Coast 
Survey Office that the Curlew was here awaiting his disposal, as di- 
rected by you, she being the last stern-wheel boat from Cincinnati. 
As, however, you direct that the two stern-wheel boats now here be 
sent down, she has been fitted out with all dispatch and will leave 
early to-morrow morning. 

The General Lyon and New National have arrived with mails, 
prisoners, etc. I have delivered the prisoners to the military authori- 
ties at this place, taking a receipt for them. The New National 
brought the news that the Juliet, which left on the 13th instant, was 
aground about 20 miles below Island No. 10. I immediately gave 
orders to have the Prairie Bird prepared for sea with all dispatch 
and sent her to the assistance of the Juliet. Mrs. Duncan, men- 
tioned in my communication by the last opportunity, and Paymaster 
Dunn, who was on his way to the fleet, returned on the New National. 
They will both, however, take passage on the Curlew. I trust that 
the Juliet is before now afloat and on her way. The commanding 
officer of the Prairie Bird, after towing off the Juliet, has orders to 
proceed down the river and report to you. 

The Eastport is at Mound City waiting to go on the ways, which 
she can not do until the Osage is launched, which will, I am informed, 
be in two days. 

I send by this opportunity a muster roll and descriptive list which 
has been sent here without signature. I respectfully request that it 
be returned to the vessel whence it came, to be signed. 

I have received your communications up to and including the 9th 
instant. Your directions therein contained shall be carried out with 
all possible dispatch. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Kear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 

MuRFREESBORO, February 16, 1863. 
None of the gunboat commanders have yet reported to me either 
their arrivals or departures, nor given me any idea of what they pro- 
posed to do or not to do. My command requires the use of these or 
some other boats, and unless something more can be done than I have 
yet seen, the interest of the country will suffer very greatly. I do not 
hesitate to say that were it not for the hope of some more effectual 
cooperation I should at once purchase common transports and try 
to use them to patrol the river above Nashville at least. Pray do not 



38 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

suppose I venture yet to blame the commanders of the gunboats. I 
can not say what may be the preventing circumstances. But the 
necessities are above stated. 

W. S. EOSECEANS, 

Major- General. 
Captain Pennock, 

Cairo. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters Department of the Cttmbeeland, 

Murfreeshoro, February 16, 1863. 
Lieutenant Fitch has gone down the river with the fleet. You can 
telegraph him at Clarksville or Paducah. 

W. S. Eosecrans, 

Major-General. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Station of Cairo. 



ITelegram.] 

Murfreesboro, February 16, 1863. 
Have received no answer to my dispatch of last night. "Will you 
communicate with me? It is of importance to the service that the 
gunboats visit Carthage immediately and destroy the boats building 
up Caney Fork, if possible ; also that there should be a steady patrol 
up and down the river from Nashville for a ^hort time at least. 

W. S. Eosecrans, 

Major- General. 
Lieutenant LeEot Fitch, 

Commanding Gunboats, Nashville. 



Letter from Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, V. S. Navy, to Uajor-Qeneral Rose- 
crans, U. S. Army, regarding arrangements for cooperation. 

U. S. Gunboat Fairplay, 
Nashville, Tenn., February 16, 1863. 

Sir : Your telegram of yesterday received. You mention two others 
sent me. I have not received them. 

I am sorry to say that it will be out of my power to comply in toto 
to [with] your suggestions in regard to the dispositon of the gun- 
boats. I can comply in part. 

I have but five boats at present able to run. With these five I have 
three rivers to guard, the Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland. I have 
therefore made the following arrangements, hoping to meet the emer- 
gencies on this and the Tennessee river. 

I have withdrawn all the boats from the Ohio and placed them 
to convoy supplies, etc., to this place. I leave Smithland with a 
convoy once a week. On arriving here I detach two boats to go on 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 39 

up and patrol while the convoy back is being arranged to go below. 
These boats that go above will go to Carthage and beyond. This will 
keep me in constant communication with all the boats, and enable me 
to concentrate them all at any one point in case of necessity. At the 
same time the river will be kept open and clear of ferries and flats 
all this distance, besides giving me a chance to make a trip every 
week or so up the Tennessee to keep it open. 

Were I to have two boats above Nashville and two below I would 
have but one left, which would be of little service, as none of them 
are calculated to contend against anything but musketry, yet by hav- 
ing a number together they can drive oif a very heavy field battery. 

It would not be safe to start with these three large fleets of trans- 
ports, numbering sometimes as high as forty-odd steamers, with less 
than five or six gunboats, as the river is so narrow and the line neces- 
sarily so long that the enemy could make a dash, capture and set 
fire to a transport before a gunboat could reach the place, if there 
were only two or three convoying. 

By the arrangement I have made, I can give safe convoy to the 
transports once a week, run two boats to and above Carthage, and at 
the same time visit and keep the Tennessee open. 

I am very anxious to make a trip up the Tennessee this time down, 
as it is reported the rebels are throwing up some pretty strong batter- 
ies at or near Duck River, with an idea to close the river. Besides, 
they have a steamer that they are fitting up, and it is very important 
that we destroy her before she does us any damage or makes any 
demonstration on Fort Henry to aid Forrest. 

Some steamers passing down the other day without convoy were 
fired into by guerrillas. I would therefore respectfully recommend 
that no more steamers under your supervision be permitted to run 
either up or down without convoy, as they are liable to be captured 
and burned. 

As long as these guerrillas can succeed in capturing a steamer now 
and then they will hang round the river, but when they find that all 
are convoyed, they will, through lack of success, abandon the river 
entirely. As there is a safe convoy down once a week, steamers will 
not have to wait here over a few hours, for by the time one fleet is 
discharged and ready to start back another arrives and the gunboats 
are ready to return. 

As I "have made these arrangements to meet all emergencies, to 
the best of my ability, I sincerely trust that they will meet your ap- 
probation, and that I will be able, with the present limited number of 
boats at my command, to give general satisfaction and security. 

Hoping to hear from you in regard to this matter on my return, 
I remain, your obedient servant, 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 

Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

MuBFREESBOEO, Fehruwry 17, 1863. 
Tour letter received this evening; the arrangements very satis- 
factory. 



40 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Hope you will be able to carry out directions of Captain Pennock 
for the Tennessee Kiver. 

W. S. EOSECEANS, 

Major- General. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding Fleet. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, February 17, 1863. 
Your telegram received. I will start up the Tennessee by daylight 
in the morning with four gunboats. 

Will stop at Fort Henry if you wish to send transports with in- 
fantry. Will await an answer from you at Fort Henry. 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Major-General W. S. Roseceans. 

Note. — Called at Fort Henry for telegram, but found none. Heard 
that Van Dom was crossing above and hurried on up with the gun- 
boats. 



[Telegram.] 

MuEFEEESBOKO, February 18, 1863. 
Fitch, with four gunboats, starts up the Tennessee to-day. If you 
have any idea infantry will do any good, you had better send them to 
Hamburg to meet the boats. 

W. S. Roseceans, 

Ma^or-OeTieral. 
General Dodge, 

Corinth, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, February 18, 1863. 
I leave for up the Tennessee in a few minutes. 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Covnmanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, IT. S. Navy, regardingr cooperation witli the 
Army in Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

No. 20.] Oeeice Mississippi Sqiiadeon, 

Cairo, III., February 18, 1863. 
Sib : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram 
of the 12th instant, relative to more effective cooperation of the gun- 
boats of the Mississippi Squadron with Major-General Eosecrans. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 41 

My orders, both by letter and telegram, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Fitch have been, and are, to cooperate with the Army to the utmost 
extent of his ability. I have received several communications from 
General Kosecrans on the subject, and enclose herewith a copy of the 
last one (a telegram), from which it appears that he is entirely 
satisfied. 

I beg leave most respectfully to assure the Department that I shall 
continue to avail myself of every means in my power to cooperate 
with, and afford assistance to, the Army. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain aTid Convmandant of Station. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



[Telegram.] 

MuRFREESBORO, February £0, 1863. 
We have sent two gunboats up the Cumberland, to go beyond 
Carthage and up Caney [Fork]. We have also a- combined cavalry 
and infantry expedition operating in that direction from here. Mor- 
gan may be in that direction. 

W. S. Kosecrans, 

Major- General. 
Brigadier-General Boyle, 

Louisville. 



[Telegram.] 

Mtjrfreesboro, February 22, 1863. 
Direct the operations of your two gunboats so as to protect and 
assist General Crook in his expedition up the Cumberland Eiver. It 
is desirable that your movements be governed by his plans. 

W. S. Kosecrans, 

Major- General. 
Senior Oeficer of Gunboat, 

Care of General Crook. 



[Telegram.] 

MuRFREESBORO, February SB, 1863. 
Proceed up the river and you will meet the two gunboats already 
there. Will give gunboat instructions through you. Think it would 
be expedient to go to Celina, and, taking ample provisions, operate by 
way of Livingston, Jamestown, Fentress County, [Tenn.] , and Monti- 
cello, [Ky.], to Norman's Landing. You will have to watch the river 
that it does not get too low, and use your best judgment as to your 
course. 

W. S. Kosecrans, 

Major-GenercH. 
Brigadier-General Crook, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



42 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

letter from Lieutenant-Commander I'itch, U. S. Navy, to Brigadier-General 
Dodge, v. S. Army, regarding the movements of Van Born. 

U. S. Gunboat Fairplay, 

February £2, 1863. 
General: I have just received your letter of the 21st instant. I 
am sorry to say that Van Dorn has already crossed the river. Most 
of his force crossed above Big Muscle [Great Mussel] Shoals, where 
we could not reach him with gunboats. He has about 5,000 cavalry 
and is now with Wheeler and Forrest at Columbia. There are some 
guerrillas on the opposite side of the river from Florence, back from 
the river about 2 or 3 miles. I have destroyed all flats or ferries as 
high up as I could get, about 6 miles above Florence. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Corrumanding Gunboats. 
Brigadier-General Grenville M. Dodge, 

Corinth, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 23, 1863—11 p. m. 
Have heard nothing. Gunboats have gone up Tennessee River. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Stephen A. Hurlbut, 
Major-General, Commanding, Memphis, Tenn. 



Beport of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, in view of complaints of lack 
of cooperation in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

No. 122.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February 23, 1863. 

Sir: Captain Pennock sent me an extract from a letter of the 
Department, mentioning that General Eosecrans complained that the 
naval vessels did not cooperate on the Tennessee and Cumberland 
rivers. This is very unjust to the Navy, and I feel it my duty to 
protect the officers under my command from such aspersions. Gen- 
eral Eosecrans is very exacting, and at times imperious, forgetting 
what is due to the Navy Department, which is straining every nerve 
to carry out the wishes of the War Department. 

Lieutenant- Commander Fitch has convoyed safely to Nashville over 
100 steamers laden with army stores, and many barges. No vessels 
have been lost while under the charge of the Navy, and the four or 
five sanitary vessels that were lost some time since was owing to non- 
compliance with my orders on the part of the quartermaster, which 
order forbid any vessel from entering Tennessee and Cumberland 
rivers, except under charge of a gunboat. I explained this matter in 
a former letter to the Department. 



NAVAL FOHCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 43 

The army at Nashville, some 50,000 men, do nothing to keep open 
the line of communication betwen that city and the mouth of the 
river. 

Clarksville, Donelson, Dover, and Eddyville, on the Cumberland, 
if properly fortified would break up rebel raids below Nashville, but 
nothing of the kind has been done. The rebels are allowed to roam 
about and erect batteries on the river which the gunboats have to 
silence. 

The report of Lieut. Commander LeRoy Fitch, forwarded to the 
Department by Captain Pennock, will show the Department how 
valuable are the services rendered to the army by our little fleet on 
the Cumberland Eiver, for which the officer who would have been com- 
pelled to surrender Fort Donelson but for the Navy, did not think 
proper to make an adequate acknowledgment. So it is in all matters 
of this kind, which I don't notice in any way, though I mention it 
to the Department which feels the same interest that I do in the 
fame of our Navy. 

I am well aware of many movements of the enemy which General 
Rosecrans does not, know or, and endeavor to meet them. 

When our vessels increase in number, we will line the rivers if 
necessary. 

With an army of 29,000 men on this river doing nothing, I have to 
protect the whole line of river against the guerrillas, and am called 
on to send a gunboat to convoy 10,000 troops, with abundance of ar- 
tillery. 

I don't complain of this. I am ready at a moment's notice to 
convoy them, and glad to keep them under the sheltering wing of 
the Navy. I only mention it to show how unjust these army generals 
are in their complaints. 

No person ever exerted himself more than Captain Pennock has 
since I left Cairo ; he is always on the alert to anticipate the require- 
ments of army men. Notwithstanding discourteous orders received 
from subordinate officers, he has complied instantly with the requests 
as far as lay in his power, though he could not help feeling that due 
deference had not been paid to the Department over which you 
preside. 

I never complain of these matters to the generals; my aim is to serve 
the public and not stop to raise points; still I think I can, with pro- 
priety, mention these things to the head of the Navy, that he may 
understand that we are exerting ourselves to the utmost. If I was 
to remain silent it would be assenting to the charge of not cooperating 
heartily. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Adoniral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington. 

r Endorsement.] 

Approve of the general course pursued by both yourself and P. 
Appreciate your feelings and value the vigilance, energy, and efforts 
of the whole naval force, etc. 

W. 



44 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February £4, 1863. 
Paymaster Boggs informed me that two barges were ordered to be 
left for you. Buy what coal you need. Telegraph me a summary of 
your proceedings up Tennessee Eiver. Send it in cipher if you deem 
it proper. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding V. S. Gunboat Lexington., Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 24, 1863. 
Detach Acting Ensign [James] Marshall from the Lexington and 
order him to Cairo to report to me without delay. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding Lexington, Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., February 24, 1863. 
Your telegrams received. Will send detailed report of proceed- 
ings up the Tennessee by Acting Ensign Marshall. I caught a rise 
in the Tennessee and got 6 miles above Florence. Van Dorn crossed 
most of his forces above the shoals out of our reach. Chased the 
Dunbar above Big [Great] Mussel Shoals. She can never get below 
again. Clifton was burned by our forces from Lexington. Brought 
down and turned over to provost-marshal at Paducah 55 guerrillas; 
also brought out some 40 families — refugees. Found guerrillas oppo- 
site Florence. Force gone from Corinth to catch them. 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant-C om/mander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Comnnanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



Detailed report of Lieutenant-Commander Pitch, TT. S. Navy, regarding opera- 
tions in the Tennessee River from Pehrnary 18 to 24, 1863. 

U. S. Gunboat F airplay, 
Smithland, Ky., February 24, 1863. 
Sir.: I left Paducah on the 18th instant and proceeded up the Ten- 
nessee with the gunboats Lexington, Fairplay, St. Clair, Brilliant, 
and Robb. Just above Fort Henry we met a rise, which enabled the 
boats to go on up the river without hindrance. It was reported that 
the rebels had batteries at Clifton, but when we arrived there early 
in the forenoon of the 20th, I found the town in flames and our forces 
from Lexington in possession. They had managed to find a small 
flat somewhere during the previous day, and during the night Cap- 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 45 

tain Newell managed to cross a squad of some 60 men unobserved by 
the enemy. Just before day the town was surrounded, and the guer- 
rillas completely surprised. Most of them were taken before they 
got out of bed. By request of Captain Adamson I lay by and as- 
sisted him back across the river. I also took his prisoners, numbering 
54, on board the gunboats, as he had little means of getting them to 
Lexington. After getting on board the prisoners 40 of his men were 
taken on board the gunboats and landed on Eagle Nest Island, where 
it was reported the rebels had stores, but we did not find any. It 
took till after dusk to land his men on the mainland again, when the 
gunboats proceeded on up the river. As it Avas reported that bat- 
teries were planted at Tuscumbia Landing, and the weather being so 
stormy and bad as to prevent the boats from running at night, I 
stopijed at Chickasaw about 3 in the afternoon of the 21st and lay 
up that night, the distance being too great for me to make Tuscum- 
bia Landing before dark or find any suitable place to tie up between 
the two points. We found no batteries along the river, but saw some 
guerrilla cavalry on the hills between Chickasaw and Florence. We 
arrived at Florence before noon, and found some rebel cavalry pickets 
opposite, but they soon disappeared. 

I sent the St. Clair, Brilliant, and Robb on up to the foot of Big 
[Great] Mussel Shoals, about 6 miles above, with the hope of catching 
the Dunbar at the foot of them, but I am sorry to say the rebels suc- 
ceeded in getting her above three or four days before we got up, 
they having had the rise that much ahead of us. While this boat 
and the Lexijigton lay at Florence, a squad of guerrillas made so bold 
as to come down on the hills opposite to watch our motions, but three 
shells from the Lexington Soon dispersed them. At Florence I found 
one flat, which I had destroyed. As soon as the boats from above re- 
turned I started down the river, stopping at places along to pick up 
refugee families. I brought out a great number of families, Avith 
what few traps the guerrillas had left them, besides some 80 or 90 
bales of cotton belonging to Union men and liable to fall into the 
enemy's hands. On my arrival at Paducah I turned the prisoners 
over to Colonel Dougherty, as I did not want to bother you with the 
disposal of them. Among the number are 2 captains and 1 adjutant, 
4 conscripts, and 48 privates. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEot Fitch, 
Lieutenant -Commander. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 24, 1863. 

If Springfield can possibly be spared, I desire that you send her 
down here, as we need her services very much. Can't you do without 
the down-river pilots? We need them here. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain, Commandant of Station. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Commanding Lexington, Smithland, Ky. 



46 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., February 25, 1863. 
The gunboat S'prmgf,eld has been ordered to report to you at Cairo. 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



Additional report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, IT. S. Navy, regarding 
operations in the Tennessee River. 

U. S. Gunboat Faieplay, 
Smithland, Ky., February 25, 1863. 
Sir: I learn that Van Dorn crossed most of his force above the 
shoals, where we could not possibly have got with our boats had we 
been there ; a few of them crossed on the flat at Florence. He is with 
Wheeler and Forrest, at Columbia. His force numbers from five to 
seven thousand cavalry. The Dunbar got above the shoals, drawing 
only 23 inches of water. She will not be able to get below again. 
At Cerro Gordo I sent a squad of men and brought in some dressed 
lumber to repair, our port wheelhouse, which got somewhat smashed 
in landing on Eagle Nest Island. I learned from a doctor at Flor- 
ence, who had two sons at Columbia when Wheeler and Forrest 
returned from Donelson, that the rebel loss in that attack was 800 
or 900 men, 200 killed, one hundred and eighty-odd wounded, and 
some 400 or 600 missing. Among the prisoners taken at Clifton 
were two who wished to join the gunboat service. As they are con- 
scripts, and have never been sworn into the enemy's service," I had the 
oath administered to them at Paducah, and now have them here, one 
on the Lexington and one on this boat. 

General Dodge sent a force to catch the guerrillas at Florence. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station. 



[Telegram.] 



U. S. Gunboat Faieplay, 

Smithland, February 27, 1863. 
If the steamer Elf arrives at Paducah, please detain and overhaul 
her, as she is reported to have contraband goods on board and escaped 
from Louisville without General Boyle's knowledge. 

LeKoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Colonel [H.] Dougherty, 

Commanding Post, Paducah, Ky. 

Will the operator be so kind as to send a copy of the above to Col- 
onel Lowe, at Fort Henry ? 

LeKoy Fitch. 



NAVAL, FOECBS ON WESTERN WAXEES. 47 

[Telegram.] 

Carthage, Tenn., [Feiruary] 28, 1863. 

(Via Gallatin, March 2.) 

The river has risen so much that it has taken me up to this time 
to land. I shall keep the boats here until I hear from you. I am 
much in need of cavalry here. I will not be able to mount my men 
here. Will Stokes' cavalry join me soon? 

Very respectfully, George Crook, 

Brigadier- General. 

Colonel C. GODDARD, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



[Telegram.] 

Nashville, March 1, 1863. 
Fleet arrived this morning — 26 . transports and 4 gunboats. The 
gunboats were supposed up the river ; only went up 60 miles and re- 
turned same night and passed down without landing or reporting. 
Two gunboats go up this morning as far as Carthage. 

Robert B. Mitchell, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding Post. 

Major-General Eosecrans. 

[Telegram.] 

Carthage, March 2, 1863. 
I have information that the rebels intend capturing the fleet on 
its way down the river. No gunboats have yet been seen. I shall 
detain them unless otherwise ordered till gunboats arrive. 
EespectfuUy, 

George Crook, 

Brigadier- General. 
Major-General Roseceans. 



[Telegram.] 

* * * Can't we have some gunboats at our disposal for patrol- 
ling the river above? 

W. S. ROSECRANS. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRot Fitch. 



[Telegram. ] 

Memphis, Tenn., March B, 1863. 
It is reported that the enemy threaten Fort Donelson. Send a gun- 
boat up to ascertain and aid. 

S. A, HURLBUT. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S Navy, 

Cairo, lU. 



48 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

[Telegram.] 

MuEFREESBOEO, Mwrch 2, 1863. 
Boats twelve days from Louisville, loaded with horses and stores 
much needed, lie at Donelson waiting convoy. Please see that they 
get it as soon as possible. 

W. S. ROSECHANS, 

Major-General, Commanding. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Smithland, Ky. 



[Tulegram.] 

Cairo, March 2, 1863. 
Your two telegrams of the 1st instant received. Am glad to hear 
by the last that Captain Fitch has communicated with you. Have 
sent every gunboat that I have available. Admiral Porter directed 
me to send all gunboats to him, except those now up Cumberland and 
Tennessee rivers. Will send your dispatch to the admiral. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain, Commandinf/ Station. 
Major-General Rosecrans. 



[Telegram. ] 

MuRFREESBORO, MarcK 3, 1863. 
It is necessary that transports should not be detained at Fort Don- 
elson for want of convoy. A large number there now and have been 
waiting several days. It is of the greatest importance to forward 
without delay. 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major-General, Commanding. 
Lieutenant- Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Smithland. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., March 3, 1863. 
Telegram received. Sorry that I have not a gunboat to send. 
Admiral Porter has ordered everything sent down to him. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and- Commandant of Station. 
Major-General Curtis, 

St. Louis, Mo. 



[Telegram.] 



[Smithland, March 3, 1863.] 
1 can not possibly station gunboats permanently above Nashville. 
I am ordered to keep two always together, besides two make the trip 
above once a week. Van Dorn will make an attempt to cut off your 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 49 

supplies by the river, and will either strike at Dover or Palmyra, 
[Tenn.]. I must keep my forces below to watch him, and see that 
he does not carry out his designs. He is reported now to be within 
20 miles, at Dover. 

LeRoy Fitch. 
Major-General W. S. Rosecrans. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Ky., March 3, 1863. 
Can you not send the transports for Nashville down once a week 
in fleets ? Can not the boats load with the stores and provisions and 
when all ready take the horses on board and all leave together? 

As it is the boats come dropping in here one at a time just after 
the convoy has left, and must necessarily lay over two or three days. 
This makes it bad for the horses. I have not gunboats enough to 
convoy each boat separately. I can send but one convoy through a 
week with safety. I care not how large the fleets are. 

LeEoy Fitch. 
Brigadier-General BoylEj 

Louisville, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

March 3, 1863. 

Tour telegrams received. It is impossible for me to get convoys 
through safely oftener than once a week. I have not boats enough 
to do it. Transports must unavoidably lay over at Donelson a day 
or two unless they are sent more regularly from Louisville. If Gen- 
eral Boyle will send them in fleets from Louisville once a week there 
will be no detention here, but boats come dropping in one at a time 
just after the fleet starts for Nashville. 

It is impossible to hurry the boats up during the heavy flow of 
drift. I leave with another fleet as soon as coaled to-morrow even- 
ing. I know the necessity of hurrying horses through, and do the 
best I can to accomplish it. 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 

Major-General W. S. Rosecrans. 



Letter from the Secretary of tlie Navy to Fleet Captain Fennock, IT. S. Navy, 
transmitting copy of dispatcli regarding convoy of transports. 

Navy Department, March 7, 1863. 
, Sir: I transmit herewith a copy of the telegraphic dispatch sent 
to you this day on the subject of protecting the transports of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans' army. 

I am, respectfully, etc., Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Senior GomTnanding 0-fflcer, etc., Cairo, III. 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 4 



50 NAVAL FOBCBS ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[ Enclosure. — Telegram.] 

Navy Department, March 7, 1863. 
The following is a copy of a telegram, dated yesterday, just re- 
ceived by General Halleck from General Rosecrans : 

Something must be done to secure convoys for our boats or this army will be 
without supplies. We have gained nothing by the high river in subsistence for 
the last ten days, because our convoys are detained. Only four little gunboats 
to do the veork. If we can not have some more help, vire ought at once to have 
some more gunboats made. 

You must take measures to convoy and protect the army transports 
without waiting to communicate with Acting Rear- Admiral Porter. 
To do this you are authorized to purchase a necessary number of suit- 
able boats and arm and equip them. If necessary, you can call upon 
Commodore Hull, at St. Louis, to assist you. The Department wants 
prompt and energetic steps immediately taken to give the necessary 
protection to the transports of General Rosecrans. 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Senior Commanding Officer, U. S. Navy, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

OnrcE OF TJ. S. Military Telegraph, 

War Department, 
Cairo, March 8, 1863—9 p. m. 
(Received Washington 11 : 10 a. m. 9th.) 
Your telegram of 7th instant just received. I leave immediately 
for mouth of Cumberland River. Will return in forty-eight hours. 
I desire to examine personally the condition of the fleet and give 
further instruction, if necessary, to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch. 
An officer has been dispatched to Cincinnati and other places by Ad- 
miral Porter to purchase light-draft gunboats. He will require 
down the river all that he has directed to be purchased. I shall, by 
your order, purchase others to reinforce the upper fleet, which con- 
sists of five light-draft gunboats and the Lexington, heavily armed. 
Suitable boats are hard to find. Prompt and energetic steps will be 
taken. Please send at once 12 officers suitable to command and com- 
petent to instruct their subordinates. We can not obtain them out 
here. We will require, also, 6 surgeons, paymasters, ensigns, gunners, 
and practical men-of-war's men for petty officers. Every sailor that 
has been sent us has been put in active service. Not a man left on 
board the receiving ship for duty. We must obtain them by some 
means, or we can not man another boat. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Caftaim, and Commandant of Staiion. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Nawy. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 51 

Letter from Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Hajor-Oeneral Grant, U. S. 
Army, regarding gunboat at Hemphis. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Yazoo River, March 9, 1863. 
General : In answer to General Hurlbut's request for a gunboat at 
Memphis, I beg leave to inform you that the Cricket, commanded by 
a very active officer, is at that place and will remain there. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Porter. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Department of the Tennessee. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, March 10, 1863. 

(Eeceived 13th.) 
Have sent three boats with convoy to Nashville. Captain Hurd 
has instructions from me to go on up to Carthage this trip, if water 
enough. He will communicate with you at Nashville before starting 
above. As soon as repaired, I wish to make another trip up the 
Tennessee River. Please communicate with me at Smithland, Ky., 
or with Captain Hurd at Nashville. Will be happy to render you 
any assistance I can. 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander, 
Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

CoLXjMBXTS, March 11, 1863. 
I just received information from Captain Glassford, commanding 
U. S. gunboat New Era, that the scouts of Colonel [D. H.] Hughes, 
commanding at New Madrid, had discovered Marmaduke with a 
strong force in the neighborhood of Bloomfield, apparently threat- 
ening Cape Girardeau. 

ASBOTH, 

Brigadier-General. 
Captain A, M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Columbus, March 11, 1863. 
Fort Henry may be overflowed but not Fort Heiman, and as offi- 
cially [stated], it is occupied by rebels; General Sullivan's troops 
are all withdrawn to Jackson, thereby leaving it open from Heiman 
to Padiicah or Columbus. It is of the utmost importance to dislodge 
them quickly. I embark soon as the boats arrive from Cairo. I 



52 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 

would beg you to order New Era to go up if you have no other gun- 
boat. Please answer, and I will send your order to Captain Glass- 
ford by an express boat. 

ASBOTH, 

Brigadier- General. 
Captain Pennock, 

Gom/mandant. 



[Telegram.] 

Columbus, March 11, 1863. 

Colonel Harding telegraphed yesterday from Fort Donelson that 
Forts Henry and Heiman, Department of the Cumberland, were 
abandoned by order of General Eosecrans, and Colonel Dougherty 
telegraphs now from Paducah that Forts Henry and Heiman are 
occupied to-day by the rebels. 

Please order immediately a gunboat to dislodge them before they 
can plant a battery. I will send infantry at once by boat to reoccupy 
Fort Heiman, Please answer. 

AsBOTH, 

Brigadier- General. 



Commanding, U. S. Navy. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters Sixteenth Army Corps, 

Memphis, Tenn., March 12, 1863, 
General : It being officially reported to me that Forts Henry and 
Heiman were occupied by the rebels, I have ordered an expedition to 
retake them. 

Respectfully, S. A. Hurlbut, 

Major- General. 
Major-General Rosecrans, 

Gom/manding Department, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Columbus, March 12, 1863 — 12 m. 

I just received from Memphis the following telegram : 

Call on the naval oflScer at Cairo in my name for aid to retake Forts Henry 
and Heiman, If possible. Act without respect to departments, those places be- 
ing cut off from their proper subordination. 

S. A. HUBLBTTT, 

Major-Ct&neral. 

Please let me know what you can do. Are the gunboats from 
Smithland already ascending the Tennessee? 

AsBOTH, 

Brigadier- General. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Gaptam. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS, 53 

[Telegram. ] 

Paducah, March 12, 1863. 
No gunboats reported here. 

H. DOTJGHERTT, 

Colonel, Commanding. 
Captain Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, Kt., March 12, 1863. 

Your telegram received. All three boats here. Lexington, Fair- 
play, Brilliant, and Silver Lake laid up for the present. Lexington 
just finished scaling boilers. Brilliant just finished repairs and coal- 
ing. Fairplay ready to move by morning. Fleet up very small; 
three gunboats enough to take it through in safety. Have kept the 
Lexington, Brilliant, and Fairplay to go up Tennessee ; will be ready 
by daylight. Anything new up Tennessee? Banks all under water; 
see not how the enemy can use it to advantage. 

LeRot Fitch. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 



Smithland, March 12, 1863. 
Gunboats left last night for Nashville, two remaining. 

H. DOUGHEETT. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, March 12, 1863. 
Necessity compels the Titscumbia to be sent up the Tennessee to 
drive the rebels out of Fort Heiman. She will be absent two or three 
days. Say so to the admiral. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Captain Woodworth, 

U. S. S. General Price, 

Care of Commanding Officer, Navy Yard, Memphis. 



[Telegram. ] 



MuKFKEESBORO, March H, 1863. 
Have telegraphed Captain Fitch at Paducah and Smithland when 
he goes up Tennessee to make a clean sweep of every species of craft 
that can transport [sic] the river. Please repeat these orders to him. 



54 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

It is of vital importance that our convoys be promptly sent up the 
Cumberland. Will arm three transports to aid till you can arrange 
for us. 

W. S. ROSECKANS, 

Major- General. 
Captain Pennock. 



Keport of Charles A. Dana, special commissioner of the TTnited States War 

Department. 

Columbus, Ky., March 20, 1863— k: 30 p. m. 
There is absolutely no information here respecting affairs down the 
river. General Rosecrans having abandoned Forts Henry and Hei- 
man and ordered them to be leveled, and a rebel force having ap- 
peared at Heiman, Hurlbut, on Asboth's reporting the facts, ordered 
him to reoccupy Heiman, considering it to be the key to both Colum- 
bus and Paducah. Asboth accordingly proceeded there by water 
with two regiments of infantry, two cannon, and some cavalry, and 
found a small body of rebels at Heiman, who escaped with their 
leader. Major Blanton. The order of General Bosecrans to level the 
works had not been executed, Henry being partially overflowed. 
Blanton was collecting horses and raising conscripts, the whole coun- 
try being open to him, while the possession of Heiman would have 
made him master of the navigation of the Tennessee. The force men- 
tioned was left by Asboth in Heiman, and he got back here by land 
yesterday. The ironclad gunboat Tuscurribia, Captain J. W. Shirk, 
cooperated in the movement, and destroyed all the flats and skiffs 
collected by the rebels to force their operations on both sides of the 
Tennessee. Hereafter two small gunboats will patrol that river as 
far up as Savannah. 



Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 



C. A. Dana. 



Letter from Brigadier-General Ashoth, U. S. Army, to Lieutenant-Commander 

Shirk, r. S. Navy, commanding: IT. S. S. Tusoumbia, regarding protection of 

Fort Heiman. 

Headquaeteks District of Columbus, 

On board Steamboat Bostona No. 2, 

Off Paris Landing, March H, 1863. 

Captain : Disappointed by not finding, as oflScially informed. Forts 
Henry and Heiman occupied by the rebels in force, and being thus 
deprived of the opportunity to unite in cooperation with your broad 
giant, the Titscumbia, in dislodging and capturing them, I have 
only to request that those of the gunboats which are intrusted to 
control the navigation on the Tennessee may ascend to the mouth of 
Duck River and destroy all ferryboats and all means of crossing the 
rebels have collected or prepared. I will at the same time follow the 
rebels up the bluffs behind Fort Heiman, where your shots forced 
them away. 

Fort Heiman I will reoccupy, leaving an adequate combined garri- 
son to hold it. With the balance of my forces I will return to Co- 
lumbus by land. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 55 

The eager readiness of the Navy to serve our country whenever 
opportunity offers makes it hardly necessary to request that the 
officers in command of the gunboat destined to remain on the Ten- 
nessee will give their hearty support to the small garrison I have to 
leave at Fort Heiman. 

Thanking you for your efficient cooperation, and expecting soon to 
hear glorious news from the Tuscumhia before Vicksburg, 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ASBOTH. 

Commander J. W. Shirk, 

Cpminanding Gunboat Tuscwnbia. 



[Telegram.] 

Caibo, III., March 15, 1863. 

Recent instructions have been given to Captain Fitch by Admiral 
Porter through me. He is now up Tennessee River to carry them 
out. There can be no difficulty about the convoy of transports, pro- 
vided they all assemble at the time appointed by Captain Fitch and 
those at Nashville unloaded and ready to return with him on his 
arrival there. Captain Fitch reports to me that such has not been 
the case. Convoy can be had and empty vessels brought down once 
a week, provided there is strict compliance with Captain Fitch's 
arrangements. 

If vessels come straggling in day after day and those at Nashville 
are not ready to leave immediately on arrival of convoy, it will take 
every gunboat we have in the Western waters to convoy them. 

Every effort is being made to purchase, arm, and equip more boats 
to reinforce those now in Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

A. M. Pbnnock, 
Fleet Captain and Gommandant of Station. 

Major-General Rosecrans, 

Mtirfreesboro, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

FoET DoNELsoN, March 15, 1863. 
Our cavalry report that there are about 12,000 rebels 28 miles from 
here. They report our line cut for miles. 

Country people from miles around are coming to the fort with va- 
rious reports. 

One man says they have well-armed infantry and a large wagon 
train with them. 
We are all ready again for a fight. 

Thater, 
Operator. 
Captain Pennock, Corrvmanding. 

[Endorsement.] 

I have just received the above, 10 a. m. 

W. G. Fuller, 
Superintendent Telegraph. 



56 NAVAL POECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Headquarters District of Columbus, 
Steamer Bostona No. 3, off Fort Heiman, Ky., 

March 17, 1863. 
(Via Paducah, Ky, 18th.) 
In obedience to your orders, I reoccupied Fort Heiman on the 14th 
in the morning. The rebels fired previous to our landing, but the 
first shell from the gunboats made them run. * * * Garrison in 
command of Colonel Griggs. 

* * * * * * * 

Captain LeEoy Fitch, commanding third division light-draft 
flotilla, will efficiently cooperate for the future. The gunboats St. 
Clair and Rohh will commence to-morrow to run up and down the 
Tennessee, controlling all crossings. 

Asboth, 
Brigadier-General. 
Major-General Stephen A. Hurlbut, 

CommaTiding Sixteenth Army Gorfs, Memphis, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Smithland, March 17, 1863. 
General Asboth and myself have been up the Tennessee. Made a 
clean sweep of all flats, ferries, and scows and returned this morning. 
Two gunboats will patrol the Tennessee constantly up to head of 
navigation. 

LeRot Fitch, 
LieuteTiant-Gommander. 
Major-General W. S. Rosecrans. 



Summary report of Lieutenant-Commander Pitch, IT. S. Navy, regarding: opera- 
tions on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, from December 16, 1862, to 
Karch 17, 1863. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 

Smithland, Ky., March 17, 1863. 

Sir : Herewith I have the honor to make summary report of pro- 
ceedings on the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers since the 16th day 
of December, 1862. 

On the day above mentioned the gunboats left the upper Ohio for 
operations in these waters, but not finding water enough in the Cum- 
berland, an expedition was formed to cooperate with Colonel Lowe up 
the Tennessee. 

On the 20th of December the expedition left Fort Henry and pro- 
ceeded up the river as high as Duck Eiver Sucks, where the troops 
were disembarked. Leaving two boats to guard the transports, I 
started on up the river with the remaining two, but having grounded 
on Duck Eiver Bar, I was obliged to return without getting higher. 

On the 24th (learning that the place was in danger) I returned to 
Fort Henry with two boats, leaving two above to guard, the transports. 



NAVAL, FORCES ON ' WESTERN WATERS. 57 

On the 25th instant I proceeded on down the river to Paducah as 
that place was reported to be in danger. I left the Brilliant to guard 
Forts Henry and Hindman [Heiman] till the expedition from above 
returned. 

On the 28th the expedition having returned, the gunboats joined me 
at Paducah. 

On the 1st of January I left the General Pillow at Paducah and 
proceeded up the Ohio to the mouth of the Cumberland, with the 
gunboats Fairplay, St. Clair, Brilliant, and Roih. Arriving at 
Smithland, I found both flanges of the starboard wheel of the Fair- 
play broken entirely off, and consequently, by directions from the 
fleet captain, had to take her up the river for repairs. Also, being 
out of coal, I sent the boats to Caseyville, to take on a good supply. 
Finding on my arrival at Caseyville all the mines monopolized, I was 
compelled to take possession of them in order to get coal for the 
flotilla. After the St. Clair and Brilliant had finished coaling, they 
returned to Smithland and started up the Cumberland for Nashville 
with a fleet of transports. The Roih remained at Caseyville to hold 
possession of the mines and have a large barge filled for our use. 

On the 4th instant I arrived at Madison, Ind., and made arrange- 
ments for going on the ways. On the 5th went on the ways and com- 
menced repairs. On the 21st, having completed repairs, returned to 
Smithland and made preparations for going up the Cumberland. 

During my absence the Roih had brought down from the mines 
some 10,000 bushels of coal, and, with the Pillow, was patrolling the 
Tennessee, the St. Clair and Brilliant being yet up the Cumberland. 
I started to join them on the 22d, having in convoy a fleet of some 26 
transports. 

On the 28th I reached Nashville with the second fleet of transports 
and three gunboats. On the 30th returned down the river with a 
convoy of boats. The gunboat Silver Lake joined the fleet and re- 
ported for duty. On February 3 left Smithland with a fleet of 46 
transports and the gunboats Lexington (she having joined us on the 
26th), Fairplay, St. Clair, Brilliant, Robb, and Silver Lake. 

At 8 p. m. arrived at Dover, [Tenn.], found the garrison entirely 
surrounded by the enemy, and out of ammunition. The gunboats 
shelled and dispersed the rebels. 

On the 7th arrived at Nashville with the entire fleet. On the 8th 
went above Nashville with the gunboats Fairplay and Rohh, to the 
mouth of Stone's Kiver, to destroy some flats and ferries there. On 
the 9th returned to Smithland with a fleet of transports. On the 13th 
left Smithland again with another large fleet of transports, arriving 
at Nashville on the 15th instant. On the I7th returned to Smithland, 
coaled and started up the Tennessee River with the gunboats Lexing- 
ton, Fairplay, St. Clair, Brilliant, and Rohh, leaving the Silver Lake 
and Springfield to convoy to Nashville a small fleet of transports. 

On the morning of the 20th reached Clifton, [Tenn.] ; found our 
forces in possession and the town in flames. Assisted the land forces 
back to the west side of the river and took charge of their prisoners, 
as they had no means of disposing of them. 

During the afternoon of the same day we took a detachment of dis- 
mounted cavalry aboard each boat and landed them on Eagle Nest 
Island for the purpose of searching for rebel stores and rebels, said 
to be on or near the island. 



58 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

On the 22d left Chickasaw, [Ala.], at daylight and proceeded on up 
to Tuscumbia Landing, where it was reported the rebels had bat- 
teries. The enemy, seeing our approach, withdrew their guns back 
to Tuscumbia, where they -were captured by the forces that General 
Dodge had sent from Corinth to cooperate with us along the river. 
Proceeded on up the river to Florence, and sent the St. Glair, Bril- 
liant, and Eobb on up to the fort of Big [Great] Mussel Shoals, at 
the head of navigation. On the 24th instant returned to Paducah, 
having brought out some 35 or 40 refugee families and 80 or 90 bales, 
of cotton belonging to Squire Cherry, a good Union man, who was 
fearful of its falling into rebel hands. 

On the 26th returned to Smithland and commenced coaling. On 
the 4th of March, having coaled and cleaned boilers, we started up 
the Cumberland with another convoy. On the 6th instant reached 
Nashville, made reconnoissance above, and returned. On the 8th 
returned to Smithland. 

On the 12th a fleet of transports started for Nashville under convoy 
of the gunboats St. Glair, Rohh, and Springfield. 

On the 13th the Lexington, Fairplay, and Brilliant made a patrol 
up the Tennessee ; found all quiet in that vicinity. 

Two boats will patrol the Tennessee constantly, while the re- 
mainder will remain on the Cumberland to patrol and convoy. 

I may be wrong" in my judgment, but I should think from present 
appearances that it is the enemy's desire to transfer the seat of war 
into eastern Kentucky and, if possible, regain possession of the Ten- 
nessee and Cumberland rivers. 

I will use every exertion in my power to keep pace with all move- 
ments along or near these rivers, and I doubt not but that I can 
keep them perfectly free to the head of navigation so long as there 
is water. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-G ommander. 

Acting Kear-Admiral Davu) D. Porter, 

GomTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Titch, IT. S. Navy, regarding the Cumberland 

Eiver. 

March 17, 1863. 

The Cumberland averages in width about 600 feet inside of the 
trees. During low stages of water boats have great difficulty in 
getting above Harpeth Shoals, about 160 miles from the mouth and 
35 miles below Nashville. 

Above Nashville the river becomes very narrow in making the 
turns and frequently boats get very much broken up. In making 
the trip to Carthage boats frequently are compelled to lower their 
smokestacks, and then suffer much from having their upper works 
much broken up by the branches of trees. Everything above Nash- 
ville seems quiet, and as gunboats can accomplish little or nothing 
above, the wear and tear does not warrant the keeping of two there, 
unless in cases of necessity; besides, when the Cumberland com- 



NAVAL FOHCES ON WESTEKN WATEBS. 



59 



mences to fall the water recedes so fast that there is great danger in 
being caught. 

At low water the river is not navigable for boats drawing over 15 
inches, that being the average depth on Harpeth Shoals. 

The river banks are generally very thickly wooded with heavy 
hills overlooking the banks. 

Palmyra, between Donelson and Clarksville, and Beatstown [Betsy 
Town] Landing, at Harpeth Shoals, are the most noted guerrilla 
haunts. I have burned and destroyed all the stores or houses near 
the shoals frequented by guerrillas. 

The Cumberland frequently rises and falls with such rapidity 
that a diflference of from 8 to 12 feet in twenty-four hours is of no 
uncommon occurrence. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral Davto D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Tabulated report of Tennessee River from month to Florence, Ala. 



Towns, landings, sboals, etc. 



Paduoah, Ky 

[Great] Chain 

Hottocka [Haydock's] Ferry 

Little Chain.". 

27 Mile Island - . 

Birmingham 

Foum's [Fond's] Landing 

Aurora. 

Callowaytown 

PineBlufl 

Buffalo Landing 

Panther Creek, island and bar 

Forts Henry and Hindman [Hei- 

manl. 

Paris Landing 

Mouth of [BigfSandy [Elver] 

[Big] Sandy Island 

Leatherwood Shoals 

Wlnns [Wynn'slLanding 

Mobile and Ohio Kailroad bridge. 

New Portland 

Point Mason 

Mason's [Turkey] Island 

Green Bottom Bar 

Reynoldsburg 

Wills [Wy ley's] Point 

Trotter's Landmg 

Thompson's Duck River Sucks. . 
Rockport Landing and Suck 

River Bar. 

Duck River 

Fowler's Landing 

Cuba Landing 

Leadbetters Landing 

Britt's Landtag 



Denson. . 



Dis- 
tance 
(miles) 



Brodle's 

Perryville and East Perryvllle. . 

Uarvta's Bluffs 

Fisher's Land 

Brownsport, iron foundry 



Dis- 
tance 
from 
mouth 
(miles). 



72 

77 
78 
82 
85 
87 
92 
93 
98 

m 

103J 
119J 
117 
123 
128 
129 

134 
136 
139 
146 
149 

151 

168 
166 
169 
170 
171 I 



Depth 

of 
water 
(feet). 



3.5 



2.5 



Popu- 
lation. 



4,000 



200 



50 



30 



Remarks. 



Very few loyal citizens. 

Left bank, one log house. 

Not inhabited. 

Left bank. 

Left bank, one house. 

Do. 
Left bank, two houses. 

Do. 

Do. 

Right and left banks. 

Left bank, one house and mill. 
Left bank. 

Very narrow. 

Right and left banks, one house. 

Two or three houses. 

Right bank, three houses, Union. 

Left bank (rushing) doubtful. 

Plenty water; very rocky. 

Very narrow. 

Right bank, three families; rebels. 

Right bank, one house near by. 
Left bank; very crooked and rocky. 
Left bank; rebel country around. 

Right bank; all rebels. 

Right bank; very bad rebels. 

Right bank; rebels, one house. 

Left bank. 

Right bank; one house and store, 

professes Union. 
Right bank; one family; rebels, ta 

Confederate Army. 
Left bank. 
Left bank; rebels. 
Right bank; two houses. Union. 
Lett bank. 
Left bank; iron foundry; Union. 



60 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Tabulated report of Tennessee River from mouth to Florence, Ala. — Continued. 



Towns, landings, sboals, etc. 


Dis- 
tance 
(miles). 


Dis- 
tance 
from 
mouth 

(miles). 


Depth 

water 
(feet). 


Popu- 
lation. 


Remarks. 


Cedar Creek iron furnace 


1 
5 
3 
3 
5 
2 
1 

5 
12 
3 
1 
3 
3 

I 
1 
6 
3 
5 
S 
3 
5 
3 
1 
8 
1 

1 


172 
177 
180 
183 
188 
190 
191 

196 
208 
211 
212 
215 
218 
219 
226 
227 
233 
236 
241 
246 
249 
254 
257 
258 
266 
267 

268 






Left bank. 


Nlnhnl.q TAnrling 






Right bank. 


Patriot Landing 






Eight bank; Union, yet rebel. 
Left bank. 


Decatur iron furnace 






Beech Creek, island 








Carrollville . - . 






Right bank; four houses. Union. 


Clifton 




300 


Right bank; rebels, town burned 

Feb. — , 1863. 
Right bank; rebels. 
Lett bank; high, rocky bluff. 


Eagle Nest Island 


Swallow Bluff 






Point Pleasant 






I.eft bank; three houses. 


Saltillo 






Right bank; three houses; Union. 


Petticoat Riffle 


3.5 






Cerro Gordo 


Right bank; deserted. 
Left bank; Union. 


Squire Craven's 






Chalk Bluff . 


- 




Left bank; deserted. 


Coflfee's Landing Ferry 






Left bank; hot secesh. 


SavftTiTiah 




500 


Right bank ; mixed Union and rebels 


CniTnp*<T T^anf11n£j 


Left bank; deserted. 


Pittsl)urg Landing 






Do. 


TTftTTihiirp LanrlfTip 






Do. 


Big Bend Shoals 


3 






Big Bend Landing. . 


Right bank, deserted. 


Bokerwins Landing 






Left bank, deserted and destroyed. 


YeUowCreek 






I.cft bank, deserted. 


Eastport, Miss.. 






Left bank; two famlleis. 


Chickasaw, Ala 






Lett bank; eight families, four Union. 


Waterloo 


........ 


20 


rest doubtful. 
Right bank; all rebels. 


Colbert Shoals 


Deserted. 


Georgetown Landing 


17 
7 
5 
5 
7 
7 
7 


285 
292 
297 
302 
309 
316 
323 


Left bank. 


Newport Ferry " 






Do. 


Cone [ K anel Creek- . 






Do. 


CofTee Island [Seven Mile Island]. 












Left bank; all rebels back. 


Florence, Ala 


.'5' 


1,000 


Right bank; rebels. 


Foot of Big [Great] Mussel 


Head of navigation; only 4 feet at the 
highest stages of water ever known; 
very swift and rocky.. 



The Tennessee averages about 1,420 feet in width. Where shoals 
are,, she is generally very narrow and crooked. Duck River Sucks 
are very dangerous, in consequence of the channel being very crooked 
and the current setting so strong over the rocks. This, at low water, 
is one of the most favorable places for locating a battery on the river. 
The banks are mostly flat and overflow at high water, with high 
hills back from 1 to 2 miles. 

There are now few loyal citizens above Fort Henry. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of lieutenant-Commander Fitoh, IT. S. Navy, in view of dissatisfaction 
expressed by Army officials regarding convoy service. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 
Mouth of Tennessee River, March 18, 1863. 
Sir: I hear that some dissatisfaction with the gunboats has been 
expressed by army officials along the Cumberland, and that General 



NAVAL, FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 61 

Eosecrans telegraphed to the Department that he had not, or was not, 
deriving any benefit from the present high water in the Cumberland. 

If such reports have been made to the Department, I would respect- 
fully beg leave to make a few statements, as the blame will doubtless 
be attributed to the gunboats, and I wish to acquaint you with the 
facts. 

Since the river has been navigable, I have sent convoys through 
regularly once a week, and never has there been a steamer reported 
to me for convoy that has not been taken through safely. 

I can not send convoys through oftener than once a week and do 
justice to the gunboats placed under my care. The reasons are as 
follows: The river is very narrow, crooked, and swift; it is impossi- 
ble to put more than two steamers abreast, and where the fleets are as 
large as they have been heretofore (with only sufficient maneuvering 
room between each pair) the line is so long that to give perfect safety 
and keep the boats all within covering distance of our guns requires 
from four to five gunboats dispersed along the line. By the time we 
make the round trip, coal, clean boilers, and arrange the next fleet for 
starting, the week has expired. The transports keep dropping in at 
Smithland in such an irregular manner, one at a time, from the be- 
ginning till the end of the week, so that, had I twice the number of 
gunboats, it would be perfect folly for me to attempt to give boats a 
convoy as they arrive. . 

Since the gunboats have been on the river over 180 steamers and 
some thirty-odd barges (all laden with Government freight) have 
been taken through safely to Nashville. If General Kosecrans has 
derived no benefit from this, it certainly is not my fault, but must be 
owing to the inactivity or incapacity of some of the quartermasters. 

Before the arrival of gunboats in the river it was blockaded by the 
enemy; it has not been since. 

Accompanying this letter I forward copies of letters and telegrams 
sent and received, which, I trust, will show whether I have acted 
with a desire to cooperate or not. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. . 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Major-Oeneral Hurlbut, V. S. Army, regarding location of gunboats in 

Tennessee Biver. 

Memphis, 'April 18, 1863. 
Since closing my last letter I learned from Oglesby that Captain 
Fitch, U. S. Navy, with four gunboats, is between Hamburg and 
Eastport, as advance of Kosecrans' expedition. If anything new 
turns up before the boat leaves, I will send it. 
Your obedient servant, 

S. A. Hurlbut. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John A. Rawlins, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



62 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEBS. 

[Telegram. ] 

■ Caiko, III., March 19, 1863. 
Have just received telegram from one John W. Taylor, quarter- 
master, Murfreesboro, Tenn., as follows : 

Captain Parsons, of St. Louis, says that Captain S. L. Phelps can have gun- 
boats run from Fort Donelson to Nashville Inuch oftener if desired. Our sup- 
plies are very much delayed for the want of more frequent convoys. Can not 
arrangements be made for a gunboat to run up every two days? By command 
General Rosecrans. 

I do not understand. Please explain. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, 

Care Com/modore J. B. Hull, U. S. Navy, St. Louis, Mo. 



Report of Iiieutenant-Commander Fitch, IT. S. Navy, regarding condition of 
affairs in the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

TJ. S. Gunboat Lexington, 
SmMUand, March ^1, 1863. 
Sir : The Tennessee and Cumberland rivers are falling very rapidly 
just now, but it is not probable there will be less than 6 feet for two 
months to come. Both rivers may go down to 3 or 4 feet for a few 
days, but it will be a very extraordinary occurrence if there is an 
average less than 6 feet in either river till the latter part of May. 

Everything is very quiet just now on the Cumberland. The guer- 
rillas have not been of much annoyance since I burned the last of 
their rendezvous near Beatstown [Betsy Town] Landing. As the 
Cumberland is so quiet, I will spend a great portion of my time on 
the Tennessee, as that river, though quiet at present, will need very 
strict watching. 

The Silver Lake (one of the best light-draft boats I have here just 
now) is at present up the Tennessee, patrolling with the Rohh. I 
will join them with the Lexington in the morning ; the remainder of 
the boats will remain on this river to carry supplies to General Eose- 
crans. Four boats can do all the convoying here with the greatest 
ease unless the transport fleets are much larger than they have been 
for the last week. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Acting K.ear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram. ] 

Smithland, March ^7, 1863. 
If all the light-draft gunboats are sent below it will be a difficult 
matter to get supplies to Nashville, as the river is falling. I will 
send through two convoys a week. 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Major-General Eosecrans. 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 63 

Keport of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, XT. S. Navy, regarding operations in the 

upper Tennessee Eiver. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 
Paducah, Ky., April 2, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report operations on the upper Tennessee 
River during the last few days. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Jason Goudy was patrolling the river 
with the gunboats Robh and Silver Lake. 

Enclosed I forward his report* of operations up to the time I 
joined him at Fort Hindman [Heiman], on the 27th of March. I 
took from the fort 150 soldiers, under command of Colonel Griggs, 
and after distributing them on the three boats proceeded on up the 
river. I made several landings at places along the route reported 
to be infested by guerrillas, but found none until we reached the 
neighborhood of Savannah. Being informed that back of Boyd's 
Landing, about 4 miles, was a cotton factory owned by and doing 
work for the rebels, I had determined to destroy it. I therefore 
landed at Boyd's and sent out an expedition numbering about 200 
soldiers and sailors. Colonel Griggs took charge of the force. 

The executive officer of this steamer, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant 
Dunn, took charge of the sailors. The expedition moved out to the 
factory with caution, as Colonel [K N.] Cox's cavalry regiment was 
stationed but 2 or 3 miles beyond. Arriving at the mill breastworks 
of cord wood were thrown up across the road, and enquiries made 
regarding the operations of the factory. 

From what could be learned, the mill was run on shares with the 
coimtry people. The material went in an indirect way to the rebel 
soldiers through their friends at home. The books were all clear 
and contained nothing to condemn the factory, but knowing that the 
mill did aid, in an indirect manner, the rebels, it was thought proper 
not to burn it, but to effectually prevent its doing more work, which 
was done by removing the running gear, pistons, cylinder heads, 
brasses, and all like portable portions, and placing it on board this 
vessel. Two mules and a wagon, which were pressed to haul the 
machinery down to the boat, were retained as lawful prizes, as it was 
ascertained they belonged to one of Colonel Cox's rebel cavalry. 

Two horses were also captured by Mr. Dunn, belonging to the 
guerrillas. 

A short distance above this landing, and about 3 miles from the 
river, was reported a plantation owned by a noted rebel. Smith. The 
boats were landed and an expedition sent out to the place. This 
plantation was occupied by a man by the name of Dillihunty, and is 
known to be a rendezvous for guerrillas. Yet this Dillihunty claims 
to be loyal — ^has taken the oath — and says he bought the farm of 
Smith. This may be true, but he had no papers to prove it ; has never 
been molested by the guerrillas, and, in fact, as I have since learned, 
was at the time raising a guerrilla company. As several men were at 
the time on his premises, one of which I took prisoner, he having 
been engaged in the guerrilla service, and as our men were fired at by 
a guerrilla near his place, the indications were such as to render his 
position very doubtful; I therefore took from the farm 25 bales of 

•Not found. 



64 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

cotton (to be held till he proved his loyalty) and some cavalry horses. 

After leaving this landing I proceeded on up to Chickasaw, at the 
foot of Colbert Shoals. There was scant 5 feet on the shoals, so I 
sent the Rohh and Silver Lake above, with orders to make thorough 
reconnoissance and return the same night, as the river was falling too 
fast to risk them above longer. Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Goudy 
reports the enemy in force on both sides of the river at Florence. 
He shelled and drove them out of their camp on the left bank, but 
was not able to tell their number or to ascertain the caliber of their 
heavy gun, as the wind was blowing a gale right across the river and 
he was fearful of getting caught above the shoals by falling water. 

Before reaching Florence he surprised a picket guard, captured 
five horses, some carbines, and one prisoner. He joined me at Chicka- 
saw just at dark. 

Returning down the river I stopped at a farm belonging to a 
notorious rebel by the name of Hays, who has been very zealous in 
enforcing the conscript law and feeding the guerrillas. Sent a de- 
tachment 3 miles back to his house and brought away about 1,000 
pounds of bacon and all the corn we could carry ; also three mules and 
a wagon belonging to him. Colonel Griggs took charge of the bacon, 
as the army at Fort Hindman [Heiman] were short of supplies. 

The result of the several small expeditions is as follows: Eight 
guns (cavalry carbines), 25 bales of cotton, 15 horses (three broke 
loose and escaped at Fort Hindman) [Heiman], 12 mules (one shot 
through the thigh and left at Hindman) [Heiman], 2 wagons, also 8 
prisoners. 

I would state that all men along the river above Fort Henry must 
be either disloyal in sentiment or actually engaged in the rebel cause, 
from what the numerous refugees tell me. None expressing senti- 
ments the least loyal are permitted to remain at their homes or culti- 
vate their farms. 

Since so many of these guerrillas have been found dead on the 
battlefield, with the oath of allegiance in their pockets, I am forced 
to believe no man living with these guerrillas, though he had taken 
the oath forty times. 

I have given transportation to over 60 refugee families since I have 
been on these waters, but applications for conveyance out of the river 
have become so very numerous from young men fleeing from the con- 
script that I have been induced to give the captains of boats instruc- 
tions to render all the aid in their power to families, but under no 
circumstances to bring or pass out able-bodied young men. We arc 
in want of men for the gunboats, and if they love the Union better 
than rebellion now is the proper time to show it. They must either 
take sides one way or the other. This has already had the effect of 
sending some 30 or 40 in General Dodge's cavalry and has given the 
gunboats some 8 or 10 recruits. I deem it high time that some of 
these loyal refugees were showing some proofs of their loyalty. 

I hope as soon as there is another slight rise in the Tennessee to 
be able, with General Dodge's cooperation, to capture all the force 
on the Tuscumbia side at Florence. 

My plan will be this: To watch the river closely as soon as there 
is the least indication of a rise, get forces from General Dodge, take 
the infantry over Colbert Shoals, land them at Tuscumbia Landing, 
let the cavalry come in on the Tuscumbia road, and while the forces 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 65 

are getting in the enemy's rear, I will push on up with four or five 
of the lightest draft boats and engage them in front. 

I have written to General Dodge to this effect and rely upon his 
hearty cooperation to complete the programme. With his coopera- 
tion, I am confident of success. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeKoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Kear-Admiral Davh) D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., March 29, 1863. 
General Kosecrans desires to send 2,000 men from Nashville by boat 
up Tennessee Kiver to Florence, and desires gunboat to convoy them. 
Give them the convoy required without delay. Acknowledge receipt 
of this. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain .and Commandant of Station. 

Commanding Naval Oiticer, 

Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., March 29, 1863. 
Give convoy required at once, and telegraph to Major-General 
Kosecrans that I have so directed you to do. Two boats will, I think, 
be sufficient. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

J. S. HXTRD, 

Acting Vol. Lieut., Comdg. St. Clair, Smithland, Ky. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, March 29, 1863—2 p. m. 
Those boats all move up the Tennessee River. Have telegraphed 
to commanding naval officer at Smithland, Ky., with the hope that 
gunboats are at that place, as follows : 

W. S. Rosecrans desires to send 2,000 men from Nashville by boats up Ten- 
nessee Elver to Florence. Desires gunboats to convoy them. Give them the 
convoy required without delay. Acknowledge receipt of this. 

Very cold to-day. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant Station. 

Brigadier-General James A. Garfield. 
711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 5 



66 NAVAL FOECES ON WBSTEEN WATERS. 

Report of Lientenant-Commander Fitch, 11. S. Navy, transmitting report of 
the commanding officer of the TT. S. S. St. Clair regarding attack on fleet 
under convoy. 

U. S. S. Lexington, April 15, 1863. 

Snj: I send enclosed the report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant 
J. S. Hurd, commanding gunboat St. Glair, relating to an attack on 
a fleet under his convoy. 

Although I know Captain Hurd to be brave and efficient, I was 
compelled to make known to him my displeasure at the result. 

You wiU see by his report that instead of having the towboats (the 
slowest) in the lead, the most valuable cargoes in the most secure 
place, and the swiftest boats in the rear, as was my custom, and as I 
had always enforced, to keep the line closed, that his very slowest 
boats were in the rear, the most valuable boats in the front, and 
would, of course, receive the first fire. The consequence was that 
the Fairplay, guarding the rear, was not within supporting distance. 
Again, after his supply pipe was cut and he had dropped down so 
that his guns could bear, he should have let go his anchor and en- 
gaged them till the Fairplay came up. I will guarantee the rebels 
would not have stood long. Even had he been again compelled to 
drop down, he could easily have done so with the current, besides he 
had plenty of assistance near at hand that could have towed him 
below. 

Even if we should suffer severely in one or two instances, it is better 
for us in the future that it should be so, if we drive the rebels off. 
Every little advantage the rebels gain over the gunboats gives them 
encouragement and spurs them on to new exertions; but if in every 
attack they are driven off, their men become demoralized and will 
keep clear of the river. 

There were two small propellers carrying private or sutler's stores 
burned on the river a short time ago, and as far as the boats were 
concerned there was no one to blame but themselves; they were 
ordered to remain at Donelson till the convoy came up, but instead 
of heeding this order, after the gunboats had passed below with a 
convoy and before they had returned with the next, they shoved off 
and went on up the river. The consequence was the captains paid the 
penalty of disobedience of orders by having their boats burned. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEot Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D, Poeter, 

Com,manding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. S. St. Claib, 
Off Smithland, Ky., April ^, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report, in compliance with Captain 
Pennock's order (see telegram enclosed), I left Smithland, Ky., 
with this vessel (accompanied by the Fairplay) at 10:30 o'clock 
p. m. March 31; arrived at Fort Donelson at 1 o'clock p. m. 1st 
instant; found transports awaiting convoy; proceeded up the river 
(see list enclosed) ; 9 o'clock a. m., 2d instant, arrived at Gower's 
Island, above which I did not apprehend any danger. I headed 



NAVAL FORCES ON" WESTERN WATERS. 67 

downstream to convoy (to Nashville) other transports and tow- 
boats due from below. 

My reason for doing thus was there were two barges loaded with 
coal being towed up the river which were drawing 7^ feet water. 
There was water enough on the shoals, but the river was falling and 
it was very important to get them up before the water became too 
low. Arrived at Fort Donelson at 4 o'clock p. m., found transports 
and towboats awaiting convoy. I headed upstream; proceeded up 
the river. At 10 : 30 (?clock p. m. arrived at Palmyra, and when off 
the bluff immediately above town the enemy opened fire from the 
top of the bluff upon two transports (lashed together) in the ad- 
vance. They were then above the enemy's battery, and. so far as I 
know proceeded up the river uninjured. This vessel was next in 
line, next the Luminary (transport), next the towboats C. Miller 
and /. W. Kellogg with two barges, then the Fairplay. As soon as 
the enemy saw their shots aimed at the advance transports were 
ineffectual, they turned their attention to this vessel with artillery 
and small arms. The Luminary (next astern), and then off the 
town, was fired into considerably with small arms. My guns had 
been run out and prepared for action. I at once returned fire, and 
the contest was spirited for a short time, when my supply pipe was 
struck by a 12-pounder shell, which at once let the water out of my 
boilers and my vessel thereby became unmanageable and I dropped 
back with the current. I hailed the LumAnary (Captain William- 
son), who came alongside, took my vessel in tow, and towed me down 
to Fort Donelson. 

I am unable to estimate the forces of the enemy, but think them 
in strong force (a deserter says 12,000). They had from 10 to 12 
pieces or artillery, 6 to 12 pounders. This vessel was struck six 
times with artillery, doing some damage, but not serious, other than 
cutting my supply pipe. I also received many shots from small 
arms and some of canister. 

When the firing commenced I was not more than 400 feet from 
the enemy's guns, and they were on the bluff at so great an elevation 
I could not use my guns to an advantage until I dropped down the 
river, and the water was then aU out of my boilers. The only casu- 
alties to my officers or men were Acting Master Foutty, who was 
struck on the right knee by a 6-pounder rifle elongated shot, and one 
boy slightly scalded. Acting Master George W. Foutty will lose 
his right leg, and I fear it will prove fatal. He was sick ; had not 
been out of his bed but once during the day. When the firing com- 
menced he at once got out of bed, went below, and was doing his 
duty well at the time he received the wound. My officers and men 
manifested courage and coolness quite commendable. 

At the request of Mr. Foutty, I called the post surgeon at Fort 
Donelson on board, and after consultation it was thought best to place 
him in the hospital at the fort. 

I found it unsafe to attempt to run down to Smithland with my 
supply pipe so imperfectly repaired. Applied to Colonel Lowe, com- 
manding at Fort Donelson, for a towboat to assist me. He readily 
ordered the /. 'W. Kellogg to my assistance. At 2 : 30 o'clock p. m. I 
got underway, stood down the river, and arrived at Smithland at 9 : 30 
o'clock p. m. 



68 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

The Fairplay, Acting Master Groves, commanding, was not near 
enough to take part in the engagement, having in charge the tow^ 
boats and barges, but it affords me pleasure to represent the prompt- 
ness and efficiency of Mr. Groves while convoying during the entire 
trip. Herewith please find telegram just received from Captain 
Pennock. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. S. HURD, 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding. 

Lieut. Commander LeRot Fitch, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Third Division, Mississippi Squadron. 

[Subenclosure.] 

No. 1.] Cairo, March 29, 1863. 

Give convoy required at once, and telegraph Major-General Rose- 
erans that I have so ordered you to do. 
Two boats will, I think, be sufficient. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Captain, Commandant Station. 

J. S. HuRD, 

Commanding U. S. Gunboat St. Clair, Smithland, Ky. 

Answer.] Smithland, Ky., March 29, 1863. 

I am here with two gunboats ready to convoy troops up the Ten- 
nessee by order of Captain Pennock. When will troops be here ? 

J. S. HuRD. 
Major-General Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn. 



No. 2.] Smithland, Ky., March 31, 1863. 

Captain Fitch has not returned from Tennessee River. I have 
been ready since yours of 29th was received, and telegraphed General 
Rosecrans accordingly; have been waiting his movements. Shall I 
send two boats up the Cumberland this evening? It is necessary. I 
shall still have two here ready to convoy troops. 

J. S. Hinu). 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy. 



No. 3.] Cairo, March 31. 

Send the two gunboats up Cumberland River, of course. It was 
my intention to convoy troops from Nashville. You stated in your 
telegram to-day that Captain Fitch had arrived. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Commandant of Station. 
Acting Volunteer Lieut. J. S. Htjrd, 

Commanding St. Clair. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 69 

i^swer.] 

I go up Cumberland at once with this vessel and the Fairflay. 
Captain Fitch has not returned from the Tennessee River. 

J. S. Htjbd, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Comm,anding. 



[Telegram.] 

Memphis, Afril 1, 1863. 
I send you the within dispatch just received from General Dodge. 
Furnish copy to Captain Pennock, fleet captain, and telegraph to 
Rosecrans. 

There is a pretty heavy show of cavalry on the left of our line 
below Corinth and southeast of La Grange, and about 4,000, with two 
batteries, south of the Tennessee; headquarters at Florence, [Ala.]. 
Your obedient servant, 

S. A. HUELBUT, 

Major- General. 
Brigadier-General N. B. Btifoed, 

Cairo. 

[Enclosure.] 

CoEiNTH, April 1, 1863. 
The enemy are repairing all the bridges from Savannah east and 
Florence north. They are also building a large number of boats in 
several of the creeks. They also guard the line of the river from 
Florence to Duck River, and now have heavy bodies of cavalry 
massed near Mount Pleasant. Three gunboats have gone up the 
river. 

G. M. Dodge, 
Brigadier- General. 



Letter from Ideiitenant-Commander Fitch, V. S. Navy, to Brigadier-Creneral 
Dodge, IT. S. Army, inviting cooperation against Florence, Ala. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, April 1, 1863. 
General : I have just returned from a trip up toward Florence. I 
find a great many of the enemy's cavalry near Tuscumbia Landing. 
There was not water enough for this boat to get over Coulter's [Col- 
bert] Shoals, but I sent a couple of light boats above. They ap- 
proached to within a few hundred yards of Florence and found the 
enemy in considerable force, with a small battery. As the river was 
falling so fast they were obliged to return below the Shoals the same 
day. We captured some 15 or 20 of their horses and guns. If the 
river remains as high as it is at present, I propose to bring up four or 
five light-draft gunboats and try their batteries. If ttiey have a 
heavy gun, we will soon know it after we get there. I expect to 
return here as soon as we get coaled and more ammunition, which 
win be in a few days. I may bring with me a small force of infantry 
and a transport or two. If you feel like cooperating, I will provide 
means for crossing cavalry at Savannah or for carrying infantry up 



70 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBBS. 

with me. I will be happy to hear from you on my return, and will 
do all I can to cooperate with or lend you any aid. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEot Fitch, 
Gom/manding Gunboats, Tennessee, 

Cumberland., and Ohio rivers. 
Brigadier-General G. M. Dodge, 

Commanding V. S. Forces, Corinth, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

Corinth, April 2, 1863. 
The gunboats Lexington, Silver Lake, and Robh shelled rebels out 
of Florence Tuesday. Two batteries, one on each side of the river, 
replied to them. They destroyed the cotton factories this side of 
Florence, and report about 2,000 rebels in that vicinity. 

G. M. Dodge, 



Captain Henry Binmoee, 

Assistant Adjutant-Gensral. 



Brigadier- General. 



[Telegram.] 

Nashviixe, April 3, 1863. 

Colonel Boone telegraphs from Clarksville as follows : 

The fleet gunboat Bt. Clair and transports Eclipse, Luminary, and Lizzie Mar- 
tin were fired into at Palmyra. Gunboat and Luminary perhaps tal^en. The 
Eclipse arrived here disabled ; reports the advance of rebels on this place. We 
win hold until reinforced. 

Wm. p. Boone. 

Egbert B. Mitchell, 

Brigadier- General. 
General Garfield, 

Chief of Staff. 



[Telegram.] 

Nashville, April 3, 1863. 
I have just received the following dispatch from Clarksville : 

Scouts report that the gunboat and Luminary escaped capture. The rebels are 
at Palmyra In force ; have there a rifled 6 and smooth 12 pounder, and other 
caliber not ascertained. We must have the siege guns ordered from this post 
Send them at once. 

Wm. p. Boone. 
I have ordered the siege guns down. 

Robert B. Mitchell, 
Brigadier-General^ Commanding, 
General Garfield, 

Chief of Staff. 



NAVAIi FOKOES ON WESTEiBN WATBE». 71 

[Telegram.] 

April 3, 1863. 
The fleet was attacked at Palmyra last night by the rebels, who 
had six pieces of artillery. Have you any more news in regard to the 
force in your front? General Dodge reports the rebels building 
bridges east of Savannah and north of Florence, and building flat- 
boats all along from Florence to the mouth of Duck Eiver and hold- 
ing the line of the Tennessee between those points. There seems to 
be a considerable force at Palm3a:a. 

J. A. Garfield, 
Brigadier-General and Chief of Staff. 

Major-General Granger, Franklin. 



[Telegram.] 

Corinth, April 5, 1863. 
Will move on Tuscumbia and take it in connection with you. 
Shall have to move with infantry and artillery. WiU have to bridge 
Little and Big Bear rivers [creeks] ; therefore let me know in time, 
so I can cooperate and be sure of success. It will take three or four 
days for dispatch to reach me. Had not your forces by river better 
communicate with Paducah, that we may be sure to start together? 
Do not believe gunboats succeeded in driving out enemy or silencing 
batteries at Florence. Heavy gunboats could not pass Coulter's 
[Colbert] Shoals. Will cooperate as you deem best and carry out' 
your plans. Please acknowledge receipt of dispatch. 

Dodge, 
Brigadier- General. 
General Gartield, 

Chief of Staff. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, [III.], Ajml 6, 1863. 
(Received Washington, 11:46 p. m.) 
The Cumberland River, which has of late been infested with rebels, 
has, as I am informed by telegraph by Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, 
been cleaned out, and Palmyra, where they fired into the gunboat 
St. Clair and crippled her, has been destroyed and not a house left. 

A. M. Pennock 
Hon. Gideon Wei..le8. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, IT. S. Navy, of the destruction of 
Palmyra, Tenn., and operations In Cumberland Klver. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 

Smithland, Ey., April 6, 1863. 
Sib : I have the honor to report that on the 8d instant, while coal- 
ing at this place preparatory to again ascending the Tennessee, I 
received a telegram from Acting "Volunteer Lieutenant J. S. Hurd, 



72 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

commanding gunboat St. Clair, that the fleet under his convoy had 
been attacked at Pahnyra, and that the St. Clair was disabled. 

I got underway immediately and started up the river with the 
Lexington, Brilliant, Robb, Silver Lake, and Springfield, having 
been informed that the enemy was in strong force and had heavy 
field batteries. Below Donelson I met the St. Clair being towed 
down and followed by her consort, the Fairplay. I turned the Fair- 
play back to follow me and proceeded on up. Arriving at Palmyra 
I found the enemy had retreated toward Harpeth Shoals. I landed 
opposite the town and sent a detachment on shore, under command 
of Acting Master Fitzpatrick of this vessel, with instructions to burn 
every house in the place and to allow no one under his command to 
pillage or remove the smallest article. Just after the boat landed 
several stragglers from the guerrillas broke from their concealment 
and ran. Our men fired on them, killing one and wounding another. 

The town was burned ; not one house left. I had for some time been 
suspicious of this place. One or two loyal men did live here, but were 
driven out by the rebels. The town was one of the worst secession 
places on the river, and as unarmed transports were fired on from the 
dwellings, I gave the people the full benefit of your order, which I 
trust will be a lesson to them in the future. 

Enclosed I send you a letter from Port Hudson, which may, per- 
haps, be of some little interest. 

I left Palmyra the same evening with the transports and gunboats 
for Harpeth Shoals. At Clarksville I landed and made arrange- 
ments with the commandant of the post for infantry and cavalry to 
accompany me, with a hope of being able to get in the rear of and 
capture the enemy's artillery. Pushing on up I landed the soldiers a 
few miles below Harpeth in the forenoon of the 5th and moved on up 
with the boats to draw attention, but much to my regret the enemy 
had intimation of our approach and had again retreated, this time 
back toward Charlotte. The cavalry followed them 6 miles back, but 
not being able to come up with them returned, as it was not prudent 
to venture farther with so small a force. 

As the river was falling too fast for me to risk this boat over the 
shoals, I sent the transports on to Nashville under convoy of three 
light-drafts and returned to this place with a view of carrying out 
my plans up the Tennessee. 

It has always been my aim to have the means of communication 
and times of meeting between the boats on this and the Tennessee 
River so perfect that at a moment's warning I can, in case of neces- 
sity, concentrate the entire force at any one point. I am happy to 
state that thus far I have been able to accomplish this, and hope to be 
in future equally successful. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeRot Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral Daved D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 73 

Report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Kavy, with enclosures. 

No. 180.] Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, April 11, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith telegrams in relation to 
operations on the Tennessee River. 

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[ Enclosures. — Telegrams. ] 

Cairo, III., April 3, 1863. 

General Hurlbut telegraphs to General Buf ord as follows : 

The enemy are repairing the bridges from Savannah east and to Florence 
north. They are also building a large number of boats In several of the 
creeks. They guard the line of the Tennessee Kiver, and have large bodies of 
cavalry near Mount Pleasant. This information is from General Dodge at 
Corintlu 

Telegraphic dispatch from Fort Donelson says St. Glair was at- 
tacked, put back, and disabled. Have you heard anything of it? 

A. M. Pennock. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 

Smithland, Ky. 



Smithland, [Ky.], April 3, 1863. 
Was in office at the time stated, but the rivers [wires] were down. 
Could not work. What shall I do with prisoners ? Seven captured ; 
cavalry horses and mules, 23 in all; also wagonsj cotton, etc. I can 
keep all here for a month if you say so. Have plenty of forage and 
a place to put them. 

LeRoy Fitch. 

Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Cairo, III., April 3, 1863. 
Ship the cotton to me, with information when and how captured 
and to whom belonging. Turn the prisoners over to the army if 
you think best. If you have reason for sending them to me, do so. 
If you have use for the horses, mules, and wagons, keep them. If not, 
turn them over to the army, taking receipt for them. 

A. M. Pennock. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Smithland, [Ky.l. 



74 NAVAI. FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

SMITHI.AND, [Ey.], April 3, 1863. 
Kebels coming in on Tennessee Eiver in strong force at Florence. 
Not water enough for the boats to get over Culvert [Colbert] Shoals 
just now. Sent a communication to General Dodge at Corinth. 
First slight rise wiU pitch into them. Goudy was over, shelled their 
camp for an hour and five minutes, with execution ; drove them out of 
their camps. They have one 24-pounder and fieldpieces. 

LeKoy Fitch. 

Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Smithland, [Kt.], April S, 1863. 
I think General Dodge and I can capture most of them on the 
Tuscumbia side. Will have to send the Silver Lake below in a few 
days. Her gun platforms have all given away. Casemates recoil 
in with the guns. Can not send her just now ; will have to fight her a 
little longer if casemates all give way. I need the cotton to protect 
our boilers ; the rest I can send below in her when I can spare her. 

LeRot Fitch. 

Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Smithland, [Ky.], April 3, 1863. 
I destroyed over 20 new flatboats last trip up Tennessee, and 
in the creeks found some stored in warehouses under corn. Chopped 
them all up. Rohh and Silver Lake were in sight of bridge at Flor- 
ence. Had not commenced repairs. No large force on the river be- 
low Florence. Goudy desires a good boat; he and Hurd are my best 
officers. Please order Argosy and the Covington to go to Fort Donel- 
son. I will be near there. No danger below that place. Anything 
further ? 

LeRoy Fitch. 
Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Cairo, III., April 3, 1863. 
Go ahead and whip them out on both rivers. Follow the admiral's 
instructions as far as possible. Communicate freely with the army 
officers with whom you cooperate. Let me hear from you by every 
opportunity by telegraph. Leave instructions at Smithland and 
Paducah, should you deem necessary, for such gunboats as may be 
sent you. Will reinforce you as fast as I can get the boats ready. 
Men on new boats will need constant drilling. Argosy has left too 
late to give instructions to her. Nothing further. 

A. M. Pennock. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeBot Fitch, 

Smithland^ Ky, 



NAVAL rOKCBB ON WESTEKN WATERS. 75 

Cairo, III., April 3, 1863. 
The Argosy leaves to-night and the Govmgton to-morrow night, 
with orders to report to you at Smithland. Hurd is to have the 
Covington. Griswold, the present captain, send back here when you 
can spare him. I want him to command another boat. Executive 
officer of the Argosy understands his business. Queen City, sister 
boat to Covington, Goudy will command. 

A. M. Pennock. 
Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Smithland, Ky. 



Smithland, [Ky.], Afril 3, 1863. 

Juat received telegram from Captain Hurd. Was engaged at Pal- 
myra. Mr. Foutty badly wounded. Rebels in force there with bat- 
tery. His machinery slightly disabled. I leave in ten minutes for 
Palmyra with all the boats. Will whip them out. I have not time 
now to complete my written report ; will send it soon as possible. 

Please hurry up our other boats. We need them now. Plenty fun 
in other river, as I understand no troops to be convoyed Tennessee 
just now. I believe General Eosecrans has concluded not to send any. 

LeRot Fitch. 
Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Smithland, [Ky.], April 6, 1863. 
Captain Fitch [and] I found the enemy in force at Palmyra last 
evening. Foutty is seriously wounded. My machinery is crippled. 
Come up with the Lexington as soon as possible. 

J. S. HUED. 

LeEoy Fitch. 
Commander Pennock, 

Cairo, III. 



Smithland, [Ky.], [ApriT] 6,1863. 

Have returned from Harpeth Shoals ; river all clear just now. 
Enemy left Palmyra for Beatstown [Betsy Town] Landing; got 
their batteries in position, heard of our approach, and left in haste for 
Charlotte. Found a few stragglers in Palmyra ; killed two or three ; 
burned the town; not a house left; a very bad hole; best to get rid of 
it and teach the rebels a lesson. Landed at Beatstown [Betsy Town] 
with infantry and cavalry from Clarksville; pursued the rebels 6 
miles back ; it was not prudent to follow them farther. Sent the fleet 
on up to Nashville under convoy of Brilliant, Robb^ and Silver Lake. 
Remained at Beatstown [Betsy Town] Landing with gunboats Lex- 
ington, Springfield, and one transport till infantry returned, near 10 
p. m. Found a letter at Palmyra from Port Hudson. Indianola 
blown up sure. When will St, Clair be ready for service ; also Queen 
Oityf 

LeBoy Fi7oh, 
Lieutenant'Oommomder, 

Fleet Captain A. M, Pskkook. 



76 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS, 

Caieg, III., April 6, 1863. 
Congratulate you on your success. St. Glair and Queen City will 
not be ready for three or four days. Send Goudy down if you can 
spare him. Engage pilots, for I have not one here that I can send 
you. Keep the Cumberland clear of the enemy. Go ahead and clear 
the banks of the Tennessee. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeEoy Fitch, 

Commanding Gunboat Lexington^ Smithland, Ky. 



Letter from Kajor-General Grant, IT. S. Army, to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter,. 
V. S. Navy, advising that the marine brigade be sent up the Tennessee. 

Headquarters Department of the Tennessee, 

Before Vicksiurg, April 4, 1863. 

Admiral : In view of information just received by way of Corinth 
of the movements of the enemy in North Mississippi and Middle 
Tennessee, I would respectfully suggest the propriety of sending the 
Marine Brigade up the Tennessee fiiver to defend that line. 

The enemy are massing large forces of cavalry in front of Rose- 
crans, and collecting all partisan rangers and loose companies of 
cavalry on the line of the Tallahatchie. The road from Duck Kiver 
to Savannah, Tenn., is being put in good order. Everything portends 
an attack upon Rosecrans with a powerful cavalry force to follow up 
any success, and a raid from North Mississippi and Middle Tennessee 
at the same time upon my forces and lines of communication in West 
Tennessee. 

If this brigade is sent, I would suggest that General Ellet be in- 
structed to keep his fleet well together, destroy all rafts, flats, skiifs, 
and everything that can facilitate the crossing of the river. If on 
arrival at the mouth of Duck River it should be found safe to land 
with his small force, he might to advantage proceed up that stream 
for some distance and destroy the ferries, etc., that he would probablv 
find. 

I will instruct General Dodge, commanding at Corinth, to have a 
watch at Hamburg Landing for the arrival of General Ellet, and 
from that time the two could cooperate to better advantage than 
either could act upon instructions given from here. 
Very respectfully, 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-GeneraZ. 

Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, 11. S. Navy, to Brigadier-General Ellet, 
commanding marine Brigade, to proceed up the Tennessee Kiver in view of 
expected attack. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, April 4, 1863. 
Sir: Circumstances of a serious nature render it necessary that 
you should change your field of operations without delay to the Ten- 
nessee River. There will be a witfer field for your enterprise there. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 77 

We have received news by way of Corinth of the movements of the 
enemy in North Mississippi and Middle Tennessee, and I wish the 
Marine Brigade to proceed up the Tennessee with all dispatch and 
defend that line. 

The rebels are moving large forces of cavalry in front of General 
Rosecrans and collecting all partisan rangers and loose companies of 
cavalry on the line of the Tallahatchie. The road from Duck River 
to Savannah, Tenn., is being put in good order. 

Everything portends an attack on Rosecrans with a powerful cav- 
alry force to follow up any success and make raids from North Missis- 
sippi and Middle Tennessee. 

The object in sending you is to defend the line of the Tennessee 
River. You will destroy all rafts, flatboats, skiffs, or canoes, and 
destroy all the means they may have of transporting an army. Saw. 
mills should be destroyed and lumber burned up. 

If on arriving at the mouth of Duck River you should find it safe 
to land there with your small force, you might with advantage pro- 
ceed up that stream for some distance and destroy all the ferries. 

When you arrive at Hamburg Landing you will likely find a mes- 
senger from General Dodge, who will cooperate with you and also 
give you valuable information. 

You will keep your forces well together and not let them act in 
detached parties. While your small force is massed, it will be very 
effective; when divided, it might be soon used up. 

I am pushing a strong force of gunboats up the Tennessee River, 
and your vessels will be able to lie securely under the protection of 
their guns. 

If you have no pilots for the Tennessee River, you may find them 
at Cairo, or you can, by my authority, obtain one or two from the 
gunboats on the Tennessee River. 

Dispatch is the great object just now, to break up the ferries before 
the enemy begins to cross. 

I hope to hear, general, that you are doing good service there. 

I will order the other rams to join you the moment they return, 
or, if you should meet them oji your way up, detain them. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davto D. Porteb, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Brigadier-General A. W. Ellet, 

Gomm^anding Marine Brigade, Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram. ] 

NASHviiiiE, April 6, 1863. 
The gunboat commanders have issued orders to leave at 3 a. m. 
to-morrow. I have notified them of the order of General Rosecrans 
that they should wait for orders, but they seem to pay no attention 
to it. The river is falling rapidly and large boats may be caught 
here. 

Robert B. Mitchell, 

Brigadier- General. 
Lieutenant-Colonel C. Goddard, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



78 ITAVAI, FORCES ON WESTEBK WATEBS. 

[Telegram.] 

CLAEKSviLiiE, April 6, 1863^1 : JfS a. m. 
I have just returned from Harpeth Shoals. Found no force there. 
Enemy about 600 strong. Cavalry, with two pieces of artillery, de- 
parted before our arrival at his camp, 2 miles from the river, on the 
Charlotte road. We pursued 3 miles farther, but could not reach 
them. They went toward Charlotte. Gunboats found no force last 
evening at Palmyra. They shelled and burned the place. No force 
now known to be around here. Will report by mail m full. 

Wm. p. Boone, 
Colonel, Commanding Post. 
Brigadier-General Garfield, 

Chief of Staff. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Pitch, V. S. Navy, regardlni: paper fonnd 
proving disloyalty of Doctor Uarrable. 

U. S. GiTNBOAT Lexington, 

Smithland, April 7, 1863. 
Sir : Some time during the month of December, 1862, while up the 
Tennessee, I caught a Doctor Marrable spying around the gunboats. 
I took him prisoner as a spy and sent him to Cairo, with what proofs 
and papers I could find. From Cairo he was sent to Columbus, 
where he was released by the military commission; he, I presume, 
giving proofs of his loyalty. 

At Palmyra the enclosed paper was found, which I think places 
Doctor Marrable's position beyond a doubt. What makes the case 
the more aggravated, he has, or did have, free access to all our prin- 
cipal camps. I wonder not that the rebels know so well our plans 
when such loyal men have unlimited passes. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Com/mwnder. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Fleet Captain Pennock, V. S. Navy, forwarding information regarding 
operations at Palmyra, Tenn. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., April 8, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith copies of sundry tele- 
grams * to and from Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, from which you 
will be able to learn all the facts of an attack on the U. S. gunboat 
St. Glair by the rebels at Palmyra and the subsequent destruction of 
that town by Captain Fitch. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennook, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Corrumanding Mississippi Squadron. 

* See pp. 7a-75. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN "WATERS. 79 

Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, XT. S. Navy, regarding orders Issued to 
the Uarlne Brigade for duty In the Tennessee River. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, April 9, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to inform you that I have ordered the Marine 
Brigade, under General EUet, to proceed to Tennessee River for the 
purpose of aiding to defend that line, destroy bridges, boats, etc., and 
put down guerrillas. 

The brigade is apparently well organized and will, no doubt, do 
good service. If we ever get into Vicksburg, they will return imme- 
diately below to act in concert with the squadron. 

The rams Monarch, Lioiiess, Homer, and Fulton will accompany 
the brigade, making a respectable force, in addition to 12 gunboats 
that will be shortly on the Tennessee Eiver. 

This is all we can do for General Rosecrans, and it is all he should 
require, or would require, if he will advance his troops as far as the 
Mussel Shoals. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Fleet Captain Fennock, V. S. Navy, regarding affairs at Cairo station, 
transmitting copy of orders to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, IT. S. Navy. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., April 12, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to inform you that General EUet's Marine 
Brigade arrived at this place yesterday. I enclose herewith a copy 
of my orders to Lieutenant- Commander Fitch, relative to his being in 
the Tennessee River and to his cooperation with the brigade. I also 
enclose copies of a telegram to me from Major-General Rosecrans 
of 12th instant and my answer thereto. 

The gunboat Queen City left for the upper fleet yesterday. The 
other boats here, viz, the Emma Duncan, Silver Cloud, and Key West 
No. 3, are being pushed forward to completion as rapidly as possible. 

The New National arrived here from the fleet this morning with 
dispatches, etc. Your orders contained therein will be carried out 
with all dispatch. 

Requisition has been made for the blanks required in your com- 
munication of 31st ultimo, and they will be forwarded as soon as 
they can be procured. 

Your orders in regard to leaves of absence shall be fully complied 
with. 

The Curlew arrived here on the 29th ultimo, and left the same 
evening with dispatches. She was unavoidably detained here for a 
few hours. Some cotton had to be landed from her, and a few neces- 
sary repairs made. I sent her to the fleet with the least possible 
delay. 



80 NAVAL. FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

The Rattler left on the 3d instant for the squadron. 

All the cotton received here (except that on the Neti)_ National, 

received this morning) has been turned over to the United States 

marshal, in accordance with your instructions. A list of what had 

been received up to the 1st of April was sent by the last opportunity. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Enclosure.] 

April 12, 1863. 

Sir: I transmit herewith a copy of a communication to me from 
Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, TJ. S. Navy, bearing date 4th in- 
stant, which I have just received, and the instructions contained in 
which you will be pleased to have carried out without delay. 

You will not, however, make any change in the commanding 
officer of the Covington until I can communicate with the admiral 
on the subject, as I think he is unaware that Lieutenant Hurd has 
already been placed in command of that vessel by his order. 

You will observe that it is the admiral's desire that you remain up 
the Tennessee River, and that all the vessels that can possibly be 
spared for the purpose be sent up that river also. 

The Marine Brigade, Brigadier-General EUet commanding, has 
been ordered to the Tennessee River. You will be pleased to co- 
operate with General Ellet to the utmost extent of your ability. The 
brigade is under the orders of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant-.Commander LeRot Fitch, U. S. Navy, 

Comdg. Gunboat Lexington. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, April 12, 1863. 
General Rosecrans: Marine Brigade will leave here to-night or 
to-morrow morning. It is not composed of gunboats, but of river 
boats, musket proof. Brigade consists of one regiment of infantry, 
one squadron of cavalry, and one battery of light artillery, four 
guns, and is intended to act promptly against small bands near 
river banks and in cooperation with gunboats. General Ellet has 
special instruction for his guidance from Admiral Porter. Have 
given General Ellet a copy of your dispatch. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 



NAVAIi POBOES ON WESTERN WATERS. 81 

[Telegram.] 

Clarksville, April 15, 1863. 
I have barricaded the ferryboat Excelsior with hay and used it 
as a gunboat. Convoyed fleet above the [Harpeth] Shoals with it; 
recovered the starboard gun from the wreck of the Sidell/ dispersed 
rebel band at the shoals who were waiting to fire on unprotected 
boats. Captured several of the men belonging to Woodward's com- 
mand. 

S. D. Brtjce, 
Colonel, Commanding. 
Brigadier-General James A. Garfield, 

Chief of Staff. 



Letter fTom Uajor-Oeneral Oglesby, TT. S. Army, to UajoT-General Hurlbut, U. S. 
Army, transmitting letter from Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, XT. S. Navy, 
in Tennessee River. 

Headquarters Leet Wing, Sixteenth Army Corps, 

Jackson, Tenn, April 18, 1863. 
Sir: The following dispatch was received this morning from 
Corinth by messenger: 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, April 16, 186S. 
I have received your dispatches of the 1st and 3d instant. There will be two 
or four boats on the river all the time as long as there is water. Our coal 
depot is below ; therefore the boats will have to make trips down for fuel, but 
will return as soon as coaled, unless urgent necessity compels me to send them 
off on short temporary trips elsewhere. I would have been back here before 
this had it not been that my presence was required up the Cumberland. I 
regret to say that the river is too low now, and has been for some time, for my 
boats to get over Coulter's I Colbert] Shoals, but I am anxiously awaiting a 
rise. The river Is now rising slowly, but whether there will be water enough 
for a week yet to let us get over or not I can not say. I trust, though, there 
will. I will be ready to take advantage of it. I have on this river at the 
present time four of my best boats. This, I trust, will be sufficient, as the 
remainder of the fleet is required to convoy transports on the Cumberland. 
Should necessity require it, I could, for a short period, have more boats here. 
With these four boats I can carry about 2,000 infantry. If the water will rise 
sufficiently to let us over the shoals, I will guarantee to cut off their reinforce- 
ments from the Florence side. We can soon drive them off or capture their 
entire force on the Tuscumbia side. I do not think, from what I can learn, 
that there is a very heavy force now at Tuscumbia Landing. I am expecting 
some transports up with troops from Nashville, and left two of the gunboats at 
Fort Henry to give them convoy. I will let you know as soon as I can get 
over the shoals, and if the troops do not arrive from General Rosecrans, I 
would suggest that, if you can send 2,000 infantry on the gunboats and cavalry 
by land, we make a move without waiting, as the river is not likely to remain 
long at a sufficient stage. I do not think that there will be over one more rise 
this season, and by waiting too long we may lose our only chance at Florence 
with the gunboats. 
Many thanks for your kindness. 
Very respectfully, 

Le Rot Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Commander. 
Brigadier-General Geenville M. Dodge, 

Commanding United States Forces, Corinth, Miss. 
P. S.^I will try to keep you informed of my whereabouts, and will also send 
you all the information I can gather. I expect to be between Duck Kiver 
711°— N w E— VOL 24—10 6 



82 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

and Chickasaw for several days yet, unless the river again commences falling 
rapidly. My instructions from Admiral Porter are : " Go down as the river 
falls," and, of course, I ascend as it rises. 
EespectfuUy, yours, 

R. J. Oglesby, 
Major-General of Volunteers. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Binmore, 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Memphis, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, April 18, 1863. 
Scout in at Corinth reports Lieutenant Fitch, commanding Lex- 
ington, with two boats went up river at daylight yesterday morning ; 
thmks they reached Eastport last evening. Lieutenant Fitch has 
four of his best boats ; can carry about 2,000 infantry. . Two of his 
boats waiting at Fort Henry to convoy transports. River rising 
slowly. At dark last night Seventh Kansas had not reached Che- 
walla. Dodge took all cavalry from Corinth and Glendale, leaving 
small detachments at Camp Davies and Chewalla. Part of this has 
been used as escort to messengers to Dodge. 

E.. J. Oglesby, 
Major- Getieral. 
Major-General Hitrlbtjt. 



Report of Colonel Streight, XT. S. Army, regarding expected movement up the 

Tennessee Elver. 

Headquarters Provisional Brigade, 

Savannah, Tenn., April 18, 1863. 
Yours of the 14th is before me. I will move up the river at day- 
light to-morrow morning. We have 130,000 rations on board for 
you ; will halt at Hamburg for messenger from you, and if I do not 
hear from you there I will proceed to Eastport, where I shall 
endeavor to open communication with you. Ellet's Marine Brigade 
and four gunboats are with us. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

A. D. Streight, 
Colonel, Commanding. 
Brigadier-General Grenville M. Dodge. 



[Telegram.] 



Eastport Landing, April 19, 1863. 

(Via Corinth, 7 p. m.) 
I am at the mouth of Bear Creek cooperating with General Dodge, 
who is now 9 miles up the creek, much disappointed at the non- 
arrival of troops from below. Were expected last Thursday. Two 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 83 

gunboats have been waiting at Fort Henry over a week to give them 
convoy. Is the river [Marine] brigade coming to assist us? If so, 
it had better hurry on up. If it is not coming, please telegraph 
General Dodge that he may not expect it. Our troops were engaged 
all day 9 miles beyond Bear Creek. On arriving here found rebel 
cavalry on the opposite side of the river exchanging shots with a 
small squad of ours. Shelled; drove them off. Hope troops will 
now soon arrive. The two boats waiting to give convoy will also be 
needed soon if the river rises. 

LeKot Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Goirvmander. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commandant of Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

CoKiNTH, Aj/ril W, 1863— 10:3a p. m. 
I have no doubt Dodge was joined by Streight and EUet yester- 
day. I send messenger to Hamburg to-morrow; to Ocono certain. 
I expect message from Dodge to-night or morning by Seventh 
Kansas. I have 2,000 troops. I can call in outpost, 1,000 more, for 
defense of Corinth. Will hold, of course. Gmnboats can't reach 
Tuscumbia before to-morrow, if then. 

R. J. Oglesby, 
Major- General. 
General Huelbut. 



[Telegram. ] 

Headquarters Sixteenth Army Corps, 

Memphis, Tenn., April 20, 1863. 
Move up to Corinth as you indicate. Push Fuller forward. Com- 
municate with Colonel Streight, and let him move up to Dodge at 
once. Order Ellet's Marine Brigade as high as they dare go. Dodge 
will find rations on the boats. I fear that dispatches sent to Dodge 
have been captured and the plan become known. The gunboats should 
be able to reach Tuscumbia. 

S. A. HURLBUT, 

Major- General. 
Major-General Richard J. Oglesby, 

Jackson, Tenn. 



[Telegram.] 



CoRiNTH, April 21, 1863—12 m. 

Received dispatch from Dodge this morning, dated the 20th. The 

Marine Brigade and Colonel Streight's forces joined them on the 

night 19th. It will take Streight two days to get ready. Only half of 

his forces are moimted ; will have to be mounted in the country. 



84 NAVAIi POKCBS ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

EUet has no orders to report to Dodge. He is under orders, posted, 
but will cooperate. Dodge will move Wednesday morning, to strike 
the enemy at Tuscumbia on Friday. Streight is to move on this night 
and go on his work, if Dodge will not require his support. Dodge 
will have to remain there two weeks to cover Streight's operations. 
Gunboats have not been able to get over the shoals yet. Dodge had 
a spirited fight on the 19th on his front, but reports no loss. Enemy 
are very shy of him ; has plenty of rations at Eastport ; gets forage 
from the country ; will destroy what he does not use. He thinks the 
enemy will strongly reinforce. Will know to-morrow if gunboats can 
go over the shoals. 

E. J. Oglesbt, 
Major- General. 
Major-General Huri-but. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, V. S. Navy, regarding failure in pro- 
posed cooperation with the Army on account of low water. 

U. S. S. Lexington, 

Eastport, April 22, 1863. 

Sir : I have been waiting here for some ten or twelve days in hopes 
of being able to get over Colbert Shoals and thence to Florence, to 
cooperate with General Dodge, as spoken of in my letter of the 2d 
instant. I am sorry to say, though, the river continues to fall. I 
will be compelled, therefore, to move this boat below Big Bend 
Shoals, and perhaps below Duck River Bar. General EUet was com- 
pelled to move his boats below yesterday. 

Three of the lighter boats, the Covington, Queen City, and Argosy, 
will, however, remain with the transports until General Dodge re- 
turns, unless the river continues to fall below 5 feet on the shoals; 
they will then be compelled to drop down also. There will doubtless 
be another good rise in a week or two. I will take good care to 
improve it. 

I am happy to report the river comparatively quiet. The batteries 
at and opposite Florence have been removed. 

When I arrived here, I found guerrillas firing across the river at 
some of General Dodge's cavalry. I fired a few shells among them; 
they left and took over the hills ; we have not been bothered since. 

When I left General Dodge he was on Bear Creek, 9 miles out; 
had driven the enemy 9J miles beyond, and is doubtless by this time 
in Tuscumbia. 

From what I can learn from prisoners and deserters there are not 
over 3,000 troops in and around Tuscumbia, and they are there as a 
guard, shipping corn, etc., to General Bragg's army, now in front 
of General Eosecrans. There are now 200,000 barrels of corn and 
immense quantities of bacon in the Tennessee valley to be shipped 
to the rebels ; it is to cross the river above Mussel Shoals. 

The enemy is not repairing the railroad bridge at Florence. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Convmander. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Portek, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATEHS. 85 

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, IT. S. Navy, transmitting report of 
commanding officer of V. S. S. Emma Duncan regarding engagement at Oreen 
Bottom Bar, Tennessee Siver. 

U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 
Hamburg Landing, April 28, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that on the 24th instant, while 
cruising down the river ahead of General EUet's fleet, I met; the 
steamer Emma Duncan, Acting Master Griswold commanding, com- 
ing up to report his vessel for duty. Learning that he had been at- 
tacked by a field battery at Green Bottom Bar, and had 3 men badly 
wounded, I proceeded on down the river, giving him orders to follow 
me, in hopes of catching the rebels at or near the same place. 

Enclosed I send his report; also the surgeon's. 

I passed the bar about dusk in the evening, but the enemy was 
nowhere to be seen. Being short of coal, I proceeded on down to Fort 
Henry, where I procured some from one of General Ellet's barges 
and started back up the river the evening of the 25th instant. 

Arriving at the foot of Green Bottom Bar about midnight, I an- 
chored till morning. Still seeing nothing of the enemy, I proceeded 
on up the river to meet and communicate with General EUet. 

The Emma Duncan, remaining nearly a mile in my rear, caught a 
ferry flat coming out of a creek. After I had passed, the guerrillas in 
the flat jumped out and made their escape in the woods. 

The flat, however, was destroyed and set adrift. I cruised on up 
leisurely, keeping a good lookout for the enemy along the right bank, 
but saw no signs of them till I arrived at Duck River Shoals, when 
I heard musketry and artilleiy a short distance (not a mile) ahead. 
I pushed on over the bar and met General Ellet's fleet just at the 
head of the shoals engaging the rebel battery. I was then in good 
range and at once opened fire on the enemy. There was not room for 
his boats to round to or to back out of the channel. He was therefore 
compelled to push on over the bar before he could effect a landing. 

I took the battery side and moved on up to cover his boats as much 
as possible, at the same time raking the bank with our heavy guns. 
The ram Monarch by this came in range and opened fire also. 

As soon as I rounded the point the enemy fired a farewell shot at 
one of the brigade boats, limbered up and were off. Some few sharp- 
shooters remaining behind fired a few shots at a transport having on 
board sick and wounded. 

I followed on up the bank, throwing shell after them till I thought 
them out of range, and ceased firing. By this time General EUet had 
landed and was pursuing them. 

Several of the enemy were found dead on the bank, and many more 
were dragged off in the woods. I should suppose that their loss in 
killed and wounded is about 25 or 30. 

I believe General EUet lost 2 killed and 1 wounded on his boats, 
also some horses killed. 

About 11 p. m. I left General EUet at the foot of the bar and pro- 
ceeded on up the river with his boat and the Emma Duncan to com- 
municate with the fleet above. I arrived at Eastport in the afternoon 
of the 27th instant, received a communication from General Dodge 
at Tuscumbia. Enclosed I send a copy of it. 

I sent the transports below Big Bend Shoals, and remained at 
Eastport, landing myself, with the gunboats £'mma Duncan and 



86 NAVAL FORCES OK WESTERN WATEBS. 

Queen City till morning the 28th instant, in hopes of again being 
able to communicate with General Dodge before moving the trans- 
ports out of the river. 

I then returned to Hamburg and, finding no means of communica- 
tion there, sent the Covington and Emma Duncan back to Chickasaw 
to wait till the morning of the 29th instant, and then, if no messengers 
arrived from General Dodge, to report back to me at this place. I 
will move down from here with the transports to-morrow. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeEoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant-Cormnander. 
Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Poetek, 

GommaTiding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat Emma Duncan, 

Fort Heiman, April 2^, 1863. 

SiK : I have the honor to state that while on my way to report to 
Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, senior officer, Tennessee River 
Squadron, I was attacked at a place called Green Bottom Bar, on the 
east bank of the river, early this morning (2 o'clock), by a strong 
party of guerrillas with four pieces of light artillery. This place is 
one of the worst in the river navigation, so the pilots- describe it. I 
have given orders to my executive officer to go to general quarters for 
the purpose of exercise at 2 o'clock a. m., as the crew had never been 
drilled. Had not been at quarters more than five minutes when the 
enemy opened fire. One shot (shrapnel) came in forward through 
the iron sheathing, struck the reinforce band of No. 1 gun, first di- 
vision, and exploded, mangling the right arm of 2 men and the left of 
another to such an extent that immediate amputation was decided 
upon by the surgeon, which was successfully performed. When 
close abreast the enemy, I ordered the pilot to stop the ship, as I 
wished to engage broadside on, but he reported the channel too nar- 
row to work the vessel in that position. I accordingly went ahead, 
using my broadside guns as long as they could be brought to bear. 
Having reached a good position, I brought my stern guns into action, 
and, I think, though it was very dark, with nothing but the flash of 
the guns to reveal their position, they did good service, as in a short 
time the enemy used but one gun and soon ceased firing entirely. 
My attention was then called to the fact that the enemy were making 
signals — ^burning a red and blue light — ^which were answered on the 
western bank in a bad place (the pilot said). I immediately ordered 
the pilot to go ahead under full steam, and shelled the woods on both 
sides in those places that were suspicious, but elicited no response, 
though lights were seen moving about, and in one place a number of 
camp fires. On inspection, it was found that the enemy had hulled 
us seven times. One shell came in aft and burst over the heads of the 
second division, tearing away the hammock carline and the cabin 
floor, but did not injure materially a man; others came through the 
wheelhouse, causing but little damage, however. The cabin and ward- 
room suffered badly in their light work. 

As the enemy could not be found, I proceeded up the river and, 
pursuant to order, reported to Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch, 



NAVAIi POBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 87 

commanding gunboat Lexington. As he was coming down to this 
place, I was ordered to follow him. On passing Green Bottom Bar 
nothing was to be seen of the enemy. 

My pilots say it was without doubt Forrest's light artillery. They 
were evidently well drilled and their sharpshooters skillful. 

I also beg leave to state that the condiict of my oiBcers and men 
was highly honorable to themselves and creditable to the service, as 
few if any of them had ever been under fire before. 

I have the honor to remain, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

William N. Griswold, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Headquarters, 
Tuscumbia, April £4, 1868. 
I enclose dispatches for Corinth, which please send down and de- 
liver, retaining cavalry until you return with answers. We took 
this place to-day, also Florence; had some cannonading there and 
also a severe fight at Leighton, in which we cleaned them out. 

I do not think that there is any battery between here and you. I 
desire you to stay at Eastport as long as possible; it will be a great 
help to me in returning my command. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. M. Dodge, 

Brigadier-General. 
Captain Fitch. 



Keport of Lieutenant-Commander fitch, IT. S. Navy, regarding the disposition 

of captured cotton. 

U. S. S. Lexington, 
Fort Henry, April £5, 1S63. 

Sir: Your dispatches and general orders relating to cotton, etc., 
received. 

The cotton I took was in a country infested by guerrillas, and was 
likely to go into the rebel army. 

It was entirely out of the reach of any public agent acting without 
a force to protect him. 

I sent it to Cairo to the fleet captain, subject to your orders. In 
future I shall be guided entirely by your orders just received. Most 
of the horses were captured from the guerrillas, with their saddles on, 
carbines and canteens slung to them. They I deem lawful prizes, 
although we were compelled to land to effect it. General Ellet is 
now in the river with his brigade and will doubtless attend to cotton 
mills, etc., out of my reach and doing work for the rebels. I will 
give him all the information regarding them that I can. 

In consequence of the boats being required on this river now con- 
stantly, I am having the greater portion of our coal brought up to 
this place and will establish a depot for that purpose here. 



88 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

We now have telegraphic communication here, but will have to 
send to Paducah for mail matter. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LeKoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commavder. 
Acting Eear- Admiral Davh) D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters Sixteenth Army Corps, 

Memphis, Tenn., April S9, 1863. 

Dodge is at Tuscumbia. Streight was to leave on Saturday. He 
is short of horses and mules. Have had no message from Dodge 
since Saturday. Marine Brigade left Hamburg on Friday; had a 
sharp skirmish at Dutch [Duck] River. Gunboats and transports 
left to-day. Grierson's Sixth Illinois Cavalry have destroyed 20 
miles of railroad between Jackson and Meridian. They have not 
yet returned. 

S. A. HURLBUT, 

Major- General. 
Major-General W. S. Rosecrans, 

Murfreeshoro. 



[Telegram.] 

Corinth, April 29, 1863—6:30 p. m. 

Scouts in from Hamburg report that all the gunboats (five) and 
all transports (nine) left Hamburg at 11 o'clock to-day to descend 
the river, to return no more. The Marine Brigade left last Friday. 
Had severe fight at mouth of Duck River. Three gunboats that 
came up with the order for Stanley and gunboats to go out had also 
encountered light battery and had fight at same place. Dodge took 
rations of bread and meat; balance of stores were taken back on 
transports. This leaves river open again. I shall have to com- 
municate with Dodge through country — 50 miles. No other informa- 
tion to-day. 

R. J. Oglesby. 

Major-General Hurlbtjt. 



[Telegram.] 



GAIJ.ATIN, April 30, 1863. 
A gunboat and four transports were coming up the river this morn- 
ing; the rebels fired into them, and one transport ran on a log and 
sank. One-third of her cargo can be saved. I shall go to her relief 
immediately. There were 200 men, with officers, on the fleet, and only 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS, 89 

30 armed, and when they arrived here they were out of ammunition. 
I shall supply them. The fleet was going to Carthage. 

E. A. Paine, 



Brigadier-General Garfield, 

Chief of Staff. 



Brigadier-General. 



[Telegram.] 

Cincinnati, Ohio, A'pril 30, 1863. 

(Keceived 1 :18 p. m.) 

The light-draft gunboats James Thompson, Exchange, and Ken- 
wood are about ready for service. They are very much needed on 
the upper Ohio, Kanawha, and Big Sandfy. Can you authorize their 
use in these waters until some three or four others can be fitted up 
for that purpose, if you think the interests of the public service will 
authorize the fitting out of boats for these waters ? 

The naval department here states the work can be done at once if 
it receives the necessary orders, etc. 

A. E. BURNSIDE, 

Major- General. 
Hon. Gideon Welles. 



[Telegram.] 

Navy Department, May 1, 1863. 
Your telegram is received. The three gunboats named and other 
light-draft vessels have been purchased upon the urgent request of 
General Kosecrans for such vessels in the Cumberland and Tennessee 
rivers. The Department would not like to divert them from this 
service without his consent. 

Captain Pennock, senior officer at Cairo, has authority to provide 
steamers for the Western waters when the exigencies demand it. It 
is suggested that you communicate with him. 

Gideon Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



[Telegram. ] 

Gallatin, April 30, 1863—8:15 p. m. 

I have just returned from the wreck. The boats were fired upon 
by soldiers and citizens with muskets and rifles. The gunboat re- 
turned the fire. The rebels had no artillery. The pilot or some other 
officer must have been frightened and carelessly ran the boat on a 
log. It was loaded with bread mostly. I think I can save 100 boxes. 
I sent one regiment across the river to go down, and sent down my 



90 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBBS. 

flatboats to unload the wreck. I expect a fight on this side. The 
gunboat was out of ammunition. I furnished what was required 
from the magazine. 

E. A. Paine, 
Brigadier-General. 
Brigadier-General Garfield. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, V. S. Navy, announcing arrival at 
Fort Henry, convoying transports. 

U. S. S. Lexington, 
Fort Henry, April 30, 1863. 
Sir: I left Hamburg yesterday and brought down with me all 
the transports. I met with no opposition whatever in ooming down. 
At Waverly Landing saw some four or five rebel cavalry. 

It is reported that Van Dom is at Waverly with all his force. 
If so, he is doubtless preparing to attack Fort Donelson or try to 
blockade this river or the Cumberland. I will watch him closely. 

From present appearance I think there will be water enough in 
this river for this boat to run up as high as Hamburg till the latter 
part of June. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LbRoy Fitch, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Brigadier-General EUet, commanding Marine Brigade, regarding 
expedition in Tennessee River and engagement with the enemy at the mouth 
of Duck River. 

Headqttarters M. M. Brigade, 

Flagship Autocrat, April 30, 1863. 
I have the honor to report that, in compliance with instructions 
received from Admiral Porter, I proceeded with my command up 
Tennessee Eiver to Eastport, Miss., without interruption from the 
enemy. Returning in consequence of low water, I made several raids 
into the country and destroyed a number of important mills and 
considerable amount of subsistence supplies belonging to the enemy. 
At the mouth of Duck Eiver my boats were attacked oy 700 cavalry, 
with two pieces of artillery, commanded by Major Robert M. White, 
of Sixth Texas Rangers. The fight was spirited for a few moments 
only. The enemy was driven off and pursued some 12 miles in the 
interior, with the loss of Major White, mortally wounded and left 
near the field, 1 lieutenant, and 8 men. They carried off a large 
number of wounded in wagons and on horses. We buried their dead. 
Our loss was 2 men killed and 1 wounded. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 91 

The west bank of the Tennessee Eiver was lined with refugees, 
who have been driven from their homes for love to the Old Union. 
I exhausted my supplies in providing for their necessities. 

The Tennessee Kiver is too low for my boats to operate in with 
safety. My order from Admiral Porter does not provide for this 
emergency. I shall hope to receive instruction from the Department. 

Alfred W. Ellet, 
Brigadier-General, Comdg. Mississippi Marine Brigade. 

Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, V. S. Navy, regarding general 
matters connected with the station at Cairo, III. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 1, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you that the U. S. gunboat Linden 
arrived here on the evening of the 29th ultimo, and I am fitting out 
her, as well as the Silver Lake and Glide, with all possible dispatch. 
I have put Lieutenant Woodworth in command of the Glide, which 
I shall send down this evening with two barges of coal (20,000 bush- 
els) and by which I forward dispatches and other communications. 
I have placed on board the Glide all my available men, and am now 
powerless for want of more. 

I proceeded in the Silver Lake to Columbus according to my inten- 
tion expressed in my communication of the 27th ultimo. The gen- 
eral commanding at Columbus wished to consult me about sending 
a gunboat to Fort Pillow to convoy some troops, as he was fearful 
that there would be some interruption by the way. He also informed 
me that he had given orders for the evacuation of Hickman and 
New Madrid, which I very much regretted. I fear if those and other 
prominent points are not strongly garrisoned that we may meet with 
interruption in sending down supplies. 

Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch sent down two prisoners a 
few days since charged with being rebels. I have handed them over 
to the provost-marshal, with a copy of the charges against them. 
Captain Fitch also telegraphed me that he had been obliged to 
bring down the boats to Paducah, but that the Tennessee River is 
now rising. He will send up a portion of his fleet with the rise. I 
enclose copies of telegrams received from General "Wright, with my 
answers, as well as a copy of a telegram from Lieutenant-Commander 
Fitch to myself on the subject. 

I am glad to be able to inform you that all the sick have been 
discharged from the hospital at Mound City who can be paid off. 
We are now waiting for funds to enable us to discharge the remain- 
der, and are therefore unable to give the hospital [up] yet. 

As soon as I heard that the Pollard had broken down near Island 
No. 21, I chartered a steamer (the Storm) as soon as possible, and 
sent her down to tow the coal barges to their destination. 



92 NAVAX, FOECES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

The New National is at St. Louis loading with provisions for 
Memphis, together with stores for the foundry. When she arrives 
here I shall send down Acting Master Neeld with her. 

Fleet Surgeon Pinkney arrived here yesterday and wiU proceed to 
the fleet as soon as he can regulate matters in his department here. 

I am informed by Captam Badger that the Mississippi is rising 
rapidly and that the Choctaw and Lafayette will be sent down here 
according to your orders, although unfinished. 

I telegraphed a few days since to Lieutenant-Commander Foster, 
commanding U. S. gunboat Chillicothe, to leave no measure untried to 
get that vessel through the locks. He informed me by letter to-day 
that he has taken the necessary measurements himself, and that the 
breadth of beam of the Chillicothe is 8 inches greater than the width 
of the locks, and that it was impossible to get her through. 

I enclose a communication from Mr. Bickerstaff relative to the 
engineers of the Linden, and also send you the appointments which 
have been received here for the engineers whose names were first 
sent here by Mr. B. 

I enclose a copy of a letter from a Mr. E. O. Warenner, relative 
to certain indebtedness of Acting Master Flanner, of the New Era, 
together with my answer thereto. 

The TF. H. Brown has just arrived from below (January 2, 11 
a. m.). I find that her boilers are badly burned, and that she will 
have to be repaired, which will be done as soon as possible. 

I received a telegram to-day from St. Louis, from Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant James Laning, stating that the Lafayette left that 
place for Cairo yesterday at 12 m. Depth of water in channel, 12 
feet. 

The gunboat Glide, Acting Lieutenant Woodworth commanding, 
will leave early to-morrow morning (Saturday, January 3) with 
coal, and the New Era and tug Ivy will leave also, under Lieutenant 
Woodworth's orders until they reach the squadron. 

January 2, 10 o'' clock p. m. — The Wilson has just arrived from St. 
Louis with beef, and will proceed down the river with the Glide and 
other boats. The master of the Wilson reports that he passed the 
Lafayette at anchor last night about 40 miles below St. Louis. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Portek, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 



CAtRo, January 1, 1863. 
Captain [George] Brown and yourself have authority to appoint 
for Duchess, Florence, and Mary Miller. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Master A. S. Bowen, 

Naval Rendezvous, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 93 

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Owen, U. S. Navy, requesting a 
cutter for the U. S. S. Louisville. 

U. S. S. Louisville, January 1, 1863. 
Sir: I respectfully request that one of the cutters belonging to 
Cairo be given to this vessel, as she lost one (beyond repair on board) 
in a collision with the Cincinnati on the 27th ultimo. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

E. K. Owen, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

• Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from, E. B. Pike to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, 
regarding the taking iy the Arm,y of the steamer David Tatum. 

Gayoso House, Memphis, January 2, 1863. 
Sir: General Tuttle took my boat {David Tatum), saying his 
authority was above yours, etc. 

I shall have a boat in six or eight days ; shall proceed to the squad- 
ron at once. 

Yours, respectfuUv, 

E. B. Pike. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, ZJ. S. Navy, regarding the 
seizure hy guerrillas of the steamer Blue Wing. 

No. 3.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yasoo River, January 3, 1862 [1863']. 
Sir: I have been informed that a steamer called the Blue Wing 
was fired into by a party of guerrillas, and that the captain ran into 
the bank and delivered her up. She had two of our coal barges in 
tow, one of which was picked up by Lieutenant-Commander Self- 
ridge, who is guarding the mouth. The other barge and the steamer 
have not been heard of yet, having disappeared. There is no doubt 
of complicity on the part of the captain. I believe there were some 
dispatches on board for me. I don't know whether they were de- 
stroyed or not. The captain says they were. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. 0. 



94 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear-Adrmral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Shirk, U. S. Navy, regarding the duty of keeping the 
White and Arkansas rivers closed. 

January 3, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed to the mouth of the Arkansas Eiver and 
keep the Gonestoga there while you repair your steam pipe. When 
that is finished let the Gonestoga proceed to Memphis and make what 
repairs she may need and return without delay to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. 

The light-draft New Era has been ordered to stop at Napoleon. 
If she has not received the order, detain her. 

The ram Lancaster will also join you. When the New Era arrives 
send her up to the mouth of White River now and then. 

Your duty will be to keep the Arkansas and White rivers closed. 
I send a mail by you which you will forward by the Gonestoga. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gonvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Jas. W. Shirk, U. S. Navy, 

Gommanding U. S. S. Lexington. 



[Telegram.] 



Cairo, January 3, 1863. 
Services of GhiUicothe much needed. Get her down as soon as you 
can with safety. What do the pilots report about depth of water? 
Answer. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant- Commander J. P. Foster, 

Gommanding GhiUicothe, Jeffersonville, Ind. 



Report of Lieutenant Bisho-^, U. S. Navy, regarding affairs at Merrb- 

phts naval station. 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 
Memphis, Tenn., January 3, 1863. 

Sir: I respectfully report that I have made as much headway as 
possible with the repairs of this vessel. I have been much embar- 
rassed for want of material. I sent my paymaster to Cairo the day 
after you left, with requisitions for material and money. Captain 
Pennock refused to approve the requisition for money, and I nave 
been unable to pay, the workmen at the end of the month, as you 
ordered. I have no funds on hand for that purpose. 

Mr. Eowe, the master machinist, has been making requests to be 
permitted to move into the commandant's house. I desire to know 
Avhom you wish to occupy it : the house is now empty, and I have sta- 
tioned a guard around it. 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 95 

I will get this vessel so that she can be moved under steam in a 
week, but can not complete the repairs until material is received 
from Cairo. 

I have proceeded with the inventory of property as rapidly as pos- 
sible and have gotten through with the machine shops now in use. 

As some of our vessels have been captured and others fired into, 
I have notified the Treasury agent of the fact and sent him a copy of 
that part of your order in relation to stopping steamers from trading 
below Helena. 

I am sorry I was unable to put contrabands on board the light- 
draft gunboats as they passed down. I could not get them from 
the Army as I anticipated. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JosHTJA Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Pokter, 

Co?nm,anding Mississippi Squadron, Yazoo River. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Brown, U. 8. Navy, to proceed with the ZI. S. S. 
Indianola to Louisville, Ky. 

Januahy 3, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed with the Indianola to Louisville and be ready 
to pass the falls the first rise in the river. From what I can hear 
of the water, your vessel should have been at Louisville before this 
time. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron, 

Lieutenant-Commander Geo. Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Instructions from Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieu- 
tenant Prichett, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Tyler, while in 
temporary com,mand at the mouth of the Yazoo River. 

Mouth or Yazoo River, 

January J^, 1863. 
Sir : You will remain in command until my return and watch this 
river. You will observe the utmost vigilance, so that nothing shall get 
in or out. You will take charge of all the vessels left behind and 
anchor your vessels so that the Samson, Champion, and mortars will 
be completely covered. 

The Tyler will run up toward Old River now and then, to see what 
is going on, looking out for torpedoes. I am going to remove some of 
the vessels to Milliken's Bend. If any suspicious-looking vessel is 
seen to go up that way, the Tyler will follow her at once. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Oomdg. Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieut. Comdg. Jambs M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Tyler. 



96 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter^ U. 8. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Shaw, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Juliet, 
to -proceed to Helena for coal. 

January 4, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed to Helena with all dispatch and return again 
to the mouth of White Kiver with a barge of coal. If you meet any 
coal coming down, tell the captain of the tow to stop at White Kiver 
if there is a gunboat there ; if not, to stop at the mouth of the Arkan- 
sas. If you meet any other vessel (except the Rattler), tell the com- 
mander to return and take a coal barge from Helena, if there is one 
there. Mention to all vessels of war you meet coming down to stop 
at White River, and do not mention to anyone in Helena that the 
fleet is coming up, and put your officers on their guard. 

If you meet any gunboat this side of Napoleon, tell the commander 
to anchor until I come along and to be ready to return with me. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAVro D. PORTEK, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Comdg. Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Vol. Lieut. Edward Shaw, U. S. Navy, 

Com/manding Juliet. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Wilson, U. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Mound City, in case of 
arrival of mortars. 

Jantxart 4, 1863. 
If coal should come down, let it stop here and fill up all the vessels. 
If the mortars come, anchor them inside of you and under your guns. 
If fresh provisions and ice come, do the same, and use them. When 
I am able I will send c light-draft vessel to convoy them to the mouth 
of the Yazoo. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Comdg. Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding Byron Wilson, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Mound City. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Wilson, TJ. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Mound City, to proceed 
to Milliken's Bend. 

January 4, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to Milliken's Bend and anchor under the 
point in slack water, if possible, on the right hand side going up, 
where you will guard such of our vessels as I may leave there and 
carry out strictly General Order No. 4. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding Byron Wilson, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mound City. 



NAVAL POBCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 97 

Report of Lieutencmt Bishop^ U. S. Navy, commanding at Mem,pMs, 
regarding the movement of mortals down the river in tow of 
steamer Stephen Bayard. 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 
Memphis, Tenn., January i, 1863. 
Sir : I have chartered the steamer Stephen Bayard and have started 
her down the river with four mortar boats in tow. I have chartered 
her at the same rates the Quartermaster of the Army was paying 
($150 per day, the Government furnishing fuel). 
The vessel had on board 1,500 bushels of coal and 30 cords of wood. 
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Joshua Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Com/manding. 
Acting Kear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Mouth of the Yazoo. 



Report of Acting Ensign Wheelock, U. S. Navy, requesting instruc- 
tions for his guidance as naval mernber of hoard of trade ai Helena, 
Ark. 

Helena, Aek., January 4, 1863. 
Sir : I was sent up to Memphis with the steamer Mill Boy and ar- 
rived here too late to report myself to you. I was appointed one of 
the board of trade at this port, to represent the Navy, and have ac- 
cepted the position with the consent of the different commanders of 
the fleet at this port. My principal duties have been to examine all 
clearances of vessels arrivifig and departing from this port, to see 
that they have the clearance from the naval officer at Memphis; also 
that they do not carry any contraband goods. There seems to be 
some collision between the naval and military as to who controls the 
navigation, and should you approve of my remaining here, I should 
be pleased to have something official to guide me. Awaiting orders. 
I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

E. W. Wheelock, 
Acting Ensign, U. S. Navy. 
Acting Kear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Gommianding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Mobster Smith, U. S. Navy, forwarding chart of 
proposed canal between the Mississippi River and Lake Provi- 
dence. 

U. S. Gunboat Linden, 
Of Lake Providence, January 4, 1863. 
Sir: Please find enclosed a chart of the proposed canal to run 
from the Mississippi River to Lake Providence. The time required 
for the construction of this canal will be one week from yesterday, 
when the men first broke ground. 

I remain, your obedient servant, 

Thos. E. Smith, 
Acting Master, Commanding, 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D JPorter, 

Com,manding Mississippi Squadron, 

7U°— N W B— VOL 24—10 7 



98 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBES. 

Combined operations connected with the capture of the Post of 
Arkansas {Fort Hindman) , Ark., January ^.-ll, 1863. 

General Order No. 29. 

Jantjaet 4, 1863. 
If the vessels find coal at Napoleon, they will stop and supply 
themselves; if not, rendezvous at the mouth of White Eiver. Let 
the transports do the towing, and save all the coal possible. Take 
in wood when convenient. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Kear-Admlral Forter, V. S. Navy, to Colonel EUet, commanding 
Ram Fleet, to report with the V. S. ram Monarch at mouth of Arkansas 
Kiver. 

January 4, 1863. 
Colonel: You will join me with the Monarch at the mouth of 
Arkansas River. Leave the rest of the rams under the charge of 
Lieutenant-Commander Prichett, of the U. S. S. Tyler, who will give 
them instructions. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Chas. R. Ellet, 

Commanding Ram Fleet. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Colonel EUet, commanding 
Ram Fleet, to report at mouth of White River. 

January 4, 1863. 
Colonel: Join me at the mouth of White River as soon as possible 
with the best ram you have. 

Let the arrangements we made yesterday go on, and what rams are 
left let them report to the commanding naval officer at the Yazoo 
River.- If you want towage, hoist a red flag. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Ellet, 

Commanding Ram Fleet. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Forter, V. S. Navy, to lieutenant-Commander 
Bache, TI. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Cincinnati, to proceed to mouth of 
Arkansas River. 

January 4, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to the mouth of the Arkansas River; if I 
am not there before you, anchor and take in coal if there is any. 



navaij forces on western waters. 99 

Transports are appropriated to tow up the ironclads. Take the 
first that offers. 

A red flag means, " I want towage." Save all the coal you can 
while being towed. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davto D. Porter, 
Gom/mwnding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commander Geo. M. Bache, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Cincinnati. 



Older of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Lieutenant Smith, IT. S. 
Navy, to assume command of the ftrst division of light-draft vessels. 

January 4, 1863. 
Sir: You will take command of the first division of light-draft 
vessels, consisting of the Rattler, Marmora, Borneo, Juliet, Glide, 
Springfield, New Era, Signal, and will see that they conform to the 
general orders, herewith enclosed. See them furnished with all that 
is necessary to make them efficient. The Forest Rose will also be in- 
cluded in your division for the present. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admdrcd, Com,manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding Watson Smtth, U. S. Navy. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, naming vessels belong^ing to 

the first division. 

January 6, 1863. 

The following vessels will compose the first division of light-draft 

boats, under the command of Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, 

and the commanders will report to him without delay : Rattler, Juliet, 

New Era, Marmora, Glide, Signal, Romeo, Springfield, Forest Rose. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdmiraJ, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



letter from llajor-Oeneral UeClernand, IT. S. Army, to Acting Bear-Admiral 
Porter, IT. S. Navy, transmitting copy of instmctions sent to the Army of the 
Uississippi. 

Headquarters Army or the Mississippi, 

Steamer Tigress, January 6, 1863. 
Admiral: I have the honor to transmit for your information a 
copy of the instructions * communicated to the general commanding 
the two army corps of the Army of the Mississippi. 

I am, admiral, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. Schwartz, 
Major and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Rear-Admiral Porter, 

Oom/manding Mississippi Flotilla. 

* See Army Records, Series I, Vol, XVII, part 2, p. 537, 



100 NAVAIi rOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

General order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, XT. S. Navy. 

General Obder, 1 

No. 30. j January 7, 1863. 

In ascending the White and Arkansas rivers the following order 
will be observed : 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith will go ahead in the Rattler, 
sounding with two leads, and when he comes to shoal water (less than 
9 feet) he will hoist the cornet. If he can [sic] through with that 
depth of water he will hoist the blue jack. The Romeo, Juliet, aftd 
Forest Rose will follow the Rattler, sounding with two leads, their 
guns trained forward of the [sic] and the fuzes cut to one second. 
The Marmora will go ahead of this ship, sounding, and the guns 
similarly prepared. Vessels will not wait for orders to fire when 
they see the enemy's troops or when fired upon. 

Commanders will look out for torpedoes or floats or wires extend- 
ing from the bank. Boats will be kept manned to remove them. 

The Louisville, Baron De Kalh, and Cincirmaii will come after this 
vessel. The Signal will cover the twentieth transport and the Lex- 
ington will bring up the rear. 

The Red Rover and Torrence will remain at the mouth of White 
River and guard it and the coal barges, notifying any light-draft 
gunboats and all coal or store boats to stop at the mouth of White 
River until further orders. The cornet over the jack will signify 
danger near from the enemy. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Ad/mAral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Kajor-Oeneral UcGlem- 
and, T7. S. Army, transmitting charts of the Arkansas Biver and information 
obtained from a deserter. 

January 7, 1863. 
General: I beg leave to send you some charts of the Arkansas 
River and a list of distances. Also an account of the post, collected 
from a refugee picked up in a boat on the river in a starving condi- 
tion. Captain Shirk sent him to lUinoiSj where he lives. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gonvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

' Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, 

Commanding U. S. Forces. 

[Letter of same date and like tenor to Major-General W. T. Sher- 
man, U. S. Army, commanding U. S. forces.] 

[Enclosure.! 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron [no date] . 
The force at Post of Arkansas consists of eleven regiments, number- 
ing each about 600 effectives, two companies of cavalry, and two bat- 
teries; one equipped, the other used in the land defense of the fort. 
Some of these small pieces are rifled. There are nine or seven guns 



NAVAL POECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. lOl 

mounted on the river side (one 64-pounder) , the rest of lower calibers. 
The road from White River is a good one, running on high land, 
though on both sides marshy. 

The fort is intrenched and ditched on all sides, barracks inside, 
covered with dirt and sod. 

Barricade above the fort consisting of rows of piles driven in tri- 
angles and secured with hog chains. The road from White River is 
good, bears along a prairie 300 yards wide. Road to the post, 20 miles. 

[Endorsement.] 

A refugee's description of Post of Arkansas. 



Order of Aetingr Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Colonel EUet, commanding 
Ram Fleet, regarding towing of a coal l)arge. 

Janttaby 8, 1863. 
Colonel: If we move to-day, you had better lash on to the coal 
barge now alongside the ironclad and tow her up the White River. 
You can coal going along. I do not want to detain the Army if I can 
help it. We will want the coal up there. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Portee, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, CoTmnaiadmg Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Chas. R. Ellet, 

Commanding Ram Fleet, Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volunteer Iiieu- 
tenant Shaw, V. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Juliet, to move up the river 
following the flagship. 

Janttakt 8, 1863. 
Sm : You will follow me up the Arkansas through the cut-off, with 
the coal barge in tow, sounding with the lead as you go along, and be 
cautious not to get ashore. 

Have your shrapikel cut to one second and guns pointed at the top 
of the bank and trained forward. Keep a sharp lookout, and do not 
be taken unawares. 

Very respectfully, etc., 

Davto D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Convmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volimteer Lieut. Edward Shaw, U. S. Navy, 

Gom/manding Juliet. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter^ XT. S. Navy, to Iffajor-General HcCler- 
nand, IT. S. Army, giving information hrought by the captain of the TJ. S. S. 
Conestoga. 

January 8, 1863. 
General: The Conestoga went up the Arkansas to-day and came 
down by the cut-off and White River. The captain reports great 
abundance of wood on the edge of the banks all the way up. 



102 ITAVAIi F6fiCES ON WESIE&N WAMiRS. 

He saw two or three men only on horseback, and captured two 
soldiers in a canal from Van Buren, who had been lately exchanged. 
They were trying to get oilt of the country. They knew nothing. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McCleenand, 

Oomnumding Army of the Mississippi. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters Armt of the Mississippi, 

Steamer Tigress, January 8, 1863. 
Admiral : "Will you please inform me when you are ready to move? 
I will also inform you when the transports will move. 
By order of Major-General J. A. McClemand : 

W. Stewart, 
Colonel and Chief of Staff. 
Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi River Flotilla. 



Xetter from Acting Eear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Major-General MoCler- 
nand, IT. S. Army, announcing his readiness to move up the Arkansas Blver 
with the transports. 

U. S. S. Black Hawk, January 8, 1863. 

General : I am ready to move, and when you signalize to me will 
get underway and go ahead. 

General Sherman has a signal officer on board, who can communi- 
cate with mine on board this vessel. 

Our Arkansas pilot says it is not at all safe to run in the Arkansas 
at night. Please inform me if you will go farther than the cut-off to- 
night. We will then be all in sailing order and can start fair at 
daylight in the morning. 

I notice that all the transports are not up. I ordered Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge to bring up the rear and report to me when the 
transports were all in. He has not hove- in sight yet, which assures 
me that some of the transports are behind. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdmiraZ, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, 

Commanding U. S. Army of the Mississippi. 



Letter from Uajor-Qeneral IfcClernand, IT. S. Army, to Acting Rear-Admiral 
Porter, TT. S. Navy, proposing to follow the latter's lead up the Arkansas 
Elver. 

Headquarters Akmt of the Mississippi, 

Steamer Tigress, January 8, 1863. 
Admiral : The signal officer to whom you refer has left. I will first 
send you word when my command is ready to move and afterwards 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 103 

fire a si^al gun; upon the doing of which, you leading off, I will 
follow with tne transports, convoyed by your gunboats, according to 
the arrangement indicated by your General Orders, No. 30. 

If you think it unsafe for the fleet to run all night, I will stop with 
you at the cut-off; otherwise I would prefer to run to-night and 
arrive at the post in the morning. 

I will follow your example and proceed or stop, as you may deem 
it best. 

Your obedient servant, 

John A. McCleenand, 
Major-GenercH, Commanding. 
Admiral David D. Porteh, 

Commanding Mississipjn Squadron. 



Letter from Uajor-Qeneral UcClernand, U. S. Army, to Acting Rear-Admiral 
Porter, IT. S. Navy, proposing to start up the river In the morning. 

Headquarters Army of the Mississippi, 

Steamer Tigress, January 8, 1863. 
Admiral: The signal officer to whom you refer has left. In view 
of your suggestion of the unsafeness of running at night, and of the 
necessity of delaying longer for some of my transport, I propose to 
start in the morning at 8 o'clock, and have accordingly so ordered in 
regard to my command. You leading off in the morning at the hour 
named, I will follow. 

I learn this evening from an officer of General Morgan L. Smith's 
staff that the ^nboats might find a favorable landing for the protec- 
tion of the disembarkation of the land forces at Notrib's farm, 3 
mUes below the post. 

John A, McCleenand, 
Major-General, Commanding. 
Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississipjn Squadron. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admlral Porter, TT. S. Xavy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Smith, TI. S. Navy, commanding first division, regarding position of the 
latter's command. 

jANTjAEr 9, 1863. 
Sir : Tie up to the left bank going up, a little ahead of where I will 
tie up, your vessels all close together and sterns hauled close inshore 
to make room to pass. 

[David D. Porter,] 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieut. Commander "Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding First Division Light-Draft Vessels, 

Mississippi Squadron. 



104 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

General Order of Battle. 

Januaht 10, 1863. 

The Louisville, Baron De Kalb, and the Cincinnati will take the 
lead in attacking Post of Arkansas, and will move up at 9 : 30 a. m. 
(if weather will permit) , in sight of, but not in range of, the fort. 
The light-draft vessels will follow to make a show. The Black Hawh 
will move up to use her two rifle guns at long range. 

When the range is obtained by each vessel they will stick up a mark 
on the bank, opposite which they will remain while firing. The ele-, 
vating screw must be fitted with a lanyard to the handle, and secured 
so that the elevation will not alter while firing. 

The division of General Sherman will be m a line with our fire, 
a mile the other side of the Post. It is desirable to drop our shells in 
or near the fort, that we may not trouble him as he advances. The 
front casemates and forward part of the pilot houses of the ironclads 
must be covered with tallow or slush ; it will make the shot glance. 

When the range is obtained, fire as rapidly as can be done with a. 
proper regard for accuracy. Commence with 10-second shell. I will 
direct when to move up or fall back. If the heavy ammunition should 
give out, move the rifle guns forward. 

The De Kalb will try her range first ; 1,330 yards is the bursting 
point of a 5-second fuze, 10-second, at about 2,700 yards. 

[D. D. Porter,] 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, -IT. S. Navy, to Brigadier-General 
Morgan, T7. S. Army, regarding protection of transports. 

January 10, 1863. 
Sir: There is a gunboat below the transports to look out for the 
rear, but another will be sent to Fletcher's. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Brigadier General Geo. W. Morgan, 

Commanding, U. S. Army. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TX. S. Navy, to Acting Master Brown, 
V. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Forest Bose, to give protection to transports. 

January 10, 1863. 
Sir : Proceed to Fletcher's Landing, about 3 miles below here, and 
give protection to the transports. 

Permit no transport to go down the river unless by a written order 
from an army oflScer. 
If Captain Shirk is below, tell him I want him up here. 
EespectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Geo. W. Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Forest Rose. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 105 

Report of Lieatenant-Commander SMrk, XT. S. Navy, forwarding' copy of dispatch 
referring to the movements of the enemy. 

. U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

v. 8. S. Lexington, 
Fletcher's Landing, Arkansas River, January 10, 1863. 
Sir: I am laying at this place protecting the transports which 
have on board General Osterhaus's division or brigade. As soon as 
I am relieved by the Forest Rose I will pin you. 

The following is a copy of a dispatch just handed me to forward 
to General Morgan: 

Headqttabtebs Second Bbioade, January 10, 1863. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lindsey desires me to say to you that the rebels are 
rapidly leaving the fort and moving toward our left, whether with the intention 
of abandoning it or moving on our left he can not say. 

Will A. Jobdan, Aid-de-Camp. 
Lieutenant E. D. Saundees, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-Oeneral. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, 

Jas. W. Shirk, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
[Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter.] 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral forter, U. S. Navy, to Brlgadier-Oeneral 
Uorgan, U. S. Army, announcing immediate movement. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 11, 1863. 
General: I am very glad to hear from you. We will move up in 
a few moments. The moment we hear your shouts of assault we will 
cease firing or fire far to the left of you ; that is, to the left of your 
right wing, as we sailors would say. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Adrniirdl. 
Brigadier-General Geo. W. Morgan. 



Report of Colonel Lindsey, IT. S. Army, making enquiry regarding opening Are 

upon the fort. 

Headquarthsrs Second Brigade, January 11, 1863. 
When the engagement is raging between the gunboats and the fort, 
will I be allowed to open on the fort with the 20-pounders? Captain 
Foster thinks he can do good. 

D. W. Lindsey, 
€olonel. Commanding Brigade. 
P. Stratton, 
Acting Assistant Adjutant- General. 
Lieutenant E. D. Saunders, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-Genercd. 



106 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

[Telegram.] 

Memphis, Tenn., January 11, 1863—3:30 p. m. 
General McClernand has fallen back to White Eiver and gone on 
a wild-goose chase to the Post of Arkansas. I am ready to reinforce, 
but must await further information before knowing what to do. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General, Commanding. 
Major-General H. W. Haixeck, 

General in Chief. 



letter from Acting Rear-Admlral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Uajor-Oeneral UcCler- 
nand, TT. S. Army, advising the placing of batteries near the works. 

Januaet 11, 1863. 
General : I shall be ready with the ironclads in half an hour, but 
I think it would be advisable to have a couple of batteries of rifled 
guns planted as close to the works as possible to fire into the em- 
brasures of the fort and to keep the people away from the barbette 
fun. Those four 30-pounder Parrotts I sent General Sherman would 
o good service there. Everything that can be done to shorten the 
fight and save the lives of our men should be tried, and I think it 
very important that a battery should be placed near the bank of the 
river to fire at the embrasures. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 

P. S. — The moment we hear your shouts we will cease firing, that 
we may not hurt your men. 

[David D. Porter], 

Acting Rear- Admiral. 



[Telegram.] 



U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Post of Arkansas, January 11, 1863. 
Sir: The gunboats Louisville, DeKalh, Cincinnati, and Lexington 
attacked the heavy fort at Post of Arkansas last night and silenced 
the batteries, killing many of the enemy. The gimboats attacked it 
this morning and dismounted every gim, eleven in all. Colonel Dun- 
nington, late of the U. S. Navy, commandant of the fort, requested 
to surrender to the Navy. I received his sword. The army co- 
operated on the land side. The forts were completely silenced and 
the guns, 11 in number, were all dismounted in three hours. The 
action was at close quarters on the part of the three ironclads and the 
firing splendid. The list of killed and wounded is small. The 
Louisville lost 12, DeKoXb 17, Cincinnati none, Lexington none, 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. lOY 

Rattler 2. The vessels, although much cut up, were ready for action 
in half an hour after the battle. The light-draft Rattler, Lieutenant- 
Commander Watson Smith, and other light-drafts, joined in the 
action when it became general, as did the Black Hawk, Lieutenant- 
Commander K. E. Breese, with her rifle guns. Particulars will be 
given hereafter. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davto D. Porter, 
Actingr Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GmEON Weixes, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Detailed report of Acting: Bear-Admlral Porter, V. S. Navy. 

No. 44.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you that on the 4th of January 
General McClernand concluded to move up river upon the Post of 
Arkansas, and requested my cooperation. I detailed three iron- 
clads, the Louisville, Baron De Kalb, and Cincinnati, with all the 
light-draft gimboats, all of which had to be towed up the river. 
On the 9th we ascended the Arkansas Eiver as high as Post of 
Arkansas, when the army landed within about 4 miles of the fort 
[Hindman]. 

The enemy had thrown up heavy earthworks and extensive rifle 
pits all along the levee. While the army were making a detour to 
surround the fort I sent up the ironclads to try the range of their 
guns, and afterwards sent up the Rattler, Lieutenant-Commander 
Watson Smith, to clear out the rifle pits and the men behind an 
extensive breastwork in front of our troops. The Black Hawk also 
opened on them with her rifled guns, and after a few fires the enemy 
left the works and our troops marched in. 

At 2 o'clock General McClernand told me the troops would be in 
position to assault the main fort, a very formidable work, and I 
held all the vessels in readiness to attack when the troops were in 
position. At 6:30 p. m. General McClernand sent me a message, 
stating that everything was ready, and the Louisville, Baron De 
Kalb, and Cincinnati advanced to within 400 yards of the fort, which 
then opened fire from three heavy guns and eight rifled guns and 
with musketry. The superiority of our fire was soon manifest ; the 
batteries were silenced and we ceased firing, but no assault took place, 
and it being too dark to do anything all the vessels dropped down 
and tied up to the bank for the night. 

The Baron De Kalb, Lieutenant-Commander Walker; Louisville, 
Lieutenant-Commander Owen ; and the Cincinnati, Lieutenant-Com- 
manding Bache, led the attack, and when hotly engaged I brought 
up the light-draft vessels, the Lexington and the Black Hawk, to 
throw in shrapnel and rifle shell. This fire was very destructive, 
killing nearly all the artillery horses in and about the fort. When 
the battery was pretty well silenced, I Ordered Lieutenant-Com- 



108 NAVAL POKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

mander Smith to pass the fort in the light-draft ironclad Rattler 
and enfilade it, which he did in a very gallant and handsome manner, 
but suffered a good deal in his hull in doing so. All his cabin works 
were knocked to pieces, and a heavy shell raked him from stem to 
stern in the hull; strange to say, two heavy shell struck his iron 
plating (|-inch) on the bow and never injured it. He got past the 
lort, but became entangled amongst the snags placed m the river 
to impede our progress and had to return. 

In this evening's attack the vessels of all the commanders were 
well handled, particularly the ironclads. It was close quarters all' 
the time, and not a gun was fired from our side until the gunboats 
were within 400 yards of the fort. The condition of the fort attests 
the accuracy of fire, and the persons inside give the Baron De Kalh, 
Lieutenant-Commander Walker, the credit of doing the most execu- 
tion. 

I was informed again this morning by General McClernand that 
the army was waiting for the navy to attack, when they would as- 
sault the works. I ordered up the ironclads, with directions for the 
Lexington, to join in when the former became hotly engaged, and for 
the frailer vessels to haul up in the smoke and do the best they could. 
The Rattler, Lieutenant-Commander Smith, and the Glide, Lieuten- 
ant-Commander Woodworth, did good execution with their shrapnel, 
and, when an opportunity occurred, I made them push through by 
the fort again, also the ram Monarch, Colonel Charles Ellet, and 
they proceeded rapidly up the river to cut off the enemy's retreat by 
the only way he had to get off. By this time all the guns in the fort 
were completely silenced by the Louisville, Lieutenant-Commander 
E. K. Owen ; Baron De Kalb, Lieutenant-Conunander J. G. Walker ; 
and Cincinnati, Lieutenant Commanding G. M. Bache, and I ordered 
the Black Hawk up for the purpose of boarding it in front. Being 
unmanageable, she had to be kept up the narrow stream, and I took 
in a regiment ivaax the opposite side, to try and take it by assault. 
As I rounded to to do so, and the gunboats commenced firing rapidly, 
knocking everything to pieces, the enemy held out a white flag, and 
I ordered the firing to cease. The army then entered and took pos- 
session. 

Colonel Dunnington, the commander of the fort, sent for me and 
surrendered to me in person. General Churchill, of the rebel army, 
surrendered to the military commander. Our army had almost sur- 
rounded the fort, and were preparing to assault, and would no doubt 
have carried it with ease. Tnev enfiladed it with rifle fieldpieces, 
which did much damage to the houses and light work, leaving their 
marks in all directions. 

I do not know yet what were the operations on the land side ; I was 
too much interested in my own affairs and in placing the vessels as 
circumstances required. 

In all this affair there was the greatest zeal on the part of the offi- 
cers commanding to carry out my orders, and not a mistake of any 
kind occurred. No fort ever received a worse battering, and the high- 
est compliment I can pay those engaged is to repeat what the rebels 
said : " You can't expect men to stand up against the fire of those gun- 
boats." 



NAVAL, FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 109 

A large number of persons were captured in the fort, I don't know 
how many, and at sundown the army were hurrying in the cavalry 
and artillery. 

I herewith enclose the report of the commanding officers and a list 
of killed and wounded, and will take another occasion to mention to 
the Department the names of those officers who have distinguished 
themselves particularly, though it is hard to discriminate, when all 
did their duty so well. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral^ Commanding Mississippi Sqitadron. 

Hon. GmEON Weixes, 

Secretary of the Navy^ Washingtony D. G. 



Report of Lie-atenant-ComraaBder Walker, IT. S. Havy, commanding M. S. S. 
Baron Se Kalb, transmitting report of casualties. 

TJ. S. Gunboat Baron De Kalb, 

Arkansas Post, January 12, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report that in the attack on this place on 
the evening of the 10th this vessel was struck several times, but with 
no serious injury to vessel or crew. 

In the attack on the 11th one of the X-inch guns was struck in the 
muzzle and both gun and carriage destroyed. 

One 32-pounder carriage struck and destroyed; one of the iron 
plates on forward casemate badly broken by shot. 

The woodwork about two of the ports badly torn by shot and one 
lower deck beam cut oflp by a plunging shot through the deck. The 
other injuries, although considerable, can be repaired on board in a 
few days. I lost 2 men killed and 15 wounded, 2 probably mortally 
and several seriously. Before going into action I covered the bow, 
sides, and pilot house with slush, which I think was of much assist- 
ance in turning the shot, as the vessel was repeatedly struck by 8 and 
9 inch shot at very short range, and the iron was in no case pene- 
trated. The loss was from shot and shell entering the ports. 

My officers and men behaved with the greatest gallantry and cool- 
ness, and the practice with the gims was excellent. 

I expended forty-two X-inch shells, nine X-inch shrapnel, seventy 
Vlll-inch shells, and thirty-seven 32-pounder shells. 

Enclosed I send the surgeon's report of killed and wounded. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenant-Commander, TJ. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear- Admiral Davu) D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



110 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

[Enclosure. ] 
Burgeon's report of killed and wounded on board V. 8. gunboat Baron De Kalb, 



Name. 



Bate. 



Injtny. 



Bemarks. 



EiUed: 

John Eyan 

Theodore Bender. . 
Severely wounded: 

Peter Colton , 



Landsman. 
3d-«lass boy. 

Coxswain.... 



George Smith. 

Jos. Eader 

John Farren. . . 



Wm. Smith. 



Seaman. 

do.. 

....do.. 



M C. Donohoe . . . 

Slightly wounded: 
WllUam Smith... 
Jos. H. Mallory... 
Alfred H.Boyle.. 
Oscar Jordan 



.do^. 
.do.. 



do... 

....do... 
Yeoman. 
Seaman.. 



Antoln De Woroa. 
George Fales 



WllUam KeUy.. 

Pierre Lene 

John Glenn 



.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Penetrating wound throat. Also 
wound tmgh and wrist. 

Fractm* ot skull 

Compound fracture of leg below icnee 

Compound fracture of skull; exten- 
sive laceration of scalp. 

Penetrating wound through left 
shoulder blade. 

Severelnjury of foot and ankle joints 
by penetration of shell. 

Injury scalp and face (laceration).... 

do : 

Contusion of shoulder and back 

Small pi ece of shell in popliteal space 

Contusion ot left arm from splint 

Penetrating wound of left leg from 
pieces of shell. 

Contusion of back 

Splinteisin &ce 

Contused wound of side 



Probablyprove fatal. 

Do. 
May lose the leg. 
Very serious case. 

Do. 

Do. 



Not dangerous 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John Wise, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon. 
Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker. 



Beport of Xlentenant-Commander Shirk, V. 

lezington. 



S. Vavy, commanding IT, S. S. 



U. S. Gunboat Lexington, 
Of Post of Arkansas, Arkansas River, January 11, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report that there were expended on board 
this ship during the attack upon this post by the forces under your 
command on the night of the 10th instant 14 Parrott shells and 2 
8-inch shells, and during the final and victorious assault of to-day, 
49 8-inch shells and 40 Parrott shells. 

I am happy to report no casualties. The woodwork of the ship 
and two of our boats are somewhat damaged. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, 

James W. Shirk, 
Lieutenant-Commiander. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Eear-Admlral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Acting Volunteer Lieutenant 
Scott, V. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Signal, regarding transportation of the 
wounded. 

Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863. 
Sir: Proceed without delay to the mouth of White River and de- 
liver the sick on board the hospital ship and bring up without delay 



NAVAIi POBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. Ill 

from the powder boat there 313 5-second 11-inch shrapnel, 67 10- 
second 11-inch shrapnel. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant John Scott, U. S. Navy^ 

Commanding Signal. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admlral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Acting Uaster Planner, 
U. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. New Era, regarding the transportation of 
the wounded to the hospital ship. 

Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863. 
Sir : You will go to the Baron De Kalh and Cincinnati and take 
on board the wounded and carry them to the hospital ship at the 
mouth of the White River. See that you have the accounts and 
descriptive list of every man. After you have performed this duty 
proceed to Cairo with such dispatches as I may send with you. 
When you have delivered your dispatches without delay, return to 
Island No. 10 and relieve the Carondelet, which vessel wiU join me 
at the mouth of White River. Captain Waike, of the Carondelet, 
will take passage with you to Cairo. 

Respectrally, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Planner, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. New Era. 



Beport of Lieutenant Bache, M. S. Navy, commanding IT. S. S. Cincinnati, regard- 
ing ezpenditnre of ammunition during the preliminary attack. 

U. S. Gunboat Cincinnati, 
Of Arkansas Post, -January 11, 1863. 
Sir: There were expended during the action on the 10th instant 
in the gunner's department the following articles, viz: Forty-eight 
9-inch cartridges, 36 5-inch shell, 6 10-inch shell, 6 5-inch shrapnel, 
1 8-inch cartridge, 1 5-inch shell, 1 32-pounder cartridge, 1 5-inch 32- 
pounder shell. 

Very respectfully, Geo. M. Bache, 

Lieutenant, Commanding. 



Beport of Iiieutenant-Commander Owen, IT. S. Navy, commanding XT. S. S. Lonis- 
vllle, transmitting reports of casualties and expenditure of ammunition. 

U. S. S. Louisville, 

Off Arkansas Post, Ark., January 11, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit the report of the killed and 

wounded on board this vessel, of the damages sustained from the 

enemy's guns, and the amount of ammunition expended during the 

engagements of yesterday and to-day with the enemy's batteries at 



112 NAVAL FOEOES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 

Arkansas Post. The damages sustained in the hull, as shown by the 
carpenter's report, though serious, have not in the least unfitted her 
for duty. I can only add that every officer and man did his duty. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. K.d^WBN, 

Lieutenant-G ommander, U. S. Navy. 

Acting Eear- Admiral Daytd D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosures.] 

Arkansas Eiver, 
Opposite Rebel Batteries^ January — , 1863. 
Sir : The following is a report of wounded on board U. S. gunboat 
Louisville : James Fitzpatrick, seaman, elbow, severely ; Charles Lar- 
kin, seaman, head, severely; John Doyle, seaman, head, severely. 

Wm. D. Hoftman, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon. 

U. S. S. Louisville, 
Arkansas River, January 10, 1863. 
Sir : The following is the amount of ammunition expended to-day 
in the attack upon Arkansas Post, viz: Twenty-seven 10-pound 
charges, 12 5-second shell (9-inch), 6 10-second shell (9-inch), 9 3^- 
inch shrapnel. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

William Shield, 

Acting Gunner. 
[Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen.] 



* U. S. GlJNBOAT LOUISVELLB, 

Arkansas River, January 10, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report the condition of this vessel as fol- 
lows, since our late engagement: 

One large shell hole through bluff of bow on the port side ; the shell 
exploded on gun deck, tearing both gun and spar deck badly. 

Another shell entered one of the bow ports and exploded, tearing 
decks badly. 
One of the port davits was carried away. 

I have the honor, sir, to remain, your obedient servant, 

D. H. CURRT, 

Acting GarperUer. 

Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Gunhoat Louisville. 



U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Arkansas River, Ark., January 11, 1863. 
Sir: The following is a list of the killed and wounded on board 
U. S. gunboat Louisville: Frederick H. Gilhardy, seamauj wounded 
in head, mortally; Adam Bradshaw, seaman, wounded m thorax. 



NAVAL, FOBCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 113 

mortally; James Mulherrin, seaman, wounded in thighs, severely; 
Jim Sullivan, seaman, contusion of thorax and abdomen; Thomas 
Spencer, seaman, wounded in elbow, slightly; Thomas Jackson, sea- 
man, wounded in leg, slightly; Albert Mowry, seaman, wounded in 
knee, slightly; James BJaisdalej seaman, wounded in hand, slightly; 
George Holmes, seaman, contusion of shoulder, slight ; J. T. Blatch- 
ford, ensign, wound in leg, severe ; Walter Williams, seaman, killed. 

Wm. D. Hoffman, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon. 

[Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen, U. S. Navy.] 



U. S. S. LOTJISVUiLE, 

Arkansas River, January 11, 1863. 
Sir : The following is the amount of ammunition expended to-day 
in the attack upon Arkansas Post, viz, 106 10-pound charges, 78 5- 
second 9-inch shell, 28 10-second 9-inch shell. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

William Shield, 

Acting Gunner. 
[Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen.] 



U. S. GtrNBOAT Louisville, 
Arkansas River, January 11, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report the condition of this vessel since our 
engagement to-day as follows, in addition to injuries received yes- 
terday. 

Received six shots in engagement to-day as follows: One through 
starboard side, aft of No. 2 gun, struck gun deck, glanced up and 
lodged in escape pipe ; one on port side amidships, carrying hammock 
netting and one stanchion away, exploded on spar deck, demolishing 
roundhouses; another struck the captain's gig, carrying away light 
iron and officers' quarters on spar deck in its course; one through 
smokestack ; and two others struck light work on spar deck. 

I have the honor, sir, to remain, your obedient servant, 

D. H. CURRT, 

Acting Carpenter. 

Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Gunboat Louisville. 



Congrratnlatory letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Ilajor- 
General UcClernand, XT. S. Army. 

January 11, 1863. 

General: I congratulate jon that we have disposed of this tough 

little nut, the capture of which is alike creditable to the Army and 

Navy. I only wish there was another of the same kind to attack 

on the morrow ; now that we are getting our hand in it would come 

711°— N w a— VOL 24—10 8 



114 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

easier. I shall be ready to cooperate with you again to-morrow at 
8 a. m., by which time I can send off my wounded. 
Yours, respectfully, 

David D. Pokter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Congratulatory letter from Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, to Acting 
Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy. 

Headquarters Army of the Mississippi, January 11, 1863. 
Admiral : I have the honor to congratulate you upon the efficient 
and brilliant part taken by you, as commander of the Mississippi 
Squadron, in the reduction to-day of the Post of Arkansas. 

All the prisoners and materials of war captured testify to harmoni- 
ous and successful cooperation of the land and naval forces, and that 
each nobly emulated the other in the time of patriotic duty. 
. Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John A. McClernand. 
Admiral David D. Porter, 

CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, referring to the efficient co- 
operation of the Navy. 

Headquarters Aemt of the Mississippi, 

Post of Arkansas, January 11, 1863. 
General: I have the honor to report that the forces under my 
command attacked the Post of Arkansas to-day at 1 o'clock p. m., and 
at 4 : 30 o'clock, having stormed the enemy's works, took a large num- 
ber of prisoners, variously estimated at from 7,000 to 10,000, together 
with all his stores, animals, and munitions of war. 

Eear-Admiral David D. Porter, commanding the Mississippi 
Squadron, efficiently and brilliantly cooperated in accomplishing this 
complete success. 

Your obedient servant, 

John A. McClernand, 
Major-General, Commanding. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Department of Tennessee. 



letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Pennook, 
V. S. Navy, transmitting report to be forwarded to the Department. 

January 11, 1863. 
Dear Pennock : We used up the Post of Arkansas fort to-day in 
three hours, dismoimting every gun in the fort, eleven in all, and such 
destruction of men, horses, and guns you never saw. This has been 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS, 115 

a naval fight, although the Army attacked with long range, but did 
not assault. I send a letter to the Secretary ; telegraph it, and send 
the letter. Send me down at once 4 IX-inch guns, 800 shells for 30- 
pound Parrott, lots of 24:-pound shrapnel, 600 IX-inch shell and 
shrapnel, plenty of fuzes, some primers, good powder, and anything 
else the ordnance officer can think of to make us efficient. We are 
very short. 

We lost about 30 killed and wounded. I have sent Walke up to 
take the Lafayette. When she is ready, send her down with dis- 
patch. 

This was a most beautiful fight. 
Yours, truly. 



A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Gcymmanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



David D. Porter. 



Seport of Lientenant Bache, 17. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Cincinnati, regard- 
ing preliminary attack on January 10. 

U. S. Gunboat Cincinnati, 
Arkansas Post, January 12, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report having sustained no serious dam- 
age in the attack on the 10th. One shell struck us at the water line, 
forward, and a second went through the upper works. We were 
equally fortunate during the attack of yesterday, although struck 
nme times on the bow, casemate, pilot house, and upper works. 

This vessel fired the first gun at about 1 : 30 p. m., and in half or 
three-quarters of an hour the right casemate gun of the fort (the one 
assigned us) was silenced, when our fire was directed on the left 
casemate and barbette guns, and afterwards in shelling the interior 
of the fort. We engaged the fort at 300 yards. I have to mention 
Acting Ensign A. F. O'Neil, Acting Master's Mate Henry Booby, 
and Acting Gunner John F. Riblett, the officers commanding the 
bow guns, for coolness and skill in directing their fire. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. M. Bache, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Lientenant Bache, V. S. Navy, regarding expenditure of ammnnition 
during the attack of January 11. 

IT. S. Gunboat Cincinnati, 
Off Arkansas Post, January 12, 1863. 
Sir: There were expended during the action on the 11th instant 
in the gunner's department the following articles, viz, 95 9-inch car- 
tridges, 44 5-inch shells, 32 5-inch shrapnel, 13 stand of grape, 6 solid 



116 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 

shot, 3 Parrott cartridges, 3 5-iiich Parrott shells, 1 8-inch cartridge, 
1 5-iiich shell, 2 32-pounder cartridges, 2 5-inch 32-pounder shells. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

Geo. M. Bache, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 



Supplemental report of Acting Eear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding the 
satisfactory protection of a tallow coating on the vessels engaged. 

No. 45.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas Post, January W, 1S63. 

Sih: I beg leave to mention a circumstance that I deem of great 
importance at this moment. I did not mention it in my general re- 
port from prudential motives. 

Before I sent the vessels under the fort I ordered the iron plating 
on the pilot houses and casemates to be covered with a coating of 
tallow. This rule was followed even on the small light-draft vessels 
generally called tin-clads. The Rattler was struck fair on her iron 
covering (only three-fourths of an inch thick) by two IX-inch shells, 
which flew upward without scratching the iron. 

The Cincinnati was struck eight times on her pilot house with IX- 
inch shells, which glanced off lilre peas against glass. 

The Baron De Kalb was the only one that had a casemate broken 
in, and that was done by a continuous hammering of three hours with 
solid shot from the fort. 

I am perfectly convinced that a coating of tallow on ironclad gun- 
boats is a perfect protection against shot if fired at an angle. The 
experiment is worth being tried. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porteb, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Com/manding Mississipjn Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, transmitting list of naval prisoners. 

No. 47.] U. S. Mississippi Spuadeon, 

Arkansas River, January 12, 1863. ' 
Sir: I enclose a list of officers belonging to the staff of Colonel 
Dunnington, late of the Navy and commander of the fort, who de- 
livered their swords and surrendered to the Navy. I have sent them 
to Captain Pennock at Cairo, to be provided for, etc. I advise that 
these officers be exchanged at Richmond; they will then not return 
to this river. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porteb, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron, 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN ' WATEBS. 117 

[BncloBure.] 

List of officers belonging to the Confederate States Navy, captured at Arlcansas 

Post January IZ, 1863. 

John W. Dunnington, colonel, commanding Third Brigade, and 
first lieutenant, C. S. N., commanding naval forces. 

Joseph Preble, acting master, C. S. Navy. 

Frank Ranger, acting master, C. S. Navy. 

F. M. Koby, first lieutenant and brigade ordnance officer and mid- 
shipman, C. S. Navy. 

N. M. Bead, assistant surgeon, C. S. Navy. 

W. S. Campbell, major and quartermaster Third Brigade, and 
captain's clerk, C. S. Navy. 

Howell Quigley, second assistant engineer, C. S. Navy. 

Samuel Sullivan, third assistant engineer, C. S. Navy. 

Joseph Nutter, master's mate, C. S. Navy. 

W. A. Lang, captain's steward, C. S. Navy. 

George EUiott, boatswain's mate. 

John McDonald, boatswain's mate. 

W. C. Fisher, master-at-arms. 

Charles Lettig, quartermaster. 

John B. Hassert, quartermaster. 

Michael Kemmett, quartermaster. 

John Shephard, quartermaster. 

P. J. Fitzpatrick, purser's steward. 

James Hussey, surgeon's steward. 

Eichard [or Robert] Scott, gunner's mate. 

Charles Loewenberg, ship's cook. 

T. [or P.] J. Jackson, wardroom cook. 

Charles Crowly, seaman. 

Charles Williams, seaman. 

Patrick Kelly, ordinary seanian. 

Plinny Cox, ordinary seaman. 

John Lee, ordinary seaman. 

Henry Peters, landsman. 

Edward Walsh, first-class fireman. 

George Dehman, first-class fireman. 

John Fuller, coal heaver. 

Aleck Martin, first-class boy. 

John Brown, first-class boy. 

Christopher Kain, second-class boy. 

Michael EJiackley, second-class boy. 

Samuel H. Buck, captain, assistant adjutant-general. 

A. M. Williams, captain of engineers. 



CongiatnlatoTy order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy. 

[No date.] 
The commander-in-chief takes this occasion to thank the officers 
and men for the handsome manner in which they disposed of Fort 
Hindman on the 11th of January. In no instance during the war 



118 NAVAL f6iLdm ON WESffiflN WA5®Elg. 

has there been a more complete victory and so little doubt as to whonl 
the credit belongs. Our ironclads and gunboats knocked the fort 
to pieces, dismounting every gun (eleven in all), while our light- 
draft vessels and the ram Monarch cut off the retreat of the enemy, 
throwing them back upon the army, who captured them by hundreds. 
This is the history of this affair in a few words. I can not with- 
hold the credit due to my officers and men, even at the risk of hurting 
the sensibilities of others, and I am sure that our brave soldiers will 
not desire to take away from us the credit of doing what they would 
have finally accomplished themselves. I regret the dead who have 
fallen in the defense of our glorious flag, but they died as heroes 
should die. We should all be ready to do the same when our country 
needs the sacrifice. Let us show these rebels that there is no such 
thing as defeat expected by the Navy. You have proved on this 
occasion that mud forts and railroad-iron casemates will fall before 
the well-directed fire of American sailors, and if I place you muzzle 
to muzzle with the foe, it is to save life and insure a certain victory. 
Three cheers for the Union. 

David D. Pokter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral-. 



Special report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, commending the 
conduct of certain commanding officers. 

TJ. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas Post, January 13, 1863. 

Sir : The general report of an action embraces all those engaged in 
it, and although on this occasion the conduct of all the officers met 
my approbation, I must give a little more credit to some than to 
others. Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker is a man of more 
than ordinary intelligence, with cool, calm judgment in time of 
action, and one on whom the Government can refy to perform any 
duty. He managed and fought his vessel most beautifully, and I 
never had to correct a movement of his during the action. I look 
upon him as one of the most reliable officers in the service. The 
rebels admit that they never saw such firing in their lives as came 
from the X-inch guns of the Baron De KaTb, and I know of no 
instance on record where every gun in a fort was dismounted or 
destroyed. Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith is well kiiown to 
the Department, and I believe they appreciate his gallantry as an 
officer. He performed on this occasion a daring act, passing a strong 
fort under a heavy fire of cannon and musketry, for the enemy hav- 
ing no one at the time to contend with in the rear, directed the fire 
of 6j000 muskets on our vessels. 

Lieutenant Commanding George M. Bache is a very young officer, 
but displayed the coolness of a veteran. His vessel was not hurt 
nor did he lose a man, because he silenced so soon the guns which I 
directed him to fire on. 

Lieutenant-Commander Elias K. Owen, of the Louisville, managed 
his vessel handsomely and did his work as well as the others. He 
labored under the disadvantage of having two shells burst in his ports, 
killing and wounding 11 men, which, for a moment only, stopped 
his fire. 



NAVAL P6R6ES 0» WESTBeN WAMlftS. 119 

Lieutenant-Commander James W. Shirk brought up the Lexing- 
ton in good time, and opened his broadside on the fort. One of his 
first guns destroyed a rifled piece which was boring him pretty ef- 
fectually. Lieutenant Selim E. Woodworth, in the Glide, passed 
through with Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, and helped 
to cut off the retreat of the rebels, 30 or 40 only of whom escaped 
by a ferry 10 miles up the river. The ferry was destroyed by the 
two officers above mentioned, and the rebel army all fell into our 
hands. 

Lieutenant-Commander K. Eandolph Breese, of the Black Hawk. 
brought his ship sufficiently close into action to do much execution 
with his rifled 30-pounders, and headed the men in the two attempts 
we made to board the fort, which was only prevented by the partmg 
of the wheel ropes. 

I have endeavored to do full justice to all the above-mentioned 
officers, and have not said a word too much in their praise. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GroEON Weli^es, 

Secretary of the Na/vy, Washington, D. C. 



Beport of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, T7. S. Navy, transmitting recommenda- 
tions of two officers of the IT. S. tng Thistle, for special services. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Post of Arkansas, January 13, 1863. 
Sir: The enclosed recommendations* are for two officers belong- 
ing to the tug Thistle, \fhich. vessel I used part of the time during 
the attack on Fort Hindman, Post of Arkansas, to communicate 
with the different vessels and regulate the movements of the squad- 
ron. I foimd it impossible to make signals in the smoke. The Thistle 
was in the thickest of the fire, and under a heavy fire of musketry 
on both occasions. During the latter action the Louisville took fire 
unperceived by those on board. I went alongside and sent Mr. 
Eltringham on board with the crew of the tug, who, in a few moments, 
extinguished the flames. The Cincinnati being reported on fire, I 
went to her assistance, when the above-mentioned officer went with 
the crew on board and found it was a false alarm. The two officers 
mentioned displayed perfect coolness throughout the affair, and de- 
serve promotion. Allow me also to mention the conduct of Ensign 
Symmes H. Hunt, the signal officer, who is always ready to volunteer 
for any service and who showed a laudable zeal on this occasion, 
leading the firemen and helping to extinguish the flames. But for 
this timely assistance the fire would have been difficult to arrest. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Weujes, 

Secretary of the Namy. 

*Not found. 



120 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

Beport of Colonel Ellet, commanding fl. S. Ram Fleet 

17. S. Steam Eam Monarch, 
Of Arkansas Post, Ark., January 12, 1863. 

General: I have the honor to report to you that on the 9th in- 
stant I ascended the Arkansas River in the Monarch, accompanying, 
by Admiral Porter's order, the naval expedition against Fort 
Hindman. 

During the attack upon the fort on the 11th instant the Moruirch 
was held immediately in rear of the ironclads, with instructions to, 
take the lead if a rebel ram appeared. 

Just before the surrender of the enemy I received orders to pass 
the fort and cut off the retreat of the enemy. This was done, and I 
kept on up the river for 12 miles. The water then became so shallow 
as to render it impossible to proceed farther. The Monarch got 
aground four times as it was. I was consequently compelled to re- 
turn, to my great regret, as I understood from a prisoner we captured 
on the way that there was a ferry some 6 miles farther up, where 
the fleeing rebels would be able to cross. I notified the commander 
of the light-draft gunboats of this fact on my return, but am unaware 
whether any steps were taken to destroy the ferry. 

I reported verbally to Admiral Porter the result of the expedition. 
Though I 'have no positive information to that effect, I think the 
passage of the Monarch must have caused a considerable number of 
the enemy to fall into the hands of our army. We shelled the woods 
on our right-hand side as we went up, and at several points saw 
numbers of the rebels retreating from the banks of the river. 
Very respectfully, 

Charles Rivers Ellet, 
Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet. 

Brigadier-General Aleked W. Ellet, 

Com/manding Mississippi Marine Brigade. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Sorter, U. S. Navy, to Uajor-Oeneral McCler- 
nand, V. S. Army, advising the removal of piles opposite Fort Hindman. 

Arkansas Post, January IS, 1863. 
General: I beg leave to suggest that the piles in the sandbar 
opposite the fort, placed to obstruct the channel at high water, be 
removed by some of your engineers; they will otherwise injure the 
transports if the water should rise suddenly. I would do it myself, 
but have no men used to that kind of work. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D, Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General John A. McClernand, U. S. Army, 

CoTmnanding the Army of the Mississippi. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 121 

Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Havy, to Kajor-Gteneral Uc- 
Clernand, V. S. Amiy, regarding the forwarding of wounded and prisoners. 

Abkansas Post, January 12, 1863. 
General: I am going to send up a gunboat with some wounded 
and some naval officers taken prisoners, also with dispatches. 

As you are going to send oflF the prisoners, and will notify me 
when they will go, I will let the gunboat convoy them. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, 

Com/manding the Army of the Mississippi. 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, to Quartermaster Parsons, 
M. S. Army, regarding the forwarding of prisoners. 

TJ. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 12, 1863. 
Sir : The New Era is going up as convoy to the prisoners. She will 
go at once to the mouth of the river to take in coaL She will hoist a 
checkered red and white flag. I want to send up 26 prisoners. To 
which boat shall I send them ? 
Very respectfully, . 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Parsons, 

Quartermaster, U. S. Army. 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. ITavy, to Kajor-Oeneral Xc- 
Clernand, IT. S. Army, regarding the convoy of prisoners. 

Arkansas Post, January 13, 1863- 
General: Your two communications of to-day in relation to the 
convoy of prisoners and the removal of the shell only reached me a 
half hour since. I have been up the river all day sounding. 

One of the gunboats is at the mouth of the river waiting for the 
steamers, and the other will convoy them down and then accompany 
them wherever you wish to send them. The shells will be sent for 
early to-morrow morning. 

I am much obliged to you for the offer of the hospital ship, but 
we have one of our own where the wounded are well cared for. 
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi, Transport Tigress. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to lieutenant-Commander 
Shirk, TJ. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. lexington, regarding convoy of 
prisoners. 

Aekansas Post, Jamtary 13, 1863. 

Sir: You will proceed at daylight to the mouth of White Eiver 
with the prisoners captured at Fort Hindman and convoy them to 
such places as the general commanding may send them to. You 
will regulate the movements of the boats so that there can be no 
possibility of their rising on the guard. The New Era, at the mouth 
of the river, will accompany you. When you have performed this 
duty you will proceed to New Albany and take command pf the 
Tuscumbia as soon as she is ready to be turned over to the Mississippi 
Squadron, and you will go on to Erie, Pa., and see if you can not raise 
men enough to man her. You will not remain there longer than a 
week. 

You will send the Lexington bajck to me, in charge of the executive, 
the moment you deliver tlie prisoners and start on the duty enjoined 

Report to me how matters are progressing by every opportunity. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander James W. Shirk, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. Lexington. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Owen, IT. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Louisville, regarding transfer of shell 
from Port Hindman to that vessel. 

Arkansas Post, January 13, 1863. 
Sir : You will apply to the ordnance officer of the Army, who will 
deliver to you all the 8 and 9 inch shell in the fort, which you will 
transfer to your vessel without delay. 

The ordnance officer will be found on the transport General 
Anderson. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi 8qua,dron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Elias K. Owen, U. S. Navy. 

Commanding Louisville, Arkansas River. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Smith, V. S. Navy, to send a gunhoat above Port Hindman, to follow the last 
transport down Arkansas River. 

U. S. S. Black Hawk, January 14, 1863. 
Sir: You will send a light-draft at daylight up half a mile above 
the fort, which vessel will bring up the rear and follow down the last 
transport that leaves the fort. 



NAVAL FCfiOES OiT WISIE&N WAlfifiS. 12S 

Have another vessel ready at 8 o'clock a. m. to-morrow to carry 
(lispatches up the White River. Let the commander report to me. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davd) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Smith, TT. S. Navy, in view of the movement of Uajor-General UcClemand, 
V. S. Army, from the Arkansas Biver. 

January 17, 1863. 
Snt: I have received a communication from General McClernand, 
that he is proceeding out of the river. If he has disabled the guns, 
follow with all the vessels, setting fire to anything that may be left 
behind. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAvm D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, CoTtimanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy. 

Com,m,anding First Division of Light-Drafts. 



Supplemental report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, transmitting 
chart and sketches of Port Hindman. 

No. 59.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 17, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose a chart and sketches of Fort Hind- 
man, Post of Arkansas, showing the position and destructive fire of 
the ironclads Louisville, Baron De Kalb, and Cincinnati. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Extracts from detailed report of Major-Qeneral UcClemand, TJ. S. Army. 

Headquarters Armx of the Mississippi, 
Steamer Tigress, Mississippi River, January 20, 1863. 

I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations 
of the forces of which, in pursuance of the order of Major-General 
Grant, commanding Department of the Tennessee, I assumed com- 
mand on the 4th instant, at Milliken's Bend, La., resulting in the 
reduction of Fort Hindman, more generally known as Post [of] 
Arkansas : 

These forces, styled by me for convenience and propriety of descrip- 
tion the Army of the Mississippi, consisted of parts of two corps 
d'armee, viz., the Thirteenth, my own, and the Fifteenth. Major- 



124 NAVAL POBCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

General Sherman's. Desiring to give my undivided attention to niat- 
ters affecting the general command, I immediately assigned Brigadier- 
General George W. Morgan, a tried and meritorious officer, to the 
command of the Thirteenth Corps d'Armee, in which he was the 
senior division commander. 

■I: 4: * « « » 4: 

Having, as already mentioned, assumed command of these forces 
on the 4th instant after they had retired from the neighborhood of 
Vicksburg, I sailed with them the same day in execution of a pur- 
pose, the importance of which I had suggested to General Gorman 
at Helena, December 30, on my way down the river. That purpose 
was the reduction of Fort Hindman, which had been laboriously and 
skillfully enlarged and strengthened since the commencement of the 
rebellion, which formed the key to Little Eock, the capital of the 
State of Arkansas, and the extensive and valuable country drained 
by the Arkansas Eiver, and from which hostile detachments were 
constantly sent forth to obstruct the navigation of the Mississippi 
River and thereby our communications. 

A government transport, the Blue Wing, laden with valuable mili- 
tary stores, only a few days before, fell prey to one of these detach- 
ments, and ammunition taken from her was used against us in the 
engagement of which I am giving an account. Without turning my 
arms in this direction, my forces must have continued comparatively 
idle at Milliken's Bend until you should have altered your plan for 
the reduction of Vicksburg or recalled them. 

tki :ii Hf 4e :ie ^js 4: 

Dispatching Colonel Stewart, chief of cavalry, with my escort to 
explore the ground to the bayou on the right, I hastened back and 
requested Rear- Admiral Porter, commanding the Mississippi Squad- 
ron, to advance the gunboats and open fire on the enemy's works for 
the purpose of diverting his attention while the land forces should 
gain the positions assigned to them. Promptly complying, the ad- 
miral advanced his boats and opened a terrific cannonade upon the 
fort, which was continued an hour or more and until after nightfall. 
******* 

Post [of] Arkansas, a small village, the capital of Arkansas 
County, IS situated on elevated ground, above the reach of floods, and 
defining for some miles the left bank of the river. It was settled 
by the French in 1685 ; is 50 miles above the mouth of the river, 117 
miles below Little Rock, and is surrounded by a fruitful country, 
abounding in cattle, corn, and cotton. 

Fort Hindman, a square, fuU-bastioned fort, was erected within 
this village, upon the bank of the river, at the head of a bend resem- 
bling a horseshoe. 

* * * * * « ^ 

Having placed in battery, at the request of Admiral Porter, two 
20-pounaer Parrotts, as already explained, for the purpose of dis- 
mounting the gun in the lower casemate, which had seriously annoyed 
the gunboats on the previous evening, and all my forces being ready 
for action, I sent word to the admiral accordingly, and notified him 
that as soon as he had opened fire I would advance to the attack of 
the enemy's works, and at 12 m. repeated the same communication. 



NAVAL, FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 125 

At 1 p. m. the gunboats opened fire, immediately followed by the 
fire of artillery along the right wing of my line, and soon after by 
the fire of artillery along the left wing. At the expiration of thirty 
minutes the infantry were to advance to the charge, and when our 
men were heard shouting the gunboats, in order to avoid inflicting 
injury upon them, were to cease firing. 

Colonel Lindsey, as soon as a gunboat had passed above the fort, 
hastened with his brigade down the opposite shore and opened an 
oblique fire from Foster's two 20 and Lieutenant Wilson's two 10 
pounder Parrotts into the enemy's line of rifle pits, carrying away his 
battle flag and killing a number of his men. Eager to do still more, 
he embarked the Third Kentucky on board of one of the gunboats to 
cross the river to the fort, but before it got over the enemy had 
surrendered. 

Thus, at 4 :30 o'clock, after three and a half hours' hard fighting, 
our forces entered and took possession of all the enemy's defenses. 
******* 

The prisoners of war I forwarded to the commissioner for the 
exchange of prisoners at St. Louis; and utterly destroying all of 
the enemy's defenses, together with all buildings used by him for 
military purposes, I reembarked my command and sailed for Milli- 
ken's Bend on the 17th instant, in obedience to Major-General Grant's 
order. 

******* 

The maps and drawings herewith submitted will illustrate the dis- 
position of the land forces, the position of the gunboats, the defenses 
of the enemy, the field of operations, and the surrounding country. 

John A. McClernand, 

Major-General Commanding. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John A. Kawlins, 

Assistant Adjutant-General, DepartTnent of the Tennessee. 



Beport of Major-General Sherman, U. S. Army, commanding Fifteenth Army 

Corps. 

Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 
Post of Arkansas, Ark., January 13, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report the operations of this corps during 
the recent events which resulted in the capture of the Arkansas Post 
with its entire garrison and its materiel of war. 

The fleet of gunboats under Admiral Porter and tiansports carry- 
ing the two corps composing this army, having rendezvoused in the 
Mississippi Kiver at the mouth of White Kiver, on the morning of 
the 9th instant entered White Eiver, gunboats leading, followed by 
General McClernand in person, my corps, and then General Morgan's. 
Our route was up White River to the cut-off, through it to the 
Arkansas, and up that river to the Arkansas Post; whole distance 
estimated at 50 miles. 



126 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEBN WATEKS. 

Late in the evening of the 10th Admiral Porter's fleet made a 
furious attack upon the fort, continuing the cannonading till after it 
was dark ; but although I had pushed one brigade of Stuart's division, 
commanded by Colonel Giles A. Smith, close up to the enemy's line, 
our forces were not then in position to make an assault. * * * 

My orders were that as soon as the gunboats opened their fire all 
our batteries in position should commence firing and continue until 
I ordered " Cease firing," when, after three minutes' cessation, the 
infantry columns of Steele and Stuart were to assault the enemy's 
line of rifle pits and defenses. 

The gunboats opened about 1 p. m., and our field batteries at once 
commenced firing, directing their shots at the enemy's guns, his line 
of defenses, and most especially enfilading the road which led directly 
into the fort, and which road separated General Morgan's line of 
attack from mine. I could not see the gunboats, and had to judge 
of their progress by the sound of their fire. This was at first slow 
and steady, but rapidly approached the fort and enveloped it with 
a complete hailstorm of shot and shell. * * * 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

W. T. Sherman, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. Schwartz, 

Assistant Adjutant-General to General McGlemand. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., January SI, 1863. 
The gunboat Lexington, Lieutenant-Commander Shirk, has just 
arrived, 11 : 30 a. m., convoying 4,793 rebel prisoners of war from 
the Post of Arkansas. 

A. M. Pennock. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary Navy. 



Report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, 15. S. Navy, correcting statement made In 

previous report. 

No. 76.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January S8, 1863. 

Sir : I mentioned in one of my reports to you that the Army had 
captured eighteen fieldpieces at Arkansas Post, on the field. Only 
seventeen guns were captured in all — six besides the guns in the fort, 
captured by the Navy. I was misinformed. 

I have the honorto be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 127 

Renort of Acting Rear- Admiral forter, U. S. Navy, responding t? Department's 
statement that the only information received had been through the War 
Department. 

No. 79.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 38, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your commu- 
nication, stating that you had no information of my movements at 
Arkansas Post except through the War Department. " 

I sent a fast boat oif immediately with a telegram, but the army 
boat beat her. If you did not receive my communication so soon, you 
will find it more reliable than the one received at the War Depart- 
ment, which states that the Navy cooperated, when in fact it forced 
the fort to surrender, and then cut off the retreat of the rebels, who 
were driven back on the Army. I find that army officers are not 
willing to give the Navy credit (even in very small matters) they are 
entitled to, but you will find that I do not fail in my reports to give 
my officers and men the credit they justly deserve, even at the risk 
of hurting the sensibilities of the Army. 

You wul receive the first account of the next battle we have. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



Congratulatory letter from the Secretary of the Navy to Acting Rear-Admiral 
Porter, IT. S. Navy, acknowledging delayed reports. 

Navy Department, January 28, 1863. 
Sir: Your several dispatches of the 11th, 12th, and 13th instant, 
communicating the success attending your command at the Post of 
Arkansas, the reduction of that place, and the surrender by Colonel 
Dunnington, the commandant of its garrison, to our naval forces, 
have been duly received. 

It is a gratification that the efforts of yourself and the officers and 
sailors on the Western rivers indicate the same resolute energy and 
efficiency that characterized the movements of our gunboats one year 
ago; and the result at Arkansas Post is, I trust, the harbinger of 
other achievements for the country and the Union by our naval 
forces. 

Accept for yourself and convey to your gallant associates the con- 
gratulations of the Department for your services. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of Navy. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo, III. 



128 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Report of Brigadier-General Churchill, C. S. Army, commanding lower Arkansas 

and White rivers. 

Richmond, Va., May 7, 1863. 
\ General: Not being in communication with Lieutenant-General 
Holmes, commanding the Trans-Mississippi Department, I herewith 
forward for your consideration my report of the actions of the 10th 
and 11th of January last at Arkansas Post. 
I have the honor to be, general, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

T. J. Churchill, Brigadier-General, 
Commanding Lower Arkansas and White Rivers. 
General S. Cooper, 

Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va. 

[Enclosure.] 

Richmond, Va., May 6, 1863. 

General : On the morning of the 9th of January I was informed 
by pickets stationed at the mouth of the cut-off that the enemy, with 
his gunboats, followed by his fleet of seventy or eighty transports, 
were passing into the Arkansas River. It now became evident that 
their object was to attack the Arkansas Post. I immediately made 
every arrangement to meet him, and ordered out the whole force 
under my command, numbering about 3,000 effective men, to take 
position in some lower trenches about IJ miles below the fort. The 
Second Brigade, under Colonel Deshler, and the Third, under Colonel 
Dunnington, occupied the works, while the First Brigade, under 
Colonel Garland, was held in reserve. 

Three companies of cavalry, under command of Captains Denson, 
Nutt, and Richardson, were sent in advance to watch the movements 
of the enemy. During the night the enemy effected a landing about 
2 miles below, on the north side of the river. 

The following day about 9 o'clock the gunboats commenced moving 
up the river and opened fire upon our position. Having but one bat- 
tery of fieldpieces, of 6 and 12 pounders, I did not return their fire. 
It was here that I expected the cooperation of the guns from the fort, 
but owing to some defect in the powder they were scarcely able to 
throw a shell below the trenches, much less to the fleet. About 2 
o'clock p. m., discovering that I was being flanked by a large body of 
cavalry and artillery, I thought it advisaole to fall back under cover 
of the guns of the fort to an inner line of intrenchments. 

The enemy advanced cautiously, and as they approached our lines 
were most signally repulsed. They made no further attempt that 
evening to charge our works, and I employed the balance of the time 
till next morning in strengthening my position and completing my 
intrenchments. Discovering that a body of the enemy had occupied 
some cabins in our old encampment, I ordered Colonel R. Q. Mills 
with his regiment to drive them from the position, which he did most 
successfully, capturing several prisoners. Just before dark Admiral 
Porter moved up with several of his ironclads to test the metal of 
our fort. Colonel Dunnington, who commanded the fort, was ready 
in an instant to receive him. The fire opened, and the fight lasted 
near two hours, and finally the gunboats were compelled to fall back 
in a crippled condition. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 129 

Our loss was slight, that of the enemy much heavier. During the 
night I received a telegraphic dispatch from you, ordering me " to 
hold out till help arrived or until all dead," which order was com- 
municated to brigade commanders, with instructions to see it carried 
out in spirit and letter. Next morning I made every disposition of 
my forces to meet the enemy in the desperate conflict which was soon 
to follow. Colonel Deshler, with his brigade, with the regiment of 
Colonel Dawson attached, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Hutchi- 
son, occupied the extreme left; Colonel Garland, with his brigade, 
with his right resting on the fort, while Colonel Dunnington com- 
manded the river defenses. It was near 12 o'clock before the enemy 
got fully into position, when he commenced moving upon my lines 
simultaneously by land and water. Four ironclads opened upon the 
fort, which responded in gallant style with its three guns. 

After a continuous fire of three hours they succeeded in silencing 
every gun we had with the exception of one small 6-pounder Parrott 
gun, which was on the land side. Two boats passed up and opened 
a cross-fire upon the fort and our lines ; still we maintained the strug- 
gle. Their attack by land was less successful ; on the right they were 
repulsed twice in attempting to storm our works, and on the left were 
driven back with great slaughter in no less than eight different 
charges. To defend this entire line of rifle pits I had but one battery 
of small fieldpieces, under command of Captain Hart, to whom great 
credit is due for the successful manner in which they were handled, 
contending, as he did, with some fifty pieces in his front. The fort 
had now been silenced about an hour, most of the fieldpieces had been 
disabled ; still the fire raged furiously along the entire line, and that 
gallant band of Texans and Arkansans, having nothing to rely upon 
now save their muskets and bayonets, still disdained to yield to the 
overpowering foe of 50,000 men, who were pressing upon them from 
almost every direction. Just at this moment, to my great surprise, 
several white flags were displayed in the Twenty-fourth Regiment 
Texas Dismounted Cavalry, First Brigade, and before they could be 
suppressed the enemy took advantage of them, crowded upon my lines, 
and not being prevented by the brigade commander from crossing, as 
was his duty, I was forced to the humiliating necessity of surrender- 
ing the balance of the command. My great hope was to keep them in 
check until night and then, if reinforcements did not reach me, cut 
my way out. No stigma should rest upon the troops. It was no fault 
of theirs ; they fought with a desperation and courage yet unsurpassed 
in this war, and I hope and trust that the traitor will yet be discov- 
ered, brought to justice, and suffer the full penalty of the law. My 
thanks are due Colonels Anderson and Gillespie for the prompt meas- 
ures taken to prevent the raising of the white flag in their regiments. 
In the Second Brigade, commanded by the gallant Deshler, it was 
never displayed. 

I had ordered Colonel E. E. Portlock, commanding at St. Charles, 
to hasten to my relief with what troops he could spare. Captain Alf. 
Johnson reached the post on Saturday night and took part in the 
action on the 11th. Colonel Portlock, at the head of 190 men of his 
regiment of infantry, made the unprecedented march of 40 miles in 
twenty-four hours, and succeeded in entering our lines amidst a heavy 
fire from the enemy on his flanks. He was just on the eve of bring- 
ing his men into action when the surrender took place. 

711°— N w K— VOL 24— -10 ^9 



130 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

In no battle of the war has the disparity of forces been so unequal. 
The enemy's force was fully 50,000, when ours did not exceed 3,000, 
and yet for two days did we signally repulse and hold in check that 
immense body of the enemy. My loss will not exceed 60 killed aiid 
75 or 80 wounded. The loss of the enemy was from 1,500 to 2,000 
killed and wounded. 

* * * * * « * 

I herewith enclose for your consideration the reports of Colonels 
Garland and Deshler ; that of Colonel Dunnington I have as yet been 
unable to obtain. 

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

T. J. Churchill, 
Brig.-Gen., Commanding Lower Arkansqis and White Rivers. 

Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes, 

Little Rock. 

[Endorsement.] 

Headquarters Arkansas Department, 

Little Rock, June 8, 1863. 
It is impossible to imagine better conduct on the part of officers 
and men, and it is a matter of rejoicing to me that my hasty order 
was rendered nugatory before the brave Churchill was reduced to the 
ultima ratio — cutting his way through such immense odds. It never 
occurred to me when the order was issued that such an overpowering 
command would be devoted to an end so trivial. 
Respectfully forwarded to the adjutant and inspector-general. 

Th. H. Holmes, 
Lieutenant- General,. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admirad Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General Sherman, V. S. Army, regarding the possibility of getting 
coal through to the U. S. ram Queen of the West. 

January 5, 1863. 
General : Is it possible to get coal over to the ram Queen of the 
West, either through the canal or by teams ? 
She will require 5,000 bushels. 

That was a good lick at the rebels ; I have another in store for 
them soon. Please inform me if you can help me to get the coal over 
and keep up the armament. We will starve them at Port Hudson 
as sure as a gun. 

Respectfully, yours, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admirad, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General Wm. T. Sherman, 

Corwmanding Fifteenth Army Cm'ps^ U. S. Army. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 131 

Report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding the 
commissioning of three new ironclads. 

No. 6.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 5, 1863. 

Sir: Three more light-draft, ironclad gunboats, the Mary Miller, 
Duchess, and Florence, will go in commission next week. I beg 
leave to offer the following names for them: Mary Miller, Prairie 
Bird; Duchess, Petrel; and Florence, Curlew; otherwise the rebels 
will know what they are. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Poktek, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 

[Endorsement.] 

Yes; if none of the names are in use. Notify Bureau of Con- 
struction. 



Instructions from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy^ to Fleet 
Gaptain Pennock, U. S. Navy, in view of the reported presence of 
Gonfederate rams in the Yazoo River. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 5, 1863. 

Sir : I must have the Lafayette even if she has not got her iron on. 
Three rams superior to the Arkansas are coming out of the Yazoo. 
Put every man and officer in her you can get. Let her stop at Island 
No. 10, and let Captain Walke take command of her. Let him take 
25 men out of the Garondelet, including the men he took from the 
Benton, and let him proceed to the mouth of the Yazoo without one 
moment's delay and take command of the fleet there until I return. 
Let the mechanics and iron go down in the Lafayette. Tell Mr. Lan- 
ing to shove the Choctaw and get her down without delay. Let 
Lieutenant McLeod Murphy take passage in the ram Lafayette and 
relieve Captain Walke on board the Garondelet, and remain for the 
present at Island No. 10. Please send Captain Walke a copy of this 
letter. The moment the Eastport is off the ways, see that she has her 
guns and provisions in, and send her down to the mouth of the White 
River, where I am. 

I want the light-drafts very much; send them along with short 
crews; if they can man two guns, I will be satisfied. Let iih.Q East- 
port come with short crew also, and send the men down as fast as 
they come on. If any lOD-pounder rifles come to Cairo, put two of 
them in the bow ports of the Eastport; if not, pin the IX-inch in. 

The squadron is all burning wood ; there is no coal. If Mr. Boggs 
has no good reasons for not sending supplies, he is incurring a heavy 
responsibility. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Gaptain, Ccmmandant of Station^ Cairo, III. 



132 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter^ U. S. Navy, to the Super- 
intendent of Goast Survey, regarding the work of his assistants. 

U. S. Mississippi Sqttadeon, January 5, 1863. 
Sir : I have had no opportunity to inform you how your assistants 
were getting along. Mr. Halter got sick, and I allowed him to return 
home; Mr. Strausz and Mr. Fendall have rendered themselves ex- 
tremely useful to me in compiling maps for the use of the Army and 
Navy and making surveys of the field of operations before Vicksburg. 
I sent Mr. Strausz down in a vessel near the front of the city to make 
plans and take sketches of the batteries, which he did to my satisfac- 
tion, giving us information that we have not possessed before, and 
showing the impracticability of attacking Vicksburg by water alone. 
We might otherwise have run our heads against a stone wall. Dur- 
ing the ascent of the Yazoo Eiver, and while engaged in taking up 
torpedoes, our passage was contested at every step by two or three 
thousand riflemen in pits and behind levees, so protected that our 
guns could not hurt them. The vessels were much cut up, the rifle 
balls going through and through the light upper works. Mr. Strausz 
accompanied the expedition, and while under the fire produced a good 
chart of the river and back country, with which we have made our 
advances. I could not have got along very well without these maps. 
Both Strausz and Fendall are very assiduous in making maps for 
future use. They are now making one of the State of Arkansas, 
where we intend striking a blow before returning to Vicksburg, the 
water being still too low to operate there with any hope of success. 
It is all swamp now, except in front. When the water rises our" 
vessels can get near to dry land, where they can cover the troops. 
I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porter. _ 
A. D. Bache, 

Superintendent Coast Survey. 



Rules for cutting fuzes in shrapnel. 

[January 6, 1863.] 
Each mark on the sight represents a second on the fuze. If you 
want to fire 1-second fuze, fasten the sight at the first mark, and 
point at the object. One-second fuze will burst at 500 yards with 
good powder; 2-second fuze will burst at 930 yards; 3-second fuze 
will burst at 1,330 yards; 4-second fuze will burst at 1,600 yards; 
5-second fuze will burst at 1,900 yards. 

In every case the mark on the sight must correspond to the second 
of the fuze, and to have good bursting effect the line of sight must 
bear upon the object. For near practice, 1^-second fuze is about 
right, providing the vessel is about 500 yards from the bank; the balls 
in the shell are projected 50 yards farther. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Convmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 133 

Report of Lieutenant BisTiop, U. 8. Navy, regarding the forwarding 
of four mortar boats, towed iy steamer Stephen Bayard. 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 
Off Memphis, Tenn., January 6, 1863. 
Sir : In acquiescence with your order received per U. S. S. Battler., 
I send down to the fleet in tow of the Stephen Bayard four mortar 
boats, leaving six at this point, two of which only are in condition 
to send. The Wilson, having five barges in tow, is unable to take 
them, and there being no towboat here, I regret being unable to send 
them at present. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Joshua Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Badger, V. S. Navy, regarding 
the approach to com,pletion of the TJ. S. S. Tuscurnbia. 

New Albany, Ind., January 6, 1863. 
Sra: The Tuscumhia is rapidly advancing toward completion. 
Even in her present condition, with her guns in position and ammu- 
nition on board, she is a most formidable vessel, and the temptation 
to the enemy to get possession of, or to destroy her, must be very 
great. 

Considering that this vicinity swarms with secessionists, and that 
the guard of convalescent soldiers is not so reliable as could be wished, 
I am of the opinion that a proper precaution requires that she should 
be furnished with a crew of at least 2 officers and 30 men. 

The engineer with two firemen is aU that would be required for the 
present in the engine department. A pilot can always be had. 

The officers and crew should be supplied with small arms and 
ammunition. 

The galley is on board with facilities for cftoking. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

O. C. Badger, 
Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. Navy. 

Commodore J. B. Hull, U. S. Navy, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
P. S. — I should be glad to be relieved, to attend to ordnance duties 
at Cincinnati. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Captain Drink- 
water, regarding towing of coal barges to Cairo. 

January 6, 1863. 
Sir : When the coal barge is empty, take it in tow and proceed to 
Cairo and report yourself. Pick up another empty barge on the 
way if you meet one, and tow it up. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Captain Drinkwater, 

Steamer Ottawa. 



134 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

Letter from Acting Rear-AdmiraZ Porter, U. S. Navy, to Brigadier- 
General Gorman, U. 8. Army, referring to expeditions in White 
and Arkansas rivers. 

Januaky 6, 1863. 
Sir : I have had no opportunity to answer your letter relating to 
supplying you with gunboats, but you have heard ere this that an 
expedition is at the mouth of White River ready to go up the 
Arkansas. I hope you will make your ascent of White Eiver at the 
same time. I will supply you with force enough to keep off any 
armed vessel, but can not promise enough to reduce a fort. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admirai, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Brigadier-General W. A. Gorman. 



Capture and destruction iy Confederate forces of steamers Jacob 
Musselman, January 6, and Grampus No. 2, January 11, 1863. 

Report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, transmitting reports. 

No. 63. U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 18, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to enclose a communication from Lieutenant 
Commanding Joshua Bishop in relation to investigations made about 
the burning of the steamers JacoT) Musselman and Grampus, above 
Memphis. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Weli^es, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. GlTNBOAT CONESTOGA, 

Memphis, January 13, 1863. 

Sir: A party of guerrillas from the Arkansas shore crossed the 
river on Sunday evening and surprised the towboat Grampus No. 2, 
lying on the Tennessee shore about a mile above the city. They made 
prisoners of all aboard and succeeded in getting the steamer over the 
river, when they set fire to her. The steamer was seen to leave the 
bank and go up the river by the lookouts on the Gonestoga, but as 
steamers are constantly passing up and down during the night, there 
was nothing suspicious m the movement. 

I directed Lieutenant Commanding Bishop to proceed in the gun- 
boat Linden, with a force of three companies of troops sent by the 
military authorities, to the place where the steamer was burned and 
destroy the houses in the neighborhood. I enclose his report. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 135 

The repairs upon our boilers are more extensive than I supposed, 
and the machinist tells me he can complete them before Saturday 
evening. I am using all the dispatch I can. 

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Subenclosure.] 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 

Memphis, January 13, 1863. 

Sir: I respectfully report that I went on board the light-draft 
gunboat Linden on the afternoon of the 12th to visit the places where 
the steamers Jacob Musselman and Grampus were burned. The Lin- 
den had on board the part of the Eighty-ninth Regiment of Indiana 
Volunteers, under command of Major Cubberly. 

Proceeded up the river, passing by way of Mound City (where the 
steamer Grampus was burned), anchored near Bradley's Landing 
(where the Jacob Musselman was burned) . About 10 p. m. a steamer 
passed down, and when a short distance below us a signal light was 
shown on the bank. The steamer then blew her whistle and made a 
landing. Perceiving that she was landing, hailed her with the steam 
whistle, which she did not notice; got underway and chased the ves- 
sel, which had left the bank, sounded the whistle and fired a gun. 
After chasing the vessel some distance brought her to and boarded 
her, the steamer Chippewa Valley. Finding nothing wrong, per- 
mitted her to proceed on down the river; steamed back to Bradley's 
Landing and anchored. At 7 a. m. got underway and landed at 
Bradley's Landing to communicate. Ascertained that there was 
quite a force of guerrillas in the neighborhood, who intended destroy- 
ing steamers ; that their rendezvous was at Mound City, Marion, and 
Ilopefield ; that a man named Cheek was instrumental in burning the 
steamers. At 9 a. m. left Bradley's Landing and proceeded to Mound 
City, firing shells at intervals into the woods, as it was supposed there 
were guerrillas thereabouts. 

At 10 landed at Mound City and disembarked the troops. The 
infantry made prisoners of several citizens, who had been harbor- 
ing guerrillas; set fire to and burned several unoccupied houses be- 
longing to Mr. Cheek and others, as there was evidence that they had 
been lately occupied. 

The pickets exchanged shots with some mounted men. A number 
of shotguns, rifles, revolvers, etc., was captured. 

The infantry proceeded by land to Hopefield, searching houses for 
arms. At 2 p. m. landed at Hopefield and embarked the troops; 
steamed down to Fort Pickering and disembarked the troops. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Joshua Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Commariding. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Commanding V. S. S. Conestoga, Senior Oficer of Memphis. 



136 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Keport of Captain McGehee, C. S. Army. 

Camp of Unattached Company, Arkansas Cavalht, 

Marion, Ark., March 12, 1863. 

Colonel: In obedience to orders received from the major-general 
commanding the Trans-Mississippi district to proceed to the county 
of Crittenden, Ark., for the purpose of scouting and burning cotton 
in that country and annoying the enemy on the Mississippi River, I 
have the honor to report that I marched from Austin, Ark., and pro- 
ceeded to the Mississippi River, burning all cotton as I went, which 
was liable to fall into the hands of the enemy. 

On the 6th day of January I captured the steamboat Jacob Mussel- 
man opposite Memphis, lying at the Arkansas shore; ran her to 
Bradley's Landing, 15 miles above that point, where I captured an- 
other boat (flatboat) loaded with stock. After taking what was val- 
uable on the steamer Jacob Musselman and the stock off of the flat- 
boat, I burned them both. 

On the 11th day of January I captured the steamboat Grampus No. 
2, just off the wharf at Memphis; ran her to Mound City, 5 miles 
above Memphis, and burned her. There were with the Grampus five 
coal boats, which were turned loose in the river when she was cap- 
tured and floated down and sunk. 

On the 17th of February I captured the steam tug Hercules, oppo- 
site Memphis, and seven coal boats which were with her, and burned 
them on the spot, being unable to run them off, owing to the terrific 
fire from the gunboats which were lying at the Memphis wharf. 

On the 16th of February I captured a flatboat 30 miles below 
Memphis laden with medicine, etc. She had on board the following 
articles, to wit, 600 ounces of quinine, 200 ounces of morphine, 6 
pounds of opium, 5 pounds of ipecac, 5 navy repeaters, 450 rounds 
of navy cartridges, 3,000 percussion caps, and 6 pairs of gantlets. 
I am, colonel, your obedient servant, 

J. H. McGehee, 
Captain, Commanding Company. 

Colonel R. C. Newton, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Newspaper clippings enclosed in statement of J. E. Cheek, of Uound City, dated 
Uemphis, Uarch 19, 1863. 

The Grampus No. 2 arrived here a day or two ago with 3,500 
bushels of coal in tow. She lay a little above the mouth of Wolf 
River at the Island Little Chicken, within 50 yards of the Tennessee 
shore. At about 12 o'clock last night, all hands being in bed but 
the watch, some men suddenly sprang on board from the bank. The 
watch was seized and a pistol put to his head, and one by one the 
various parties on deck were made to leave their berths; a guard 
with a revolver in hand was set over each one of them, and any 
shouting or signaling to boats that lay not very far off was prevented. 

The engineers were compelled to get up steam and the pilot to take 
the boat with 3,500 bushels of coal, but leaving the barges behind, to 
the regular ferry landing at Mound City, 5 miles above our landing. 
Here the commander of the boat, Captain Thomas Chester, was robbed 
of nearly a thousand dollars, greenbacks, which he had upon his per- 
son, and a very valuable gold watch. They stripped the boat of its 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 137 

furniture, bedding, lanterns, crockeryware, and dishes, and all the 
things lying about that they wanted. These were hauled away by 
the aid of a wagon and six horses to where the men said they had a 
camp some distance back. When the work of plunder was completed 
the Grampus was set on fire and cut loose. She floated to the foot of 
the island that is opposite Mound City, where she and her coal are 
burning at the moment we are writing. 

The party making the capture consisted of 13 men; they said they 
had 15 or 20 more within a short distance. They said they were the 
people who took the Mussehnan and burned her on Friday last, and 
that they should have more yet; and they told the Granvpus people 
to tell General Hurlbut when they got back to have his bed big 
enough, for he would find one of them sleeping with him some night. 

He also stated that they had four guns coming, and Avhen they ar- 
rived they should have possession of the river at that point. 

They stated that some of them had been all over Memphis during 
the day, and they had been near the Gramjms and found out how she 
lay. 

The following names were among those heard or known by parties 
taken from the Grarrvfus: Colonel Williamson, Jim McGehee, Lieu- 
tenant Barton, M. R. Cheek, jr., and Green. Some of these 

names will be remembered as having been written on passes given to 
persons on the Musselman when she was taken. 

The persons taken from the Gramjms were not unkindly used. 
They were told that if they chose they might go into an empty house 
above the landing, build a fire there, and remain until morning. This 
was no doubt the house Captain Cheek, of the ferryboat, used to keep 
as a tavern. The Grampus people were paroled ; they walked down 
the shore and were brought across to this side, where they are de- 
tained on one of the gunboats for examination. Among the spoils 
taken from the Gram,pus the captors seemed to be more pleased to 
receive her bell, which was a valuable one. It was understood that 
all the captors were residents of the neighboring portion of Arkansas. 
Colonel Williamson and Captain McGehee had a sort of uniform on. 

This bold act of making off with a boat just above the city land- 
ing, within sight of the city and within gunshot of the gunboats, is 
one that will awaken at least surprise, and, we presume, can not pass 
without chastisement. 



Letter from. Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major-Gen- 
eral McGlernand, TJ . S. A7'my, requesting transportation for the 
remains of Lieutenant- Commander Gwin, TJ. S. Navy. 

January 7, 1863. 
General : Will you do me the favor to allow the first steamer that 
goes up to transport to Cairo and deliver to Captain Pennock the 
body of the late Captain Gwin, and to give passage to the personsi in 
charge of it? 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admirdl, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, U. S. Army, 

Commanding TJ. S. Forces. 



138 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admirdl Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
CoTmnander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. 8. Cones- 
toga, to guard the mouth of White River. 

Off White Rivee, January 7, 1863. 
SiE : You will lie in the mouth of White River, leaving room for 
vessels to pass, and you will guard that point until I return here. 

If a light-draft gunboat comes down here, let her take your place 
and join me up the Arkansas with the Conestoga. Have all gun- 
boats coming down, coal barges, store vessels, etc., stopped at this 
point. Take charge of storeship, hospital, and powder boat. 
Respectfully, yours, etc. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, TJ. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Conestoga. 



Report of Colonel EUet, commanding Ram. Fleet, regarding the prev- 
alence of smallpox on the V. S. ram Switzerland, and consequent 
orders issued. 

Steam Ram Monarch, 
Off Mouth of White River, January 7, 1863. 
Admiral: I have the honor to inform you that on returning to 
Yazoo River, immediately after receiving your instructions to join 
you at this point. Major John W. Lawrence reported to me that the 
sick on the Switzerland numbered 32, of which 23 were cases of 
smallpox. As the coal of the Switzerland was nearly exhausted, and 
as the rapid spread of the contagion threatened to deprive her in a 
few days of her entire force, I agreed with Lieutenant Prichett in 
thinking it best that she should proceed at once to Cairo and dis- 
charge her cargo of patients into the pest house located there. 

I have accordingly instructed Major Lawrence to take his boat up 
as quickly as he can. He is entirely out of coal, and will have to 
make the remaining part of his journey on fence rails if he can not 
obtain a supply of fuel here. 

I instructed the Lancaster, whom I met returning from an un- 
successful attempt to reach General McClernand, to report to Lieu- 
tenant Prichett. 

The three rams now in the Yazoo are probably entirely out of 
coal by this time. 

Very respectfully, Charles Rivers Ellet, 

Colonel, Commanding Rami Fleet. 
David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admirdl, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Master Brown, U. S. Navy, comnnanding TJ. S. S. 
Forest Rose, regarding the rescue of transport steamer Universe, 
January 6. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 
Mouth of White River, January 8, 1863. 
Sir: In obedience to your orders I submit the following report: 
On the morning of the 6th instant, when about 5 miles below Green- 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 139 

ville, I discovered a transport aground on the east side of the river. 
I ran in as near as I could with safety to my own vessel, anchored, 
and sent a boat on board and found it to be the steamer Universe. 
I remained by her and ran a line to her, and succeeded after several 
hours' work in towing her off. About 11 a. m. I noticed two men on 
horseback ride down abreast of the boat and stop behind a tree 
for a short time and then gallop off, one up and the other down the 
levee. During the afternoon I saw several horsemen come from each 
way and turn off of the levee at a plantation near where we lay ; some 
I could see were dressed in military clothes. About 4: 30 p. m., just 
as I had got the steamer afloat, I saw a number of men on horseback 
make their appearance on the levee, acting very suspiciously. I 
recognized the two that I had seen stop by the tree amongst the num- 
ber. I ordered the guns stood by, and went below and sighted one of 
them and fired a 3-inch shell. It struck between two horses and ex- 
ploded, killing both horses and men; one fell instantly; the other 
turned partly around and the man fell first and then the horse. The 
remainder of the gang rode off at a rapid pace. Nothing more of im- 
portance occurred until yesterday, in Cypress Bend ; I stopped to 
wood. The wood lay back some 500 yards from the shore. I placed 
some pickets outside to prevent a surprise. At 1 p. m. an ox team 
was reported to me passmg along the road with a load of fumitura 
Finding that the wagon would answer to cariy wood, I ordered it 
to be unloaded of the furniture and go to hauling wood to the boat. 
The contrabands with the teams reported 50 guerrillas in the vicinity. 
Soon after three mule teams (of four mules each) were reported to 
me coming along the road. I ordered them in and set them all to 
hauling wood. About 2 : 30 p. m. some 6 or 8 armed men made their 
appearance and fired upon our pickets, but without doing any harm. 
The fire was returned and so kept up slowly all the afternoon, the 
rebels increasing in numbers to about 15 or 18, and getting more 
bold. At times the fire was quite brisk, but each party kept well 
covered by trees and the levee. Having all the wood 1 could take 
care of, I allowed the teams to return, and after firing one charge 
of shrapnel amongst the rebels I proceeded up the river. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master^ Commanding. 
David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. 8. Navy, giving general infor- 
mation regarding vessels of the sqitadron. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 7, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that the Chillicothe arrived 
here this morning. I am now getting her provisions and coal on 
board and shall send her off to-night. 

I am informed that the IndianoTa has arrived at Louisville, but is 
unable to get over the falls. I am, however, in hopes that she will 
reach here soon, as the river is how rising. 



140 NAVAI. FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

The St. Glair and Brilliant are at Smithland ready to convoy 
14 transports laden with supplies for General Rosecrans, to Nashville, 
via the Cumberland River ; all other communications had to be cut off. 

I enclose a copy of a telegram from the assistant quartermaster in 
charge of the supplies, on which my information is based, and my 
answer thereto. 

The Silver. Lake having a case of smallpox on board, I was obliged 
to have her anchored in the stream about a mile above the naval 
depot. 

If I had the men, the four gunboats I have here now (the Silver 
Lake, Linden, Springfield, and Cricket) could be sent down in a 
very short time. I can not muster a gun's crew for either of them. 

The New National arrived on Sunday last from St. Louis, with 
three months' provisions for the squadron on board, together with 
iron, etc., for the foundry at Memphis. I have delivered Acting 
Master Neeld's orders to him, and he will proceed to Memphis in 
her. She will go down under convoy of the Ghillicothe. 

The mortar floats here are very low in the water — so much so as to 
be nearly, if not quite, useless. Their magazines are full of water 
and can not be kept clear. 

One of General Ellet's rams will leave here early to-morrow morn- 
ing and will take a tow of two barges of coal down to the squadron. 

Fifteen boats have arrived from New York. They are well fitted 
out, but have no rowlocks, which I think should be made before they 
are sent down, and I have given orders to that effect. 

Acting Chief Engineer Faulkner arrived from Memphis to-day. I 
enclose herewith his report of his investigations in regard to the 
navy yard at Memphis. 

The T^. H. Brown and De Soto are now repairing, but I hope that 
they will soon be ready for service. 

The Lafayette arrived Sunday last from St. Louis. I am having 
the work necessary to finish her done with all dispatch. 

I have received your communications and orders up to the 27th 
ultimo, inclusive. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Poetee, U. S. 'Navy, 

Co7nmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 



FoET MoNEOE, January 7. 

(Received 8: 30 p. m.) 
General Dix is telegraphing the President and using the Examiner 
of 6th. It speaks of our troops embarking on the 2d instant to land 
again in the Yazoo, but nearer Vicksburg. This probably means that 
Sherman came below the bayou to approach Vicksburg by the Wal- 
nut Hill road. I believe we are successful at Vicksburg. The Exam- 
iner is very gloomy about the rebel defeat at Murfreesboro. The 
rebels under Bragg could not attack Sherman's rear if he destroyed 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 141 

the railroad bridge over the Big Black River back of Vicksburg, 
which I suppose was the object of his first landing up the Yazoo. 
See General Dix's dispatch to the President. 

S. P. Lee. 
Hon. G. V. Fox, 

Assistant Secretary Navy. 



Letter of congratulation from Brigadier-General Ellet, JJ. 8. Army, 

to Acting Rear-AdmiraZ Porter, TJ. S. Navy, on the reported fall 

of Vichsburg. 

St. Louis, Mo., January 7, 1863. 

Dear Sie : Permit me to congratulate you upon your reported suc- 
cess at Vicksburg, in cooperation with General Sherman. I can never 
cease to regret the necessity that has prevented me from participat- 
ing with you in your glorious achievement. " Vicksburg has fallen," 
the papers say, and I not there to see ; it is most mortifying. 

I find that the duty assigned to me was far greater than I at first 
supposed, as your experience has no doubt taught you. Recruiting 
is extremely hard and very slow, but with all the difficulties I am 
steadily gaining a command, and will succeed in time, but I am 
haunted with the idea that you will do all the work before I can get 
ready to move. I am glad to be able to say that I am receiving men 
quite fast now as compared with the first few weeks, and hope yet 
to be able to strike a blow to aid in the suppression of this rebellion 
with the Mississippi Marine Brigade. 

Permit me to offer my sympathy for the loss of your most gallant 
officer. Captain Gwin. Our country can but illy spare such men in 
this her hour of need, but he died as he would have wished, fighting 
bravely, and his cherished country has lost a noble defender. 

I shall not be able to leave here for weeks to come. My men must 
be well drilled before I can take them on the boats, and it takes time 
and labor both to effect this. I shall lose no time. It was a great 
mistake that my command was not assigned me from troops already 
in the field. I could now be at work. 

With kindest regards, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Alfred W. Ellet, 
Brigadier- General. 

Rear- Admiral DAvro D. Portbk. 



Order of Fleet Captain Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Lieutenarvt 
Sanford, TJ. S. Navy, regarding duties to be performed at Cincin- 
nati. 

U. S. Naval Station, 

Cairo, III., January 8, 1863. 

Sir: In addition to other duties assigned you for performance at 

Cincinnati, Ohio, in my order of to-day, you will examine into the 

condition of the rendezvous and receiving ship at that place, and you 

will detail all officers for vessels now bought and which may be 



142 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

bought. Acting Master Bowen has, I believe, authority from Acting 
Eear-Admiral Porter to make temporary appointments, which you 
are also authorized to make if you find it necessary. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Corfwnandant of Station. 

Acting Lieutenant Commanding J. P. Sanfokd, U. S. Navy, 

Ordnance Opcer, Mississippi Squadron, Cairo. 



Order of Captain Walke, U. S. Navy, to the commanding officer of 
the steamer Stephen Bayard regarding towing of coal barges. 

U. S. Gunboat Cakondelet, 
Helena, Ark., January 8, 1863. 
Sir: You will please to have the mortar boats you have in tow 
from Memphis moored, and take in tow two coal barges and proceed 
down the river with the convoy from this place to-day to our fleet 
and deliver the same to Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, V. S. Navy. 
Commanding OrFiCER, 

Steamer Stephen Bayard. 



Order of Acting Rear-AdmAral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Cones- 
toga, to proceed to Memphis, convoying transports. 

Janttaey 8, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed with a convoy of transports to Memphis, 
where you will make your repairs with all dispatch, and return to this 
point. Notify all vessels belonging to the squadron, towboats with 
coal barges or provisions to stop at this point. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdmAral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 

CoTrvmanding TJ. S. S. Conestoga. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Prichett, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the distribution of 
coed, etc. 

Off White Eiver, January 8, 1863. 
Sir : You will divide what coal I send down amongst the steamers 
so that they can reach this place or 40 miles up the river or some place 
where the rams Samson and Champion can lay in wood. Keep mov- 
ing up the river as coal comes down. Let the Champion bring up 



NAVAL FORCES ON "WESTERN WATERS. 143 

the mortars and divide the coal barges amongst the rams. When 
they get wood they can do very well. Any chance you get to move 
up, do so. 

I am much disappointed at coal not coming down, and I do not 
think it right that you should lie down there in your present helpless 
condition. If you can get 60 miles up the Mississippi you will be all 
right, but run still higher as you have the means. Bring the Mound 
City along also. Give the Benton a tow. I have good reasons for 
thinking the Yazoo is not the place for so small a force. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porteh, 
Acting Rear-Admiral^ Commanding Mississipfi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander J. M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Tyler. 



Instructions from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Act- 
ing Volunteer Lieutenant Richardson, U. S. Navy, commanding 
V. S. S. Judge Torrence, for duty at mouth of White River. 

January 8, 1863. 
Sir: Until further orders from me you will remain anchored near 
the mouth of White River, where you will take charge of all boats, 
scows, coal barges, etc., that come down. 

You will notify all vessels coming down with stores, coal, etc., that 
they are to remain here until I am heard from. 
You will carry out strictly General Order No. 4. 
Notify all our vessels that I am up the Arkansas, where light-draft 
gunboats will find me. 

Cover the hospital boat with your gun ; that is, lie astern of her. 
Give protection to army transports which may wish to lie under the 
lee of this island. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississipjn Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieut. J. F. Richardson, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Judge Torrence. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Richardson, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. 
Judge Torrence, regarding coal barges. 

Mississippi River, July 8, 1863. 
Sir : If any coal barges are left behind, have them brought along- 
side and secured to your vessel. 
Respectfully, yours, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Captain Richardson, 

Judge Torrence. 



144 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATBBS. 

Report of Captain Walhe, U. S. Navy, regarding information received 
of the movement of a Confederate force under General Hindman, 
C. S. Army. 

U. S. S. CarondeleT, 
Helena, Ark., January 8, 1863. 
Sir: A correspondent of the New York Herald has just sent me 
word by our paymaster that he is reliably informed that the rebel 
General Hindman has left Little Kock, Ark., with 25,000 men, and is 
now on his way down the river. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, ZI. S. Navy. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — The Lafayette is at Cairo, and, if you please, I would like 
to be on board of her when she receives her outfits. The ammunition 
will be sent down in an army transport under convoy of our light- 
draft gunboats, instead of the Stephen Bayard, as before stated, 
Very respectfully, yours, etc., 

H. Walke, 
Captain, U. S. Navy. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Bishop, V. S. Navy, commanding at Memphis, regarding coal for 
the ram Switzerland. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 8, 186S. 
Sir : Permit the ram Switzerland to take in coal enough at Mem- 
phis to take her to Cairo. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding Joshtja Bishop, 

Commanding Oflcer at Memphis, Tenn. 



Report of Captain Walke, U. S. Navy, of arrival at Helena, Ark., 
and finding a tow of barges and mortar boats at that place. 

U. S. S. Carondelet, 
Helena, Ark., January 8, 1863. 

Sir: I arrived at this place last night, having been overtaken by 
the Marmora between here and White River and the Juliet a few 
miles below here, both of which gave me a tow. I found the steamers 
New Era, Glide^ V. F. Wilson, and Stephen Bayard, with a tow of 
four coal barges, four mortar boats, and an ice barge, with pro- 
visions, etc. 

As I am quite sure you do not wish to have the mortar boats just 
now, I have ordered them to be moored here in charge of Mr. Whee- 
lock, the officer having charge of those at this place, until further 
orders from you. As I can not coal at Memphis, -I shall be obliged 
to take the Wilson to tow me to No. 10 to get there within a reason- 
able time. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 145 

General Gorman requested me to have some ammunition sent down 
to General Sherman, and I have ordered it on board the steamer 
Stephen Bayard, in charge of an army officer. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, U. S. Navy. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant Sanford, 
U. S. Navy, to proceed to duty at Cincinnati. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 8, 1863. 
Sir: As you inform me that your services as ordnance officer, 
Mississippi Squadron, can be better dispensed with at this time than 
any other, you will proceed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and take up the 
work left unfinished by Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, he 
having been ordered to the fleet. I enclose herewith all papers and 
memoranda in regard to the matter. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Corwmandant of Station. 

Lieutenant J. P. Sanford, U. S. Navy, 

Ordnance Oficer, Cairo, III. 



Letter from Major-General Hurlbut, V. S. Army, to Lieutenant 
Bishop, V. S. Navy, announcing the shipment of ammunition to 
Helena, Ark. 

Headquarters, District of Memphis, January 8, 1863. 
Captain: The major-general commanding district directs me to 
say that he shipped by steamboat Lancaster last night 2,000,000 
small ammunition to Helena, with orders to General Gorman to for- 
ward by gunboat. Has the Indianola arrived at Memphis? 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. H. Thurston, 
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Captain Bishop, V. S. S. Bragg. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Getty, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. 8. Marmora, 
for the delivery of coal to gunboats at mouth of Yazoo River. 

January 8, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed with the Marmora and Juliet, with two coal 
barges (or whatever you bring down) , to the mouth of the Yazoo and 
711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 ^10 



146 NAVAL, FOEGES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

deliver the coal there to the gunboats, when you will return immedi- 
ately and convoy the storeship and powder boat as high up the Mis- 
sissippi Eiver as this place or Napoleon. 

Deliver the enclosed letter to the commanding officer. Get up as 
high as you can, at all events, and let the steamers take in coal, as I 
can send it down. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Eobt. Getty, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding V. S. 8. Marmora. 

P. S. — If you go down with plenty coal, drop a barge with the 
vessels at Milliken's Bend. Do not take down more than thirteen or 
fourteen thousand bushels. If there is more than that, leave it here. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding general 
matters at Cairo, III. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 9, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to inform you that the Linden will leave 
to-night as a convoy for the Home, a steamer chartered to take a tow 
of five coal barges to the squadron, and will be the bearer of these 
dispatches and a mail for the fleet. I have directed that one barge 
be left at Memphis. I have been able to procure only a quarter of a 
crew for the Linden, which takes every available man. 

One of Colonel EUet's rams left yesterday with two coal barges in 
tow for the squadron. 

I enclose copies of telegrams received to-day from Major-General 
Grant, together with my answers thereto. I have ordered the Lin- 
den, Acting Master Thomas E. Smith commanding, to report to Lieu- 
tenant Commanding Joshua Bishop, U. S. gunboat General Bragg, 
as convoy for such troops as the army officer in command may wish 
to send down the river. 

I omitted to mention in my last communication that Albigence N. 
Derby, acting second assistant engineer, referred to by Lieutenant 
Wilson, commanding U. S. gunboat Mound City, as being- unfit to 
perform his duties as such, was not recommended by Mr. Faulkner, 
but was ordered to report to you for duty by the honorable Secretary 
of the Navy. 

I have ordered Acting Lieutenant Sanford to Cincinnati, Ohio, to 
take up the work left unfinished by Lieutenant-Commander Watson 
Smith on his being ordered to the fleet. I enclose copies of my orders 
to him. 

The extensive repairs on the W. E. Brown and General Lyon are 
still going on as fast as our limited means will allow. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL rOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 147 

Letter from, Fleet Captain Pemwck, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Bishop, TJ. S. Navy, regretting his inability to send the mortar 
boats down the river. 

U. S. Naval Station, 

Cairo, III., January 9, 1863. 
SiK : Your communication of the 7th instant has been received. 
Your requisitions have been approved and sent to the naval store- 
keeper to be furnished. 

I have no boat that I can send down to assist the Conestoga. Ad- 
miral Porter will make such arrangements as he may deem necessary. 
The W. H. Brown and General Lyon are both repairing at present, 
and I regret much that I can not help you in sending mortar boats 
down. I am unable to charter a towboat for that purpose. 

Five coal barges will leave here to-day under convoy of the Linden. 
I have directed that one barge be left at Memphis. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
Lieutenant Commanding Joshua Bishop, U. S. Navy, 

U. S. Gunboat General Bragg, Memphis, Tenn. 



Report of Acting Master Neeld, V. S. Navy, regarding arrival at 
MemphK with stores for the squadron. 

Memphis, January 9, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report to you that I have arrived here 
on the U. S. S. New National with stores for the squadron and have 
reported to the commanding naval officer, and will ^proceed immedi- 
ately to have the stores transferred to the public warehouse, agreeably 
to his orders. 

Eespectf uUy, your obedient servant, 

J. R. Neeld, 
Acting Master, TJ. S. Navy. 
Acting Rear- Admiral" D. D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Richardson, TJ. S. Navy, re- 
garding the arrival of cool and supplies off 'White River and his 
disposition of them. 

U. S. S. Judge Torrencb, 
Off White River, January 9, 1863. 
Sir : I beg leave to report to you that there arrived here this evening 
the gunboats Glide, New Era, Juliet, and Marmora, the latter having 
in tow two coal barges; also the steamer Bayard with two coal 
barges, and the steamer Lavinia Logan with an ice barge, containing 
fresh meat on ice ; the Marmora having also in the coal barges a quan- 
tity of vegetables, which I had transferred to the Red Rover, they 
being exposed to the rain. 



148 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

In obedience to your orders I send the gunboats Glide and New Era 
to report to you. 

I have assumed the responsibility of sending the Bayard with the 
two coal barges down to the lower fleet, under convoy of the Marmora 
and Juliet. 

Hoping the above will meet your approval, 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. F. Richardson, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 



Memphis, Tenn., January 10, 1863. 
In sending reinforcements to you gunboats will be required to con- 
voy them. They can not be obtained at Cairo. Please request Ad- 
miral Porter, if practicable, to detach boats from his fleet for that 
purpose. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General. 
Major-General John A. McClernand, 

Commanding Vichsburg Expedition. 



Letter from B. S. Compton to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. 
Navy, desiring permission to trade in cotton. 

Steamer Evansvili^e, 
Helena, ArJc, Saturday, January 10, 1863. 
Dear Sir: We being desirous of trade in cotton, and having a 
large amount already purchased near and above Arkansas River, I 
desire your permission to go and get the same. I am the party intro- 
duced to you by General Tuttle, of Cairo, to which letter I respect- 
fully refer you, we having the permission of General Gorman so to 
do [at] as early an hour as circumstances will admit of. 

Hoping you will favor the enterprise, I am, sir, your obedient 
servant, 

B. S. Compton, 

Colon/el. 
Admiral Porter. 

N. B. — Hope you will give full instructions, so that no error may 
be committed. 

[Endorsement.] 

U. S. S. CoNESTOGA, January 31, 1863. 
This letter was given to me at the time the Gonestoga was on her 
way to Memphis, and had been mislaid. 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant- Commander. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 149 

Letter from the collector of customs at St. Louis to Lieutenant 
Bishop, U. S. Navy, desiring permission for the steamer Mary 
Forsyth to trade between Memphis and Cairo. 

Custom-House, 
St. Louis, January 10, 1863. 
Dear Sir: I have given Captain N. S. Green, of the steamer Mary 
Forsyth, the privilege of supplying families between Cairo and Mem- 
phis with a limited quantity of provisions, to be delivered under the 
instructions of the aid to revenue on said boat, who will report to 
this oflSce the quantities and kind of merchandise delivered at each 
point, with the names of parties to whom such deliveries are made. 

This privilege is granted with the understanding that it meets your 
approbation, otherwise no supplies will be delivered. 
Very respectfully, 

R. J. Howard, 

Collector. 
Captain Bishop, TJ. S. Navy. 



Letter from Major-General Grant, TJ. S. Army, to Acting Rear- 

Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the opening of the canai 

opposite Vickshurg. 

Memphis, Tenn., January 10, 1863. 

I send Colonel Bissell, of the Engineer Regiment of the West, to 
report to you for the purpose of surveying the ground and deter- 
mining the practicability of reopening the canal across the tongue of 
land opposite Vicksburg. Any suggestions from you I would be 
most happy to receive. I have not had one word officially from the 
expedition which left Helena on the 22d December since that time, 
and am consequently very much at a loss to know how to proceed. I 
am, however, preparing to reinforce General McClernand, and can do 
it to the extent of 20,000 men, certainly, and possibly more. 

By the same boat that takes this, I am writing to General McCler- 
nand and expect to get such reply as will enable me to act more 
understandingly. 

U. S. Grant, Major-General. 

Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Fleet. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Captain Walke, 
TJ. S. Navy, to proceed to Cairo and assume corrumand of the TJ. S. S. 
Lafayette, and referring to capture of Arkansas Post. 

January 11, 1863. 

Sir : Proceed to Cairo in the New Era and take command of the 
Lafayette. Get her ready, with all dispatch, for service, and report 
to me wherever I may be. 

When the New Era returns she will relieve the Carondelet, and the 
executive officer will turn over the orders I gave you to the captain 
of the New Era, when the Carondelet will join me wherever I may be. 



150 NAVAL, FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

We whipped out the fort at Post of Arkansas in a very short time 
to-day. There were eleven guns, and we dismounted every one of 
them and tore the fort to pieces. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Captain Henry Wai-ke, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U.S.S. Carondelet. 



Letter from, Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major 
Slack, U. S. Marine Corps, regarding the e-fjiciency of that organ- 
ization. 

Jantjart 11, 1863. 
Mt Dear Sir : Your communication of December 10 has been re- 
ceived, and in answer I beg leave to say that I would consider it a 
great calamity if the Marine Corps should be abolished and turned 
over to the Army. 

In its organization it should be naval altogether. A ship without 
marines is no ship of war at all. 

The past efficiency of our Marine Corps fills one of the brightest 
pages in the history of our country, and the man who proposes such 
a measure can not know much about the service, or is demented. 

When they take away the marines from the Navy they had better 
lay up all large vessels. I wish anyone could see the difference be- 
tween the marines out here and the people they call soldiers; they 
would not talk of abolishing the corps. 

I can only say, God forbid that it should come to pass. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major W. B. Slack, 

Marine Corps, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, acknowledging 
Departmeni's order regarding svhsisting of marines on skipioard. 

No. 41.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas River, January 11, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your order of 
December 30, in relation to subsisting marines on shipboard, and 
making enquiry why the order has not been attended to. The order 
alluded to has never been received by me, and as the marines were sent 
out for the protection of public property, I placed them on shore, hav- 
ing at the time no other place to put them. For two nights they had 
to sleep in the open air. The Department may not be aware that 
there were no facilities for keeping the marines on shipboard, the 



NAVAL, FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 151 

Clara Dolsen at that time having no accommodations for the few men 
she had on board. I will direct the order to be carried out. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, XJ. S. Navy, transmitting 
information regarding suspension of work on the U. S. S. Ozark, 
until estimates of cost were made. 

No. 46.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas River, January 12, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose to the Department a communica- 
tion from First Assistant Engineer James W. Whittaker, in relation 
to the submarine battery for the Ozark. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

St. Lotjis, Mo., January 2, 1863. 
Sir: In obedience to Commodore Hull's orders of the 18th ultimo 
(directed by the Navy Department), all work on the submarine bat- 
tery for the Ozark was suspended until an estimate of its cost was 
made. Since then I have made detail drawings of all its parts, and 
with the assistance of Chief Engineer Shock, U. S. Navy, have made 
a careful estimate of the cost, reporting to the commodore the total 
expense of construction, transportation, alterations to the ship, and 
erection of the apparatus on the Ozark (Government furnishing the 
9-inch gun) to be about $5,000. This sum is greater than I antici- 
pated, and is accounted for by the fact that labor and materials in St. 
Louis appear to be about 20 per cent higher than in the Eastern 
States, and the tools used inferior. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James W. Whittaker, 
First Assistant Engineer, U. S. Navy. 

Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

CoTin/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General McClemand, V. S. Arm/y, referring to the depth of water 
in the Arkansas River. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
U. S. S. Black Hawk, January 12, 1863. 
General : Yours of this date has been received. I am not posted 
on the depth of water in the Arkansas. The ram Monarch draws 6 



152 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

feet. She went up and grounded 8 miles above here. I will obtain 
information. Pilot says 4J feet to Little Kock. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral^ Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General John A. McClernand, 

Gom^manding U. S. Vorces. 



Report of Commodore Hull, U. S. Navy, regarding the turning over 
to the Mississippi Squadron of the U. S. S. Indianola. 

St. Lous, [Mo.], January 12, 1863. 
Sir: At the request of the commanding oflScer at Cairo, I hereby 
inform you that I have turned over the gunboat Indianola to the 
commander of the Mississippi Squadron. 
Very respectfully, 

J. B. Httll, 
Com,modore, Superintending. 

Lieutenant-Commander George Brown, 

U. S. Gunboat Indianola, Jeffersonville. 



Letter from Com,modore Hull, TJ. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Pennock, 
V. S. Navy, transferring the TJ. S. S. Indianola to the Mississippi 
Squadron. 

St. Louis, Mo., January 12, 1863. 
Sir: The gunboat Indianola, having been reported completed by 
the contractor, I am directed by the Bureau of Construction to turn 
her over to your command. 

The trial of seventy-two hours has been made and reported satis- 
factory, but her speed was not tried for want of opportunity. The 
trial terminated on the 19th ultimo. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. B. HuiiL, 
Commodore, Superintending. 
Commanding Officer, 

TJ. S. Naval Station, Cairo. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Bishop, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the mortar boats. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 12, 1863. 
Sir: Obey the original order I sent you in regard to the mortar 
boats, and send them down to the mouth of White Elver or wherever 
I may be. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Joshua Bishop, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. General Bragg, Memphis, Tenn. 



NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 153 

[Tftlegram.] 

Cairo, January 12, 1863. 
Send all naval recruits at Cincinnati to Cairo by next train. An- 
swer how many and when sent. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant Commanding J. P. Sanfoed, 

Ordnance Officer, Mississippi Squadron. 



Comhined operations in White River, including captures at St. 
Charles, DevalVs Bluff, and Des Arc, Ark., January 12-19, 1863. 

Order of Acting Rear-AdmiTal Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker, TJ. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Baron Se Kalb, to move up the river 
in cooperation with Brigadier-General Gorman, IT. S. Army. 

Arkansas Post, January 12, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to White River near the cut-oif, where you 
will wait the arrival of General Gorman with his troops. You will, 
when he arrives, proceed in advance of him up the White River, 
cleaning out St. Charles. The Cincinnati will accompany you. I 
need not tell you that close quarters will the soonest finish the work. 
Make the commander of the Chillicothe grease well his casemates. 
Cooperate with the army all you can, but, on making your attack, do 
it in your own way. See that the defenses are demolished by our 
guns to let the troops go in easy. 

Report the result to me without delay. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker, 

U. S. S. Baron De Kalb. 



Order of Acting B,ear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant Bache, IT. S. 
Navy, commanding IT. S. S. Cincinnati, to report for duty to Lieutenant- 
Commander Walker, V. S. Navy. 

Jantjart 12, 1863. 
Sir: Report to Lieutenant-Commander Walker for duty and be 
ready to accompany him. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding G. M. Bache, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. Cincinnati. 



154 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBK WATBBS. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admlral Porter, XT. S. Navy, to Acting Ensign Smith, 
V. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Borneo, to report for duty to lieutenant- 
Commander Walker, TJ. S. Navy. 

January 13, 1863. 
Sir : Proceed to the mouth of White River and take on board from 
the Judge Torreiice 30 boxes of ammunition. Fill up with coal and 
proceed up White Eiver until you overtake Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker in the Baron De Kalb and report yourself to him. 

Your duty there wiU be to go ahead, sounding with your leads, and 
see that the ironclads do not get aground. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master [Ensign] R. B. Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Romeo. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, regarding the evacuation 
of St. Charles and the escape of the steamer Blue Wing. 

No. 55.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas River, January 16, 1863. 

Sir: On the morning of the 12th instant, after the taking of Fort 
Hindman, I sent the gunboats Baron De KaTb and Cincinnati, under 
the command of Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker, to St. 
Charles, on the White River, to capture the fort and guns there. 
General Gorman moving up at the same time with transports and 
troops. They reached St. Charles on the 14th, and found the rebels 
had evacuated, leaving their defenses unfinished. The enemy suc- 
ceeded in carrying off two 8-inch guns in the Blue Wing, an army 
transport the guerrillas captured a short time since. 

I have sent two light-draft steamers to Lieutenant- Commander 
Walker, with instructions to pursue the Blue Wing as long as he can 
hear of her, and get the guns if it [is] possible. This escape would 
not have taken place had an attack been made on both places at the 
same time, which should have been done; about such matters, how- 
ever, I have no control at present, but hope to have hereafter. 

I presume we will now move down the Mississippi to carry out 
what I conceive to have been the plans for which this army' was 
organized, viz, the capture of Vicksburg. It is rather a waste of 
time, stopping here after the defenses are- destroyed. 

We can not go any higher (until April) up this river, nor can 
anything of any draft get down. The Pontchartrain, a rebel ram, is 
up at Little Rock, but preparations have been made to destroy her. 
I presume by this time she has shared the fate of other rebel rams. 
She draws 11 feet, and can not possibly get down ; besides she has no 
guns, her battery having been destroyed at Fort Hindman. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 155 

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Walker, IT. S. Navy, commandini: expedition, 
regarding evacuation of St. Charles and proposed search for steamer Blue 
Wing. 

U. S. Gunboat Bahon De Kalb, 
St. Charles, Ark., January I4, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report that in obedience to your order of 
the 12th, I left Arkansas Post on that day with the Cincinnati and 
this vessel, and met General Gorman with his command the next 
morning at Prairie Landing, on White Eiver. Having a transport to 
tow each of the gunboats, I reached this point at 11 a. m. to-day, and 
found it evacuated. From information received here, it appears 
that the small body of troops stationed here left on the evening of 
the 12th on board the Blue Wing, taking two 8-inch guns and a field 
battery with them, and went up the river. 

They left one casemate unfinished, and an extensive range of rifle 
pits. 

General Gorman has asked that one of the vessels shall go up the 
river with a part of his force and the other remains at this place. 

I have ordered the Cincinnati to remain here, and shall go up the 
river myself this afternoon. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenant-Commander, V. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admlral Porter, XT. S. Navy, to lieutenant-Commander 
Walker, JS. S. Navy, commanding XT. S. S. Baron Se Kalb, to push on in search of 
steamer Blue Wing. 

January 16, 1863. 
Sir : Your communication is received. I am sorry St. Charles did 
not resist. 
I sent you the light-draft Romeo and now send you the Signal, 
If General Gorman will send a detachment with you, push on and 
get the Blue Wing, if possible, or have her destroyed. 

You will find a number of bayous on the river where other steamers 
may be stowed away there. Get information from the negroes on the 
plantations as to where the Blue Wing has gone. 
A^'ery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Admiral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker, U. S. Navy, 

Corwmanding V. S. 8. Baron De Kalb. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January S3, 1863 — 6: 55 p. m. 
Have just (5: 30 p. m.) received a telegram from Memphis, Tenn., 
from Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, on board U. S. S. Black 
Hawk, moum of White River, January 20, as follows : 

We have taken St. Charles, Devall's Bluff, and Des Arc, and the light-drafts 
are over 300 miles above the mouth of White River. The De Kalb, Lieutenant- 



156 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Gommander Walker, captured at Devall's Bluff 2 8-incli guns, with carriages, 
ammunition, etc., 200 Enfield rifles, and 3 platform cars, and at Des Arc we 
captured 39 prisoners and a quantity of arms and ammunition. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain. 
Hon. Gideon Welles. 



Detailed report of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, including seizure 
of Confederate property at Devall's Bluff. 

No. 65.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 20, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you that the naval expedition up 
the White River, under the command of Lieutenant- Commander 
John G. Walker, was successful in accomplishing the duty on which 
it was sent. Lieutenant-Commander Walker pushed on to Devall's 
Bluff in the Baron De Kalb and reached there just as the two 8-inch 
guns were being placed on the cars for Little Rock. He landed his 
men and took possession of all rebel property ; the rebels fled. The 
capture of these guns makes it very difficult for the rebels to defend 
the approaches to Little Rock, and the State of Arkansas is com- 
pletely in our power. When all the light-draft gunboats join me 
I will see that the river is kept under surveillance. It was the in- 
tention of Greneral Gorman to march right on to Little Rock via the 
railroad which leads to that place, which would have made a pretty 
ending of the expeditions into Arkansas, but General McClernand 
withdrew a brigade from General Gorman's forces, which rendered 
it impossible for him to proceed, although there was no chance 
of the brigade being required for a month to come. 

I sent Lieutenant- Commander Walker three swift, light-draft ves- 
sels as soon as I could, and with these and the Baron De Kalb he is 
pursuing the Blue Wing and any other steamers that are there. 

The Cincinnati remains at St. Charles to guard the river there- 
abouts. The Baron De Kalb has already ascended the White River 
over 350 miles. I enclose a copy of Lieutenant-Commander Walker's 
report. 

I beg leave to state that all the property that was on the Blue Wing 
when she fell into the enemy's hands is in our possession, excepting 
the mails. It only remains to take her or have them destroy her. I 
enclose a list of prisoners captured and paroled. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington City, D. C. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Walker, V. S. Navy, regarding captures made 
at Devall's Bluff and escape of the steamer Blue Wing. 

U. S. Gunboat Baron De Kalb, 
DevalVs Bluff, White River, January 16, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report my arrival at this place. 
Leaving tlie transports at Arkapola, 4 miles below, I cleared for 
action and steamed up, arriving at about 3 p. m. Meeting with no 



NAVAL FOECBS ON WESTERN WATERS. 157 

resistance, I made fast to the bank and, landing a party, took posses- 
sion of all the public property. 

I found 2 fine 8-inch guns and carriages, about 200 stand of arms, 
with accouterments, and 3 platform cars. 

The guns were upon skids and were being parbuckled upon the 
cars when the rebels took the alarm and fled. The supper for the 
soldiers was cooking when I arrived, and they left blankets and traps 
of all kinds behind. I took 7 prisoners, and from them and the 
negroes learn that the troops engaged in loading the cars ran about 
fifteen minutes before I arrived, and at the same time the steamer 
BliLe Wing went up the river. The guns and carriages are in good 
order and many of the small arms are new Enfield rifles. 

Upon the arrival of General Gorman's troops I drew off my men 
and turned everything over to the army. 

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. Nav7j. 

Acting Kear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Lieutenant-Commander Walker, IT. S. Navy, commanding expedition, 
regarding captures made at Des Arc, transmitting list of paroled prisoners. 

U. S. Gunboat Baron De Kalb, 

DevalVs Bluif, January 18, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report that I left this place yesterday bj' 
request of General Gorman, with the Forest Rose and Romeo, having 
a transport with troops in company, and proceeded to Des Arc, 34 
miles above. At that place I found 39 rebel soldiers in the hospital, 
whom I paroled. I also found and brought away 171 rounds of 
fixed ammunition, 72 cartridges, and 47 shot for 12-pounder field 
gun. I took possession of the post-office and sent the mail to General 
Gorman. Remaining at Des Arc until this morning, I returned to 
this place. Enclosed I send a list of paroled prisoners. The troops 
reached Des Arc about an hour after me, and searched the town for 
arms and public property. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Acting Master Brown, IT. S. Navy, commanding TS. S. S. Forest Hose, 
regarding operations at Ses Arc. 

U. S. Gtjnboat Forest Rose, 

TFMie Eiwr, January 20, 1863. 
Sir: In obedience to your order I left the Arkansas River on the 
15th and proceeded up White River with the bearer of dispatches 



158 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

to General Gorman. I came up with the fleet at Devall's Bluff on 
the morning of the 17th, and reported to Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker, who ordered me to be ready to proceed to Des Arc. 

At 11 : 30 he came on board and started up the river, the Romeo 
and one transport following. We arrived at Des Arc about 3 p. m. 
We landed and proceeded to the post-oiEce and took possession of 
the mail. We found no troops except 39 in and about the hospital, 
which I paroled by Lieutenant-Commander Walker's orders and sent 
him a descriptive list of them. At about 4 o'clock the troops landed 
and searched the place for arms. They found a small quantity. The 
Romeo took on board a quantity of 12-pounder ammunition, which 
was found in a store. I took on board at Des Arc, James Warren 
and family, who wanted to get to Illinois, and brought them to 
Devall's Bluff, and sent them over to General Gorman. We left 
Des Arc at daylight Sunday morning. At 3 p. m. the bearer of 
dispatches returned on board, when we got underway and have made 
the best of our way down the river. I stopped at Crockett's Bluff 
and took on board about 4,000 feet of lumber, the only lot I have seen 
on the river. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Comm,anding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral DAvro D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. ■ 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Nary, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker, IT. S. Navy, commanding expedition, to withdraw from the White 
River. 

Mouth of White Rfver, January 19, 1863. 

Sir: The army is moving down river to Vicksburg to commence 
operations against that place. You will collect all the vessels with 
you together and follow me down as soon as the transports leave 
White River, which I presume will be the case soon. 

It is not possible for me to leave gunboats up White River to carry 
on any operations there now. My instructions from the Navy De- 
partment will prevent my doing so, and, indeed, I think it would be 
a waste of time and money. I hope you will see yourself that the 
defenses at St. Charles are destroyed effectually, and examine or 
enquire whether they did not bury somewhere those two 68-pounders 
instead, of taking them off. Let me hear from you by return of thfe 
messenger. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieut. Commander John G. Walker, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Baron De KaVb, White River. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 159 

Report of Acting: Rear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, transmitting report of 
Lieutenant-Commander Walker, V. S. Navy, regarding the withdrawal from 
White River. 

No. 71.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January £6, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to enclose a report from Lieutenant-Com- 
mander John G. Walker in relation to the winding up of the White 
Eiver expedition, which was as successful as could be desired, with 
the exception of the recapture of the Blue Wing. The troops will 
not move without a gunboat, and Lieutenant-Commander Walker 
had to return with them, much to his and my disappointment. Every 
gun of any importance has now been captured or destroyed in Arkan- 
sas — 13 fort guns taken by the navy in the defenses or in transit 
and 18 fieldpieces by the army, which cut the guns off at Fort Hind- 
man; in all, 31 guns, and a large amount of stores and ammunition. 

All our vessels were much broken in ascending and descending the 
narrow rivers (Arkansas and White), but all hands are at work re- 
pairing damages and are now ready to go at anything, when all the 
army arrive here and pronounce themselves ready for action. 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker performed the duty I sent him on 
much to my satisfaction, and deserves all the credit for the capture 
of guns, other rebel property, and prisoners. 

The army is still landing. I can not see, though, what can possibly 
be done by the entire army landing on the neck of land opposite 
Vicksburg. They have no siege guns, except four with which I sup- 
plied them, and a sudden rise of water, overflowing the levee, will 
drown them all out and destroy much Government property. The 
naval vessels, however, are busily employed doing all they can to 
cover the troops, convoy them up and down the river, and guard those 
points from which guerrillas fire on the boats. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Gunboat Baron De K!aib, 

Mississippi River, January 22, 1863. 

Sir: On the 18th I received your letter directing me, if General 
Gorman would furnish a detachment of troops, to push up White 
River and endeavor to capture or destroy the Blue Wing and other 
steamers. 

General Gorman gave me the troops, and I was about starting, when 
orders from Generals Curtis and Grant obliged him to withdraw 
his troops from the river and prevented the expedition. I there- 
fore followed the transports down the river. Before leaving Devall's 
Bluff, the depot building and cars were set on fire by the troops. 

The wood of which the depot was built was green cypress and 
covered with snow. Seeing that but little damage was likely to be 
done by the fire, I sent an officer and boat's crews, who cut away the 
upright timbers, and bending a line to the building, pulled it down 
and burned it. At the same time the chief engineer, with a party of 



160 NAVAL POBCBS ON WESTERN WATBBS. 

men with sledges, broke the car wheels and journals to pieces, utterly 
ruining them. The cars were also burned. 

On my way down I remained at Clarendon until the cavalry force 
there started for Helena. 

At St. Charles I assisted an officer of General Hovey's staff to blow 
up the magazines, using the powder I captured at Des Arc. The iron 
gun slides I threw upon the burning timber of the casemates. 

I believe everything of use to the enemy at St. ChaVles that could be 
destroyed was destroyed by the army or ourselves. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenant- G ommander, V. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear- Admiral Davh) D. Poetek, 

Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting: Kear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
"Woodworth, TS. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Glide, to proceed up White 
Biver to learn the cause of detention of vessels. 

Januaey 19, 1863. 
Sir: Proceed up White River and ascertain, if you can, what de- 
tains our vessels, and why the Forest Rose did not return to me with 
dispatches when I sent her up there. If you meet Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Walker, deliver the accompanying dispatches, and ascertain 
if the party are short of coal. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAvm D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieut. Commander Selim E. Woodworth, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Glide. 



letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Major-General Gorman, 
TJ. S. Army, recalling the vessels cooperating in the White River expedition. 

Mouth of White River, January 19, 1863. 

General : The army is moving down the river, and my instructions 
from the Navy Department require that I should follow with all my 
force. I can not very well do that until my vessels come down White 
River. I am sorry not to be able to leave them there longer, but the 
main expedition must be attended to. I have directed two wooden 
gunboats to guard the mouths of White and Arkansas rivers, and shall 
send others there as I may be able to get them from above. I think 
Napoleon should be strongly fortified and garrisoned, with a chain 
across the river. There are plenty of chain cables at Columbus; 
arranged in a certain way no steamers could pass in and out. 

Hoping, general, that you may have had good success, I am, most 
respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

General Gorman, 

Commanding 'White River Exvedition. 



NAVAL, FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 161 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 13, 1863. 
Send all naval recruits to Cairo by first train. Answer how many 
and by what train. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Master Jas. D. Sinclair, 

Naval Rendezvovs, Chicago, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 13, 1863. 
Yes ; send them all at once. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant J. P. Sanford, 

Care Acting Master A. S. Bowen, 

V. S. N. Rendezvous, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Phelps, TJ. S. Navy, commanding 
pro tern,, at nMval station, Cairo, III. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 13, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you the gunboat Cricket will be 
sent down to you to-night with a crew of 25 men, with orders to 
report to you for duty at mouth of White River, or wherever she may 
meet with you. 

I have received your communication up to and including the 6th 
instant. The requisitions enclosed therein have been forwarded to 
their proper departments and will be sent down with all dispatch. 

The Lafayette will be sent down as soon as her magazines are fit to 
receive her ammunition, which I hope will be in two days or less. 

The Eastport will be off the ways to-morrow night or next day 
morning, with the work to be done on her very nearly completed. I 
shall send her down as soon as I possibly can, I hope by the end of 
the week. 

I am expecting a few men from Cincinnati and Chicago, and shall 
put them on the Eastport and Lafayette. It is probable that they 
will be here to-night or to-morrow noon, as I have telegraphed to the 
recruiting officers at both those places to send all their recruits here 
without delay. 

I enclose herewith communications from the Department and 
others. 

I have sent a copy of the communication from the Chief of the 
Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting, dated January 6, 1863, rela- 
tive to certain deficiencies in certain weekly returns, to the command- 
Til"— n W E— VOL 24—10 11 



162 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

ing officer of the U. S. receiving ship Clara Dolsen, with directions 
to make such investigations as may be necessary. 

The acceptance of the resignation of Acting Master Seth Stough- 
ton by the Department has been received and forwarded to him. 

I have not yet been able to find H. N. Pinard, referred to in your 
letter of the 22d ultimo, but am on his track and think that I shall, 
find him before long. 

There are no gunboats now at Columbus. The one which was 
detained there (the New Era) has doubtless reported to you, she hav- 
ing been sent down with the Glide on the 23 d ultimo. 

Lieutenant McLeod Murphy has not reported at Cairo yet, nor do 
I know how to reach him by telegraph. 

I send down herewith as many of the blank appointments and 
recommendations as I have been able to get printed since I received 
your order to that effect. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. L. Phelps, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, 

Commanding pro tern,. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Gomm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Richardson, U. S. Navy, re- 
garding armnunition for U. S. S. Judge Torrence. 

U. S. S. Judge Torrence, 
Mouth of White River, January 13, 1863, 
Sir : I have to inform you that the gunboat Romeo has just arrived 
here for ammunition. I could not fill her requisition, having nothing 
on board but mortar ammunition and 162 9-inch shrapnel, 5-second. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. F. Richardson, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Post of Arkansas. 



Report of Captain Walke, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Cones- 
toga, of arrival at Island No. 10, and injury to that vessel en 
route. 

U. S. S. Carondelbt, 
Island [No.] 10, January 13, 1863. 
Sir: I respectfully report the arrival of the Carondelet at this 
place. I communicated with the commanding officer at New Madrid, 
with whom I will cooperate. 

Coal being scarce, I stopped but a few minutes at Memphis. As 
we made slow progress, and the last four nights being clear, moon- 
light most of the time, I continued on the way without stopping, 



NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 163 

but did not escape accident entirely. About midnight of the 11th 
instant the trunk of a tree came on board of us and swept away 
and stove in all our awning stanchions and hammock nettings on the 
port side as far aft as the boat davits ; stove in the bows of the first 
cutter (a prize), broke down the hog chain, with both its stanchions, 
mainmast, midship stanchions, ridgepole amidships, and skylights. 
I have saved most of the material to repair, except the mast and 
heavy stanchions. I will send to Cairo for them and to straighten 
our hog chains as soon as possible. 

I will keep a good guard over Island [No.] 10 and New Madrid 
in the meantime, and report to you frequently. 

I would respectfully state that I have observed that the light-draft 
gunboats do not generally communicate with the other gunboats of 
your fleet when passing up or down the river, unless so ordered. 

I herewith enclose the yeoman's quarterly returns. I have observed 
by late papers that the mail aboard the Blue Wing was destroyed by 
the mail agent. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, U. S. Navy. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



General instructions from Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, 

to Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, with reference to dispatches 

captured hy the steamer Blue Wing, and the victory at Post of 

Arkansas. 

Arkansas Post, Ark., January 11{., 1863. 

Dear Pennock : Do you remember the dispatches you sent by the 
Bhie Wing? We recaptured the bag, but no dispatches; also re- 
captured the ammunition. 

The captain of the Blue Wing was a great rascal ; delivered all the 
dispatches to the rebels and is now north playing the spy. Have him 
arrested if possible. I can bring proof of his rascality. 

We will avoid all casualties of that kind in future, and you will 
send me no communications excepting by a vessel of war. All stores 
to have a convoy. 

Direct the marine officer to return without delay to Cairo our 
sergeant he carried off with him, and I wish you to send him to me 
by the first opportunity with 10 marines. 

Breese wants to know if you have that chronometer and will send 
it down. 

One of the last steamers bought is to be fitted for coast-survey 
officers. When she is nearly ready, write to Professor A. D. Bache, 
Superintendent of Coast Survey, and inform him that Mr. Gerdes 
can come on and take up his abode in her when he will join me. 

I am afraid [Acting Master James] Sinclair is doing but little at 
Michigan. 

Do you keep supplied with funds and keep paying for the steamers 
as they are bought ? As fast as Brown finishes a steamer, let him be 



164 NAVAL FORCES OK WESTERN WATERS. 

paid for her at the rate of $8,500, with the extra charge for fitting 
some with braces to the boilers, which account of braces, etc., Mr. 
Bickerstaff will certify to. 

I hope Mr. Sanford can find time to run on now and then and 
look into the matter. 

Send down a lot of lumber, such as I brought with me. 

I want a large supply of 24-pound howitzer ammunition, Xl-inch 
and 10-inch. 

The De Kalb had one of her 10-inch guns smashed by a solid 10- 
inch shot, and the carriage knocked to pieces. I want another as soon 
as possible. 

I made Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith in the Rattler run 
past the fort under a heavy fire. She was knocked into a cocked 
hat, but got by. Her iron plating forward, turned two IX-inch 
shell. I had the iron of all the boats well covered with grease, and 
the shell glanced off like peas against glass. We have cause to be 
proud of this fight. It is the strongest earthwork the rebels have 
ever built, and they thought it impossible for us to whip them, but 
when the boats got within 100 yards of them it was a one-sided 
affair. Our McClernand tries to make it appear that the army did 
its share; but they never attempted an assault until we had dis- 
mounted every gun, and then the rebels repulsed them. We ended 
the affair by going alongside the fort in the Black Hawk and firing 
shrapnel and rifle shell from our two howitzers placed on the upper 
deck of all, which overlooked the fort completely. 

There's a rambling letter for you, but do not forget to attend to 
my requests. By the way, Woodworth wants the Price. Fit her 
with a nice cabin and a defense on deck and good accommodations 
for officers and crew and arm her with two IX-inch guns, one forward 
and one aft, with ports on the bow and quarter to shift to. I think 
I have given your carpenters enough to do this winter. 

I have sent Walke up to take the Lafayette, when she is ready. 
Yours, very truly, 

David D. Porter. 

Captain A. M. Pennock. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Richardson, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the coaling of 
vessels at the mouth of White River. 

January 14, 1863. 
Sir : Let all the vessels at the mouth of White Eiver fill up with all 
the coal they can carry, also those that may come up from below, and 
wait there for me. Direct the Marmora to report here to me. All 
other vessels to remain there until I come down. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieut. J. F. Richardson, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Judge Torrence. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 165 

Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Scott, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. 8. Signal, 
regarding position of that vessel. 

Arkansas River, January H, 1863. 
Sir: When only a few vessels are left above, drop down, on the 
side of the river where I am lying. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant John Scott, U. S. Navy. 

Commanding Signal, Arkansas River. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ . S. Navy, to Major- 
General McClemand, TJ. S. Army, regarding gunboats for the con- 
voy of transports. 

January 14, 1863. 
General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
communication of this date. There is a gunboat above the fort, and 
a force will be kept there until the last vessel leaves the post. I will 
send one of the boats of the light- draft fleet to General Gorman 
whenever your dispatches may be ready. 

There are two gunboats at Memphis, one of which is ready to con- 
voy the troops down here when General Grant is ready to send them. 
I was obliged to give up taking all the shells on board, as I only 
wanted the loaded ones, which were spoiled by the rain. I am coaling 
a gunboatj which will be ready to carry you dispatches in an hour, 
but think it prudent not to start until daylight. 

I sent General Gorman two ironclads and a light-draft gunboat, 
and hope to hear to-morrow morning at 10 o'clock that St. Charles 
and the materials of war there have been captured. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General John A. McCl.ernand, 

Commanding the Army of the Mississippi. 



Report of Major-General Grar\i, V. S. Army, regarding time required 
for the fleet to he ready for further cooperation. 

Memphis, Tenn., 

January U, 1863—12: 30 a. m. 

I learn by special messenger sent to the fleet in Arkansas that it 
will be fifteen days before they can act efficiently again. I had hoped 
to get off early next week, but will have to defer until all things are 
ready. I will go down to the fleet in a day or two, and, by consulta- 
tion with McClemand, Sherman, and Porter, will have a better under- 
standing of matters than I now have. McClemand is now, I believe. 



166 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

moving on Devall's Bluff. Orders have been sent him to assemble 
his forces on the Mississippi, convenient to cooperate with any force 
that may be coming up the river. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General. 

Major-General H. W. Halleck, 

General-in-Chief. 



Report of Acting Master Brown, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. 
Forest Rose, regarding horses and mules. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 
Fletcher^s Landing, January H, 1863. 
Sir : Your order of this morning is received. I can get all but the 
horses, and I think I can get one of them. There is a large quantity 
of mules of the first class here. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

CorriTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding V. S. Ram Fleet, to Briga- 
dier-General Ellet regarding affairs of his command. 

Mississippi River Ram Fleet, 
Steam Ram Monarch, off Arkansas Post, January H, 1863. 

Dear Uncle : The Homer has at last come. The first thing I have 
found out is that she brings me two Parrott guns without carriages. 
Please tell me whose idea this was. I hope to be able to mount them 
on our heavy 12-pounder carriages, but even this will render two guns 
unserviceable. Please send me more Parrott guns and extra carriages 
by the earliest opportunity. I need also very much some 24-pounder 
howitzers to mount on the stern of my best boats. If you could, by 
extra exertion, procure me also a good style of small arm for my 
sharpshooters, it would add greatly to their efficiency — ^the Enfield or 
Colt's revolving rifle, for instance. White brought me letters from 
you. I am sorry that my letters from the mouth of Yazoo River 
were so badly written, but I only had eight or nine minutes to write 
them in; you should not call it carelessness. 

You are right in regard to my having been in great want of coal ; 
we have been compelled to borrow of the Navy; Porter has conse- 
quently seized, in return, on my coal and is supplying his boats with 
it. This is not my fault ; I burned rails, went on long expeditions after 
cord wood, and finally cut the green timber on the bank before I used 
the navy coal. When, however, the alternative was presented to me 
either to lie at anchor useless, and perhaps to have coal forced on me 
by Porter, I thought it best to take it peaceably. But it appears to 
me that our quartermasters have been very remiss in their duty to 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 16*7 

permit this complication to arise. It is going to tend still more to 
draw us into the Navy. You complain of my not having written to 
you ; I have done my best ; you may never get the reports, but I have 
fortunately preserved copies, which will prove to you how unjust you 
have been in calling me negligent. I have permitted no opportunity 
to pass by unimproved, and the disappointment which I feel at your 
not receiving them is quite equal to yours. They contained matter 
of value to my reputation, which I wished transmitted at once to the 
War Department. It is a great pity they have been lost. 

The reason you have not heard from Lawrence is that I have re- 
tained his reports. I wished to make out a quarterly report of the 
general condition of the fleet, and they were essential to that purpose. 
I will, however, send them at once if you desire it. 

Your anxiety to get the brigade filled up and at work I sympathize 
with to an intense degree. As you say, honor and profit are beckoning 
you on. My own advice would be for you to come at once with every 
man you can raise, leaving only officers enough to carry on the recruit- 
ing. Now is the time for the brigade to act ; 400 men could be used 
with great effect down here. 

I enclose you two communications I have just received from Admi- 
ral Porter. Both are very complimentary to the Ram Fleet and one 
to me. I hope it is sincere. It would be well for you to send it to 
the Secretary of War, to show him that I have not failed to keep my 
promise to do my best. 

If you get my three reports concerning the conduct of the Queen of 
the West, the expedition of the Lioness, and the passage of the fort 
at this point please lose no time in sending them on. It seems to 
me important that it should all reach Washington at once. 

I hope your health is good ; Captain White tells me you look care- 
worn. I do not wonder at it, for I feel so myself. Good-bye. Love 
to all my friends when you meet them. Write to me as soon as you 
can, and rely upon my trying my best to carry out your wishes. 
Your devoted nephew, 

Charles Rivers Ellet. 

P. S. — I expect to leave here in two days, probably for Vicksburg. 



Report of Fleet Paymaster Dunn, U. S. Navy, requesting instructions 
regarding terms of enlistment. 

Fleet Paymaster's Oftice, 

Cairo, January H, 1863. 

Sir: The men who shipped at Chicago during the latter part of 
1861 are all, or nearly all, claiming their discharge on the grounds of 
" expiration of term of enlistment." Quite a number of them have 
called upon me and all make the same statement, viz, that they 
shipped for " one year or the war; " that at the time of their enlisting 
no one thought the war would last but a few months, but to make 
matters certain, " one year " was made a part of the contract, and as 
" one year " was the longest period contemplated, they now claim their 
discharge. 



168 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

One of these men claiming a fulfillment of contract on their part 
is James H. Cuddy, enlisted at Chicago, October 21, 1861. 

I send with this for your examination the shipping articles con- 
taining his name. You will see that upon this roll there is no men- 
tion of " term " of enlistment and no signature by any recruiting 
officer. Strange as it may seem, this roll presents a fair specimen of 
the way recruiting records were kept at most of the recruiting stations 
for the flotilla in the West. 

Will you be kind enough to return me the roll after your examina- 
tion of it, and give me some instructions to cover such cases as 
Cuddy's? I have no doubt, myself, but the " one year " was the long- 
est period contemplated by the men who shipped for " one year or 
the war," but the loose manner of wording the agreement leaves the 
men liable to be held for the war. The case of Cuddy and those on 
the same roll, having no term mentioned, may be liable to a different 
construction. Please let me hear from you soon. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. W. Dunn, 

Fleet Paymaster. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, II. S. Navy, regarding the order for purchase of vessel 
Wren. 

Arkansas Post, January IJ^, 1863. 
Sir: I sent an order to Mr. Brown to purchase the Wren. Will 
you see that it is done, if she can be purchased at a fair price? I 
want a small side-wheel, light-draft steamer fitted up for myself. 
The Black Hawk is too large for the small rivers. Please send a 
large amount of ordnance stores. I have sent you several lists and a 
good many requisitions. Tell Mr. Sanford to give the new vessels 
coming down as much ammunition as they can carry, and do not 
detain the new mortar boats for want of trunnion sights if they have 
arrived. I can fit them here of do without them. Send all the new 
mortar fuzes made at the Washington yard. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAvm D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Letter from the Chief of Bureau of Navigation to Acting Rear- 
Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding the addition of signals to 
the code. 

Bureau or Navigation, Navy Department, 

Washington, January H, 1863. 
Sm : It has often been observed during the war, especially by offi- 
cers employed in signal duty, that many signals might be added witix 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 169 

advantage to the present code and manj^ words to the telegraphic 
dictionary, of which last it is now determined to print a new edition 
for general use. 

You are requested to call upon the signal officers of your squadron 
for suggestions and information in these particulars, and to com- 
municate their replies to this bureau. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. H. Daves, 
Chief of the Bureau. 

Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo. 



Report of Acting Ensign Wheelock, ZJ. S. Navy, regarding the 'break- 
ing loose of four naval barges and four mortar boats from Helena, 
Ark. 

Helena, Abk., January 15, 1863. 
Sir : I beg leave to report to you that four navy barges broke loose 
from here last night; also four mortar boats on the 11th instant, 
three of which we have recovered. One is still afloat, which you will 
please look after, and report the same to Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. 
Porter. 

Respectfully, yours, etc., 

E. W. Wheelock, 
Acting Ensign, V. S. Navy. 

Thos. E. Smith, 

Acting Master, U. S. Navy. 



Report of Acting Gunner Sherm,an, U. S. Navy, regarding condition 
of U. S. ordnance steamer Great Western. 

U. S. Ordnance Steamer Great Western, 

White River, January 16, 1863. 
Sir: During the last passage of this vessel from Yazoo River to 
TVTiite River I had to keep two men going nearly all the time from 
one magazine to the other, also the shell rooms, with swabs and 
buckets to wipe up the water that came through the deck under the 
boilers and doctor in many places. I do recommend that something 
should be done in order to preserve the ammunition from dampness. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. Sherman, 
Acting Gunner, U. S. Navy. 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Flotilla. 



IVO NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General McClemand, V. S. Army, regarding the readiness of gun- 
boat for convoy service. 

January 15, 1863. 
General: The gunboat to convoy your troops up the river has 
been ready since daylight. I do not know whether you will send up 
to-day, but the captain will report to you when you want to send 
the party off. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Brown, V. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Forest Rose, to proceed 
as hearer of dispatches to Major-General Gorman, V. S. Arrwy. 

Janitart 15, 1863. 
Sir: Proceed up White River and carry a bearer of dispatches to 
General Gorman. When the bearer of dispatches receives his answer 
from General Gorman return here without delay. Be careful in 
going up and look out for sharpshooters. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Geo. W. Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Forest Rose, Arkansas River. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General Gorman, U. S. Army, referring to gunboats sent for co- 
operation. 

January 15, 1863. 
General: I hope you will excuse me for not answering your let- 
ters promptly; as long as I sent the gunboats I suppose you will 
not complain. 

I have so much on my hands with the affairs of the squadron and 
the wants of the army here that I can not always find time to write 
a line. I hope you have been successful. I sent you two of my best 
ironclads. 

Respectfully, yours, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral. 
Major-General W. A. Gorman, U. S. Army, 

Corfwnanding JJ. S. Forces. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEBS. 171 

Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Richardson, V. S. Navy, 
announcing the arrival of certain vessels off White River. 

U. S. S. JtJDGE TORKENCE, 

Off White River, January 16, 1863. 
Sir: I have to report to you the arrival here this morning [of] 
the gunboats Marmora and Juliet, storeship Sovereign, and ordnance 
boat the Great Western. 

In obedience to your orders I send the Marmora and Juliet to 
report to you. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. F. Richardson, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Laning, U. S. Navy, regard- 
ing a flag presented to the U. S. S. Lafayette hy the ladies of 
St. Louis, Mo. 

U. S. Gtjnboat Lafayette, 

Cairo, January 16, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to present herewith a handsome silk flag, the 
gift of several loyal ladies of St. Louis to this vessel. In receiving 
it I pledged myself to defend it ; circumstances preventing my going 
with the vessel, I respectfully place it in your hands, feeling wefl 
assured that the gift of the fair donors will be duly appreciated and 
that under its bright folds you, sir, and the officers and men of your 
command will add fresh honors to the Mississippi Squadron. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. Laning, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, U. S. Navy. 
Commanding Officer, 

U. S. Gunboat Lafayette. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, stating the cause 
of delay in forwarding of monthly returns of contrabands. 

No. 56.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas Post, January 16, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation of January 5 in relation to making monthly returns of contra- 
bands. These returns are made to the Bureau or Equipment as fast 
as they come in, and the general order issued by me to the fleet directs 
every commander to make them monthly. 

There is, however, such a call upon me for gunboats by generals of 
the Army to convoy troops and stores that I do not communicate 
regularly with all the gunboats, and as the reports have to go 
through me, that I may forward and retain a list of them, some 



1Y2 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

irregularity will occur. Sometimes they are sent by mail, and at 
times I do not get them for a month afterwards. A number of con- 
trabands are claiming our protection continually, among them many 
women. I can not reject them under the law. They belong to per- 
sons in arms against the United States. In a short time the contra- 
band reports will go on regularly. The returns of the following 
vessels have gone on this month : Mound City, Louisville, Carondelet, 
Forest Rose, Pittsiurg, Tyler, Judge Torrence, Red Rover. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porteh, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding the 
disposition of the vessels of his com/mand. 

No. 57.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Arkansas River, January 16, 1863. 

Sir: The following is the disposition of the squadron at the pres- 
ent time : 

The Black Hawk, Louisville, Chillicothe, Rattler, Glide, and Lin- 
den are off Fort Hindman, Arkansas Eiver. 

The Baron DeKalb, Cincinnati, Signal, Romeo, and Forest Rose 
are up White Kiver, at St. Charles, which place they have taken 
possession of. 

The Marmora and Juliet have just returned from the mouth of the 
Yazoo, where they were sent to convoy coal. 

The Carondelet is at Island No. 10, where the New Era has gone 
to relieve her. 

The Judge Torrence and Great Western, powder vessels, and the 
Sovereign, store vessel, and the Red Rover, hospital ship, are at the 
mouth of this river. 

The Benton, Mound City, Pittsburg, Tyler, and the blacksmith ves- 
sel, Sampson, are at the mouth of the Yazoo. 

The Lexington is employed convoying 5,000 prisoners, lately taken 
here, to St. Louis. 

The General Bragg and Conestoga are at Memphis undergoing re- 
pairs. 

The steamers Fairplay, General Pillow, Brilliant, St. Clair, and 
Robh are up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, carrying army 
stores, and now and then running down to the Ohio. 

The Little Rebel, Clara Dolsen, and New National are at Cairo 
ready for service. 

The Eastport is at Cairo undergoing repairs; also the General 
Lyon and Brown, transports. 

The Indianola is above the falls at Louisville, and can not get 
down for want of water ; she is all ready for service with a short crew. 

The Lafayette is fitting out at Cairo, and I have ordered her down 
here if she can obtain but ten men. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 173 

The Choctaw is fitting at St. Louis, and will be ready in a month. 
The rams Monarch and Homer are with me at this place. 
The smallpox broke out on board the ram Switzerland, and I sent 
her to Cairo with 30 cases on board. 

The rams Queen of the West and Lioness are at the mouth of the 
Yazoo. 

This, sir, is the present disposition, which will all be changed in a 
day or two. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GuJEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Prichett, U. S. Navy, regarding the movements of vessels. 

jANtTARY 17, 1863. 
Sir: You will not proceed any higher up the river than your pres- 
ent position. 

Direct all the vessels with you to remain where they are, and fill 
up with coal if there is any, and to drop down again with the trans- 
ports to the position the army may take below. Let the empty 
barges be brought up by the tugboat. The Champion can tow down 
the mortars. Let the squadron join me as I come along. We are 
about to resume oifensive operations against Vicksburg. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant Commanding J. M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Tyler. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Cones- 
toga, regarding his station at the mouth of the Arkansas and 
White rivers. 

January 17, 1863. 
Sir : As soon as your repairs are completed, your station will be the 
mouth of Arkansas and White rivers. The General Bragg will join 
you there when she is ready. You will cruise up and down between 
these two places under low steam and be vigilant in suppressing 
guerrilla warfare. Take coal from the barges as they come down and 
then send them down to me. If the coal and store vessels come with- 
out convoy, convoy them down to me. 

The order relating to burning houses only applies to places where 
houses are used to fire on the vessels of the Mississippi Squadron, 



174 NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

and the burning must be done at the time the firing takes place ; not 
any length of time afterwards. 

Get your supplies of provisions at Memphis from the stores there. 
The General Bragg wifi do the same; other naval vessels wanting 
provisions will also supply themselves there. 

There is a ram, Pontchar train, up the Arkansas. She draws 10 
feet and can only come down on a high rise. Look out for her. 
She has no guns of any consequence. The Bragg can run her down 
by striking her amidships. She will likely be destroyed. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Tiios. O. Selfridge, 

Commanding Conestoga, Memphis. 



Letter from Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to the super- 
intendent of the U. S. Coast Survey, referring to the capture of 
Arkansas Post and proposed movement against VicJeshurg. 

January 17, 1863.' 

Dear Sir: A good photographer with complete apparatus will be 
of great service to us, as it will enable us to detect guns and the size 
of them by powerful magnifying glasses where we can not see them 
now. Can you send me one? It is indispensable in military oper- 
ations. 

We have just gone through a fair, stand-up fight (muzzle to 
muzzle) with Fort Hindman, on the Arkansas River. Ironclads on 
the water, with sailors in them, and ironclads on shore with land- 
lubbers ; after three hours of " hammer and tongs " the landlubbers 
were whipped out of their boots. The ironclads on shore (as you will 
see by the sketches) were " knocked into pi." It was a naval fight 
altogether. The only time the soldiers attempted to storm they were 
repulsed. It was the best fort the rebels ever built, but we dis- 
mounted or broke every gun in it, 11 in all. 

We now start for Vicksburg again, hoping we will have good 
weather to operate with, which we did not have on the first occasion ; 
and the army having stood up to their knees in a bog for five days, 
had to embark. We thought it wrong to lose time, so we pitched into 
Arkansas. I am sorry I could not present the nation with Vicks- 
burg on New Year's. 

Had the soldiers shown true grit, we would have gone in on the 
30th of December ; but they are greenhorns, and it will take a large 
ledger to book all they do not know. 

We will present you Vicksburg next New Year ; it is only eleven 
months off. 

Yours, very truly, 

David D. Porter. 
A. D. Bache, Esq., 

Superintendent of Coast Survey, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAL POBCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 175 

Letter from, Major-General McGlen-nand, U. S. Army, to Acting 
Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, desiring convoy for transports. 

Napoi^eon, January 17, 1863. 
Admiral: The fleet is ordered to leave this point at 12 o'clock m. 
to-morrow and proceed directly to Milliken's Bend. Will you please 
advise me what disposition you think proper to make of your 
squadron in convoy of the transports? 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John A. McClernand, 

Major-General, Commanding. 
Eear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding, etc. 

P. S. — January 18, 1863^11 a. m. — Not having been able to ascer- 
tain the position of your boat till this morning, the above was not 
sent to you. The order for leaving is suspended until I know your 
pleasure relative to furnishing a convoy, for which we are waiting. 



Letter from, Acting Rear-Adm,iral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General McClernand,, U. S. Army, regarding convoy of trans- 
ports. 

January 18, 1863. 
General : I am waiting to gather up my gunboats up White River. 
There is quite a number of ironclads below you that have been 
directed to convoy the transports down and lie by them at Milliken's 
Bend. I send another order to the commanding officer in case he 
may not meet the first order, and a general order to all vessels you 
may meet on the way down. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding Army of Mississippi. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Owen, V. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Louisville, 
to proceed to Milliken's Bend for protection of transports. 

January 18, 1863. 
Sir : As soon as you have coaled, proceed down the river as far as 
Milliken's Bend and protect the transports at that place. 

You will inform any gunboats that you meet coming up that they 
must turn back to Milliken's Bend, where they will anchor as before, 
out of the current, under the point, the empty coal barges to come 
lip, the one with coal to go down. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Cormnanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieutenant-Commander E. K. Owen, U. S. Navy. 

Commanding Louisville, 



176 NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Haslett, U. S. Navy, to repair to Cairo, to await Departments 
instructions. 

January 18, 1863. 

Sir: You will report yourself to Lieutenant-Commander AVatson 
Smith, at the mouth of White Eiver, and deliver the enclosed order 
to him, turning over all orders, signal books, and papers relatmg to 
the vessel, mien you have performed this duty, proceed to Cairo 
and await the answer of the Secretary of the Navy to your resigna- 
tion. 

Report for duty there to Captain Pennock, commandant of station. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hibam K. BLizLETT, U. S. Navy, 

Acting Master, Mississippi Squadron. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, January 18, 1863. 
Return to Cairo by first opportunity. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Lieutenant Commanding J. P. Sanford, 
Care Acting Master A. S. Bowen, 

U. S. Naval Rendezvous, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Smith, TJ. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Linden, to proceed on 
special duty to Cairo, III. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Mouth of White River, January 18, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to Cairo with the mails and such contra- 
bands as I may send in your vessel and deliver them all to Captain 
Pennock, after which you will take on board such stores, ammuni- 
tion, etc., as you can carry, and join me at the Yazoo River, convoying 
down any stores or coal that may be sent down. If the New Era has 
started with ammunition, stop alongside of her on your way down 
and get it out. 

Deliver the way mail on your way up and down. 
Very respectfully, your obed;ient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Adm,iral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Thos. E. Smith, U. S. Navy, 

U. S. S. Linden. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 177 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Prichett, U. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Tyler, 
regarding convoy of trans'ports. 

January 18, 1863. 
Sir: As the fleet of transports go down the river, get underway 
with all the vessels that were at the Yazoo and convoy the transports 
to Milliken's Bend, where you will cover them. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Jas. M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Tyler. 



General Order. 

January 18, 1863. 
All the gunboats on their way up will return down river and give 
convoy to the transports as far as Milliken's Bend, where they will 
cover them. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant Bishop, ZJ. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. 
Creneral Bragg, regarding the charter of the steamer Stephen Bay- 
ard and the forwarding of mortars. 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 
Memphis, Tenn., January 18, 1863. 
Sir: In obedience to your orders of December 29, I chartered the 
steamer Stephen Bayard and ordered her to take four mortar boats 
in tow, proceed down the river, and report to you; since then there 
has not been any of our towboats at this point. I have not been 
able to charter one, the army having taken possession of every boat 
coming to this place for military purposes. The mortars I sent by 
Stephen Bayard were stopped at Helena. 

Colonel [Charles A.] Reynolds, chief quartermaster at this place, 
permitted me to take the towboat Jenny Lind, he having had her in 
charge for some time. 

I send two mortars by the Jenny Lind, and Captain Selfridge in- 
forms me he will take two more when he has completed his repairs. 
This will leave only two at this point, both being full of water, and 
the carriage of one of the mortars being without eccentric axle or 
wheels, Mr. Simonds, acting master in charge, stating that they 
were removed at Island No. 10 for repairs and never replaced. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Joshua Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 
711°— N w E— VOL 24—10 12 



178 NAVAL rOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear-AdmircH Porter^ U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Phelps, U. S. Navy, comrtuxnding V. S. S. Eastport, 
regarding that vessel. 

January 18, 1863. 

Sir : I shall be glad to see you down in the Eastport. I hope you 
have made her so strong that she will not bend double any more. 
Do not get too many IX-inch guns on her. I think four IX-inch, two 
100-pounder rifles, and the 50-pounder will be as much as she will 
stand or require. 

Do the best you can about men. We are using contrabands to haul 
on the side tackles. We leave for Vicksburg to-morrow. If the coal 
is ready when you come, convoy it down. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Eastport, Cairo, III. 



Report of Lieutenant Phelps, V. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. East- 
port, regarding cause of delay in the preparation of that vessel and 
U. S. S. Lafayette. 

Private.] U. S. Gunboat Eastport, 

Cairo, January 18, 1863. 

Dear Sir: We have had a severe snowstorm, such as I have not 
witnessed in this part of the country, and which has set us back in 
all kinds of work. Laborers will not work and three days have 
been almost entirely lost. Both the Lafayette and Eastport will be 
delayed considerably by this great change of weather. 

The Eastport is floating 8 inches lighter by the stern than before, 
and will easily bear two 9-inches aft. 

I am happy to inform you that Captain Pennock is better, but 
very far from being really well. 

I congratulate you upon the success in the Arkansas. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. L. Phelps. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Getty, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Marmora, 
to proceed down the Mississippi River. ^ 

Mouth of White River, January 18, 1863. 
Sir : Proceed down the river, saving your coal all you can, and 
deliver the enclosed dispatch. You will remain with the fleet below 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 179 

and follow their motions until you have an opportunity to report 
again to Lieutenant-Commander Smith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Sear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Eobt. Getty, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Marmora. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding temporary provision for contra- 
bands. 

Mouth of White Kiver, January 18, 1863. 
Sir: I send by the Linden a number of contrabands who claimed 
the protection of the flag ; among them some women. 

They were demanded by their owners, and I refused to give 
them up. 

Provide for them the best you can until you get instructions from 
the Department in relation to the women. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 



Memphis, Tenn., January 17, 1863 — ]p:30 p. m. 
I start immediately to the fleet. My design is to get such informa- 
tion from them as I find impossible to get here. I will return here 
in a few days, and in the meantime reinforcements will be forwarded 
with all dispatch. 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General. 
Major- General H. W. Halleck, 

General-in- Chief. 



Report of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding opera- 
tions against Vicksburg and in the Yazoo River. 

No. 62.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

White River, January 18, 1863. 
Sir : The army will move to-morrow on Vicksburg, with reinforce- 
ments furnished by General Grant, who, I believe, will accompany 
the expedition as commander-in-chief. Had the combinations been 
carried out in our last expedition. General Grant advancing by 
Grenada, General Banks up river, and General Sherman down the 
river, the whole matter would have assumed a different aspect; but 
General Sherman was the only one on the ground. The army of 
General Grant had been cut off from its supplies; General Banks 
never came up the river ; and General Sherman, having attempted to 



180 NAVAL POECES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

take the enemy by surprise, lost about 700 wounded, 300 killed, and 
about 400 prisoners. All this was owing to Colonel DeCourcy 
(who has since resigned) not following General Blair, who had no 
difficulty in getting into the works of the enemy. Had our troops 
been able to hold these works for three minutes Vicksburg would 
have been ours, but that chance was lost and will not offer again. The 
enemy crowded in 20,000 men from Grenada and 10,000 from Jack- 
son, and outnumbered us two to one. The rain forced General Sher- 
man to embark, and we did so without the enemy being aware of it 
until everything was on board ; not a thing of consequence was left 
behind. When the enemy did discover it tLey sent down three regi- 
ments with fieldpieces to attack the line of transports, which was 
covered at every point by the gunboats and light-drafts. The Lex- 
ington^ Marmora^ Queen of the West, and Monarch opened on the 
enemy with shrapnel and cut them up very severely, causing them to 
fly in all directions, and not losing a man on our side. This is a 
short history of this affair. The operations to come will be of a 
different character; it will be a tedious siege, the first step, in my 
opinion, toward a successful attack on Vicksburg, which has been 
made very strong by land and water. I have always thought the 
late attempt was premature, but sometimes these dashes succeed, and 
certain it is that but for the want of nerve in the leader of a brigade 
the army would have succeeded. The operations of the navy in the 
Yazoo are worthy to be ranked amongst the brightest events of the 
war. The officers in charge of getting up the torpedoes and clearing 
8 miles of the river distinguished themselves by their patient endur- 
ance and cool courage under a galling fire of musketry from well- 
protected and unseen riflemen, and the crews of the boats exhibited 
a courage and coolness seldom equaled. The navy will scarcely ever 
get credit for these events; they are not brilliant enough to satisfy 
our impatient people at the North, who know little of the difficulties 
attending an expedition like the one mentioned or how much officers 
and men are exposing themselves, while they wonder why we do not 
demolish mountains of granite. 

The Department may rest assured that the navy here is never idle. 
The army depends on us to take entire charge of them on the water, 
and it employs every vessel I have. I have none too many. The 
light-draft vessels have only half crews. I am making up deficien- 
cies with contrabands as fast as I can. 

We expect to disembark the troops opposite Vicksburg in four or 
five days. In the meantime, I want to gather up the fleet, which are 
operating at different points with the army. My opinion is that 
Vicksburg is the main point. When that falls all subordinate posts 
will fall with it. Arkansas is, or will be, quiet for the present, and 
all smaller expeditions should be attached to the large one at Vicks- 
burg. This will enable me to employ the gunboats to better advan- 
tage, which I can not do now. The commander of every post requires 
a gunboat, but I do not encourage them always in their expectations, 
for it makes them very careless about defending themselves. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 181 

Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter^ U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, to prepare all vessels for a move- 
ment down the river. 

Mouth of White Eiver, January 18, 1863. 
Sib : As soon as the Linden has her coal on board you will send 
her up to me at this point. Send me also another vessel. 

I am going to send the Louisville to Cairo. Instruct all the vessels 
to send their mails to you, and you will forward them on the Linden. 
Prepare all the st'oreships and vessels of all kinds to move down the 
river at a moment's notice. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gorrvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant- Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Light-Draft Vessels, Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, regarding convoy of transports. 

Mouth of White Eiver, January 18, 1863. 
Sir: Send down the light-drafts that may be at the mouth of 
White Eiver and go down yourself and regulate those below, to con- 
voy the transports, dividing them out equally. Let the vessels move 
oflF the moment they get in their coal and overtake the transports. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear Admiral, Gom/nMnding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding First Division Light-Draft Vessels, 

Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from the Secretary of the Navy to Acting Rear-Admiral Por- 
ter, v. S. Navy, regarding proposed canals. 

Navy Department, January 19, 1863. 
Sir : The President is exceedingly anxious that a canal from which 
practical and useful results would follow should be cut through the 
peninsula opposite Vicksburg. 

If a canal were cut at a higher point up the river than the first ona. 
as you some time since suggested, so as to catch the current before it 
has made the curve, and also avoid the bluffs below the city, it would 
probably be a success. The Department desires that this plan may 
be tried whenever you may deem it expedient and can have the coop- 
eration of the army. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo, III. 



182 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Bishop, V. S. Navy, regarding detention of mortar 
hoats. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 20, 1863. 
Sib : You will please find out who stopped onr mortars at Helena, 
and, hereafter, when anything is sent down in charge of a towboat 
make an agreement with the master that he is only to be paid on the 
delivery of the articles. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Joshua Bishop, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding V. S. S. General Bragg. 



Instructions from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Bache, V. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Cin- 
cinnati, regarding guard duty at mouth of White River. 

January 20, 1863. 

Sir : You will remain at the mouth of White River until the Con- 
estoga comes down from Memphis, when you will proceed to Milliken's 
Bend or the mouth of Yazoo River, and report to me there. 

You will see that the empty coal barges are taken proper care of 
until a towboat can tow them to Cairo. The steamer Signal will be 
left under your command, and will remain at the mouth of White 
River until further orders from me. ^Vhen coal barges arrive retain 
the smallest one here and fill up from it, taking care that it will be 
secured when you have done coaling, and that it will be pumped out 
at regular intervals. 

The Signal will lie in the mouth of White River to keep watch so 
that you may not be surprised by the enemy's rams or boats with 
troops that might board you. Keep your bow guns loaded with solid 
shot ; the others with shell and shrapnel. Keep a good watch all the 
time, according to the general orders, and do not be taken by sur- 
prise, as the Harriet Lane was. If an enemy appear in the river, the 
lookout vessel will fire a gun or guns and retreat under your protec- 
tion. 

When you come down, give convoy to any steamers towing coal. 
Run carefully, and see that no accident happens to the coal, which 
is very scarce just now. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-AdmAral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Geo. M. Bache, TJ. S. Navy, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. Cincinnati. 



Naval forces on westebn watees. 183 

Order of the Secretary of the Navy to Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, 
V. 8. Navy, regarding Confederate prisoners. 

Navy Department, January £0, 1863. 
Sir: Hereafter you will not release on parole any prisoners who 
are officers in the rebel service, captured by the vessels under your 
command, but retain them for the Government to dispose of. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of Navy. 
Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, ZJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Brown, V. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Forest 
Rose, to proceed to Helena or Memphis with dispatches for Cairo. 

January 20, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed without delay with dispatches to Helena, 
which dispatches you will send to Cairo by the mail. If there is no 
chance of sending by the mail at Helena proceed to Memphis and 
send the letters from there. As you go along look out for a mortar 
and two coal barges that are about 20 miles above this or at Island 
66 or 56, I do not know which. Secure them so that they can not be 
destroyed, and when you return bring all you can with you. The 
commanding officer at Memphis will give you all needful assistance 
for repairs. 

Fill up full with coal at Memphis and return to me without delay. 
Give convoy to any of our vessels coming down from Memphis. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Geo. W. Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding V. S. S. Forest Rose. 



General order of Major-General Grant, U. S. Army, forbidding 
- trading at points south of Memphis. 

General Orders,! Hdqrs. Department of the Tennessee, 

No. 7, J Meriophis, Tenn., January 20, 1863. 

I. All trading, trafficking, or the landing of boats at points south 
of Memphis other than at military posts, or points guarded by the 
Navy, is positively prohibited. 

II. All officers of boats violating this order will be arrested and 
placed in close confinment. The boats and cargoes, unless the prop- 
erty of the Government, will be turned over to the quartermaster's 
department for the benefit of the Government. 



184 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

III. All officers of the Army passing up and down the river are 
directed to report all violations of this order, together with the 
names of the boats, place, and date, to the first military post on their 
route, and to the commanding officer at the end of their route. 

IV. The Navy is respectfully requested to cooperate in the enforce- 
ment of this order. 

By order of Major-General U. S. Grant: 

John A. Eawlins, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge, V. S. Navy, comonanding U. S. S. Cones- 
toga, to relieve the U. S. S. Cincinnati at the mouth of White River. 

Mouth of White Rivek, January 20, 1863. 
Sir: I am anxious that you should get here with the Bragg and 
Gonestoga as soon as possible and relieve the Cincinnati. ■ Fill up 
with coal and tow down to this place a barge of coal from Memphis. 
We are entirely out. When you come here take every precaution 
against surprise. 

Take charge of all empty coal barges and secure them close into 
the island abreast of where you laid when here. The Pontchartrain 
is not destroyed yet. Look out for her. 

Lieutenant-Commander Bache will show you his orders, which you 
will carry out. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gommnanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieutenant-Commander T. O. Sei-pridge. 

P. S. — ^Take a look into White River now and then. A good place 
for one of the vessels to lie is at the cut-off, moving her position at 
night, showing no light, and striking no bells night or day. It would 
be desirable to take the Blue Wing, if possible, and prevent all com- 
munication by water between the Arkansas and White rivers. 

p. D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, 
commanding Ram Fleet, to guard the cut-off between Arkansas and 
White rivers. 

January 20, 1863. 
Colonel : Our gunboats are 300 miles up White River, the De Ealh, 
Cincinnati, Glide, Romeo, and Signal. I wish you to enter White 
River and take position at the cut-off, where we laid the other day, 
and be ready to take the ram in the rear, if she should dare to come 
down, or to catch any steamer that may attempt to come from tho 
Arkansas to White rivers. I will leave some dispatches with you 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 185 

for the vessels when they come down. And when they are all out, 
or when the Conestoga comes, join me at Yazoo Kiver. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Chas. Eivers Ellet. 

Commanding Ram, Fleet. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, ZJ. S. Navy, to Lieiitenant- 
Commander Walker, ZJ. S. Navy, commanding light-draft vessels 
in White River, to proceed with his command to Millikeni's Bend 
or Tnouth of the Yazoo. 

January 20, 1863. 
Sir: I want you to join me at Milliken's Bend or the mouth of the 
Yazoo as soon as possible with all the light-draft vessels excepting 
the Signal, which vessel will remain with the Cincinnati at the mouth 
of White River until the latter is relieved by the Conestoga. The 
commander of the Signal will report to the commander of the Cones- 
toga when she arrives here, and remain with him until further orders. 
I have left 1,200 bushels of coal for you, perhaps more. If coal 
arrives here before you leave, take in all you can, and then convoy the 
remainder down to me, not losing sight of the convoy, and running 
only by day if the nights are not perfectly clear. When the coal gets 
down it is to go into the mouth of the Yazoo out of the current. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker, 

Commanding Baron De Kalh, White River. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Woodworth, ZJ. S. Navy, commanding ZJ. S. S. Glide, 
to coal at mouth of White River and proceed to mouth of Yazoo. 

January 20, 1863. 
Sir: When you get down to the mouth of White River, if more 
coal comes there, fill up and join me at the mouth of Yazoo River. 

If there is no vessel outside at the mouth of White River when 
you arrive, take charge of the empty coal barges and see that the one 
with the coal is kept for the De Kalh and Cincinnati. It is desirable 
that none of it be used. It is for those two vessels. The small boats 
can get down on fence rails and wood piles. 

I have sent to Memphis for coal, which will be down in a few days. 
The Forest Rose has gone up for it. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Selim E. Woodworth, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding ZJ. S. S. Glide. 



186 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to D. P. Heap, 
private secretary, to proceed to Washington, D. C, as hearer of 
dispatches. 

Januaky 20, 1863. 

Sib: You will proceed to "Washington City, D. C, as bearer of dis- 
patches, which you will deliver to the honorable Secretary of the 
Navy, and give him such details of our movements here as he may de- 
sire to know, and which, owing to my being much occupied, I am 
unable to write at the present moment. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

D. P. Heap, 

Private Secretary to Commander of Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Glassford, V. S. Navy, 
announcing his return from special service. 

Cairo, III., January 21, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report the special duty performed upon 
which I was ordered by Kear-Admiral Farragut and the honorable 
the Secretary of the Navy, and that I am now ready to receive your 
commands. 

Respectfully, 

H. A. Glassford. 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, U. S. Navy. 

Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Western Flotilla. 
Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain, Cairo, III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Baldwin, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Sovereign, to proceed 
to Milliken's Bend on arrival of the U. S. S. Conestoga. 

Mouth or White River, January 21, 1863. 
Sir: You will remain here and take charge of the empty and full 
coal barges, and under no circumstances will you permit any vessel 
not belonging to the Navy to use the coal. It is absolutely required 
for the two ironclads up the river. You will have the barges exam- 
ined daily, to see that they are secure and do not leak. You will say 
to the naval commanders that this coal is for the two ironclads. 
When they are coaled the smaller vessels will fill up. When Captain 
Selfridge comes down he will take charge of everything, and you will 
come down to Milliken's Bend under convoy of the first gunboat that 
comes down after Captain Selfridge's arrival. Show mis order to 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 187 

anyone who asks for coal, and explain to naval commanders how I 
wish the matter regulated. 

Very respectfully, etc. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral^ Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Thomas Baldwin, U. S. Navy, 

Com/manding Sovereign. 



General order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding 

captured property. 

General Order, 1 U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

No. 32. J Flag Ship Black Hawk, January 21, 1863. 

All arms, munitions of war, mails, and prizes of any kind, cap- 
tured by the vessels under my command are to be retained by com- 
manders of expeditions until further orders from me. In case the 
Army should require for its use anything captured by the Navy the 
commanders will take full receipts (stating value of the property), 
having it appraised by proper persons. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squaidron. 



Report of Captain Wdlke, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Lafay- 
ette, proposing a transfer to that vessel of a part of the officers and 
crew of the U. S. S. Carondelet. 

U. S. S. Lafayette, 
Cairo, lU., January 22, 1863. 
Sib : I arrived here pursuant to your orders of the 11th instant, and 
finding that the Lafayette is not finished, and without officers or crew 
sufficient to manage her or fight her guns, I would respectfully sug- 
gest, under the circumstances, that the Carondelet may be sent to 
Cairo for repairs and to receive her new guns; and, if agreeable to 
your arrangements, to transfer to the Lafayette a portion of her offi- 
cers and crew to supply the deficiency of the Lafayette. Her guns 
are now being mounted, and I will get her off as soon as possible 
with the mechanics on board. I find that there is not room between 
the ports and boiler casemates sufficient to work the forward 9-inch 
guns, on the starboard side particularly. But as they are placed by 
your instructions, they will remain there, unless you should think 
proper to replace one of them with a smaller gun, or have it placed 
in the starboard broadside port aft. 

I have no officers of any experience on board of a man-of-war, and 
I would like to have two out of the Carondelet, and one of her pilots, 
whom I will replace with another. My cook, steward, boy, coxswain, 
and clerk I have brought with me to this vessel, to which I hope you 
will have no objections. 

I will use all diligence in organizing a crew for as many guns with 
the men I can get. All the fighting bolts, gun gear, iron plating, and 



188 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

the stores are not yet on board, but the mechanics will continue on 
board to finish the vessel on her way down the river, as you have di- 
rected, as soon as the materials are brought down from St. Louis. 

I was informed that one of the mortar boats which was left in 
charge of Acting Master Wheelock at Helena broke adrift, went 
down the river, and lodged at the foot of [Island] No. 68, on the 
Mississippi, or eastern, snore of the river. The captain of the New 
Era informed the commandant at Helena and Lieutenant-Commander 
Self ridge of the fact, who said (as I am told) that they would send 
for the mortar boat and have her taken care of. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Caftain, U. S. Navy. 
Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Poeteb, 

Commanding V. S. Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from E. B. Pike, esq., to Acting Rear-AdrrdraZ Porter, V. 8. 
Navy, requesting a convoy to enable him to secure a quantity of cot- 
ton on the St. Francis River. 

Memphis, Tenn., January 23, 1863. 
Sir : I would respectfully state that if I can obtain a convoy, I can 
get a large amount of cotton on the St. Francis River, and would 
respectfully request that, if compatible with existing orders, I may 
be furnished with such protection. 

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. B. Pike. 
Acting Rear-Admiral Davto D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Naval Squadron. 



Night orders for the Yazoo River. 

January 23, 1863. 

The ironclads in the Yazoo will keep a bright lookout in front or 
up river and show no lights. They will open fire with solid shot on 
any steamer they may see coming down supposed to be an enemy, 
and we have some above. 

The bow guns of the vessels must be kept bearing up the river. 
The guns must be worked as long as an enemy is forward of the beam, 
and every port guarded against boarding, hatches fastened down, 
sides kept well greased, and as little light as possible shown about 
the deck. If the enemy should get past the ironclads (which I 
deem imipossible) , the rams will run into them with all their force; 
those ironclads that are able will grapple them fast, and when well 
secured, let go their anchor and do all they can to capture and destroy. 
A bright lookout is the main object, and do not let an enemy get 
too near. Strict watch to be kept during the night and in fogs. No 
lights to be shown, no bells to be struck, and no " all's well." Each 
night one of the ironclads or other vessels wiU keep a rowboat out 
400 yards ahead with muffled oars. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 189 

In case of the approach of a vessel down the river, firing of mus- 
kets will be the signal if close to, or the boat, if she has time, will 
return and report. 

The Benton will send out a guard boat to-night, if too dark to see 
any distance. 

■ D. D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, regarding 
cooperation with the army in front of Vichsburg. 

No. 68.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Mouth of Yazoo River, January 2^, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report my arrival at this place. 

The army are landing on the neck of land opposite Vicksburg. 
What they expect to do I don't know, but presume it is a temporary 
arrangement. I am covering their landing and guarding the Yazoo 
River. 

The front of Vicksburg is heavily fortified, and unless we can get 
troops in the rear of the city I see no chance of taking it at present, 
though we cut off all their supplies from Texas and Louisiana. 
- A few days since I withdrew the gunboats from the mouth of the 
Yazoo, as they were entirely out of coal, and it was not proper to let 
them remain under the circumstances. The moment I could get coal 

I sent them down again, and they arrived just in time to block up 

II steamers in the Yazoo that had gone up for provisions and stores 
under the impression that we had left altogether. These vessels 
have been employed carrying supplies and arms from Vicksburg to 
Port Hudson. 

This will render the reduction of that place an easier task than it 
otherwise would have been, as there are no steamers on the river 
except two that will be kept at Vicksburg. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admircd Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, to send vessels to relieve the U. S. S. 
Tyler and ram Hornet. 

January 24, 1863. 
Sir : Send the Marmora down to relieve the Tyler, or, if she is not 
ready, send some other vessel, and at 4 o'clock send a vessel to relieve 
the ram Homer. 

Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commamding First Division Light-Drafts. 



190 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Wells, ZJ. S. Navy, commanding U. S. hospital ship Red Rover, 
regarding the showing of lights contrary to general orders. 

Mouth of Yazoo Kivek, January 2^, 1863. 
Sir : Your attention is called to General Order No. 4, in relation to 
showing lights. At 11 o'clock at night your ship was showing lights 
in every officer's room and in every office, and your ship a fair target 
for anyone to shoot at. 

No lights will be allowed in the texas after 8 o'clock at night, and 
not then if the officers do not screen them. I look to you to see that 
no lights are shown in your vessel except those that are absolutely 
necessary. 

Have no lights moving about decks, and hang, also, canvas around 
and in front of your boilers, if you have it. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master W. R. Wells, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. Hospital Ship Red Rover. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Simonds, U. S. Navy, to assume temporary charge of the navy yard 
at Memphis, Tenn. 

January 24, 1863. 
Sir : You will assume charge of the navy yard at Memphis, Tenn., 
and all the mechanics of the yard, subject to the order or any naval 
officer who may be there. All the material, stores, machinery, etc., 
will be for the present under your charge, and you will make me 
weekly reports of what is going on. Mr. Rowe is no longer employed, 
and he will turn over to you the orders he has received from me. 
Every precaution must be taken against surprise by the enemy. The 
public property must be strictly guarded and none of the public 
buildings now in the yard be allowed to be used by persons not be- 
longing to the Navy, excepting the blacksmith shop, now in use by 
the army. You will take up your quarters in the commandant's house 
until relieved by a person who may be sent to take command. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Gustavus B. Simonds. U. S. Navy, 

Memphis, Tenn. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding various matters. 

Mouth of Yazoo River, January 2^, 1863. 

Sir : I send the Glide up for supplies for the squadron. 

Lieutenant Woodworth will remain in Cairo to superintend the 
fitting and equipment of the Price, which vessel he will command 
when she is ready. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 191 

A number of requisitions have been sent up at diflFerent times. 
Please have them filled and sent down. If the articles have not been 
procured by the navy agent, Mr. Boggs, send him to St. Louis to 
obtain them and let him remain there until all the requisitions are 
filled. We are much in want of the articles required for this ship, 
which Mr. Watson failed to supply. If they are to be obtained in 
Cairo, have them bought. 

Send me all the hammocks and bags that are ready, and forward 
me more as fast as they are finished. 

The Benton wants a hundred men. If a draft comes, send down 
50 for her. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Poetek, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Detailed report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding 

affairs at Cairo, III. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 24, 1863. 

SiE : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your commu- 
nications up to and including the 18th instant. The instructions 
therein conveyed shall be carried out with the utmost dispatch. 

I enclose for your consideration a letter from Lieutenant J. P. 
Sanford, relative to the purchase of boats. 

The prisoners captured at the Post of Arkansas have been received, 
and by direction of the honorable Secretary of the Navy have been 
delivered to the military authorities at this place. I have the receipt 
of Major Merrill, provost-marshal, for them. 

I enclose herewith such information in regard to H. N. Pinard as 
I have been able to gather, called for by your letter of the 22d ultimo. 

The gunboat Lexington with her convoy of prisoners arrived here 
on the 21st instant, which fact I telegraphed to the honorable Secre- 
tary of the Navy. 

I have sent Lieutenant-Conunander Gwin's body to his father and 
his effects to his wife, in accordance with his request, and have also 
forwarded the j^aper containing his last requests to his wife under 
cover of a letter to his father-in-law, Hiram Hutchinson, esq.. New 
York City. 

I have delivered a copy of your instructions in regard to sending 
a first-class assistant engineer to the Memphis navy yard to Chief 
Engineer William D. Faulkner, and have directed him to carry them 
out with the utmost dispatch. 

I enclose copies of sundry tele^ams from the honorable Secretary 
of the Navy and Major-General Rosecrans for your consideration. 

I have sent the gunboat Silver Lahe up the Cumberland River 
(Lieutenant R. K. Riley commanding) , with orders to give all the aid 
in his power in convoying transports and clearing the banks of rebels. 

I have received information that there is no other communication 
open with General Rosecrans by which supplies can be forwarded to 



192 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

him and that batteries of heavy artillery are mounted on the banks 
of that river. 

In view of the exigencies of the case, I trust that I shall not exceed 
my orders by sending the Lexington up the Cumberland River for 
a few days until the banks can be cleared of the heavy field artillery 
represented as being there. 

I may add that the Silver Lake has but 28 men on board, and also 
has a case of smallpox, but in spite of these difficulties I have sent 
her, together with the Lexington, in order, if possible, to carry out 
the requests of the Secretary of the Navy and General Rosecrans. 
I have taken the above measures in consideration of the length of 
time which must necessarily elapse before I could receive instructions 
from you on the subject. 

I would respectfully enquire if I shall send down to you Lieuten- 
ant-Commander Greer, who is ordered by the Department to report 
to you by the first of next month. 

I am happy to be able to inform you that I have sent you no dis- 
patches by the Blue Wing. 

The sergeant and 10 privates of marines will be sent down by this 
vessel or the next. 

We have telegraphed to Washington to have a X-inch gun sent 
out here immediately, as there are none here. 

Your telegram from the mouth of White River, under date of the 
20th instant, detailing your operations in that river, has been received 
and forwarded to the Department. 

The Indianola arrived yesterday morning, and will be sent down 
without delay. 

The Eaatport is now taking in her guns, having completed all her 
repairs. We have had very severe weather, with snow, which has 
retarded the work of getting them down the levee very much. Cap- 
tain Phelps is driving ahead with his usual energy and dispatch. 

Captain Walke has arrived here from Island No. 10 and has as- 
sumed command of the Lafayette, which boat will be sent off as soon 
as she can possibly be got ready. 

The De Soto (General Lyon) is now taking on board ordnance 
stores for the use of the squadron, and will, as soon as ready, be sent 
down under convoy. 

The New National is now at St. Louis loading with stores, and will 
be sent down as soon as she arrives. 

The acceptance of the resignation of Acting Master's Mate Charles 
C. Shirk has been received from the Department and handed to him. 

I have sent to St. Louis for the blank forms for lists of contra- 
bands and shall distribute them in accordance with your orders as 
soon as they are received. 

It will not, I fear, be possible to send the lists of officers requested 
in your letters by this opportunity, but they will be sent, as directed 
by you, as soon as they can be made out. 

I send herewith communications from the Department and others. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Gorwmandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Pokter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FOKOES ON WBSTEEN WATERS. 193 

P. S. — ^The Lafayette was much more behindhand with her ord- 
nance equipment than was anticipated, which is the cause of her 
delay. ' I should have said that the Lexington will leave to-morrow 
evening for the Cumberland River, instead of with the Silver Lake, 
as mentioned above. 

Report of Captain Walke, U. S. Navy, commanding U. 8. S. Lafay- 
ette, calling the attention of the Department to tJie meritarious 
conduct of certain men of his command. 

U. S. S. Lafayette, 
Cairo, III., January 24, 1863. 

Sir: Agreeable to your request, I herewith subjoin a list of names 
of some of the petty officers and seamen who have most faithfully, 
valiantly, and efficiently served their country on board the Caron- 
delet while she was under my command in the various battles and 
perils she has encountered during this rebellion. 

I think that they* merit the distinguished notice of the Govern- 
ment, as provided by section 7 of the act of Congress, " to further 
promote the efficiency of the Navy : " 

Michael Eellly, Matthew Arthur, 

James Whalen, George MIdlam, 

John G. Morrison, John Ford, 

Charles Wilson, Thomas White. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, U. 8. Navy. 
Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, 

Commianding U. 8. 8. Eastport. 

P. S. — ^The above-mentioned men were with me at the capture of 
Fort Henry, February 6, 1862; Fort Donelson, February 13 and 14; 
Island No. 10, March 17 ; running the blockade, April 4 ; capture of 
rebel batteries opposite Point Pleasant, April 6, and below New 
Madrid, April 7; naval engagement above Fort Pillow, May 10; bat- 
tle at Memphis, June 6 ; and the action with the rebel ram Arkansas, 
July 15. 

Very respectfully, etc., H. Walke, 

Captain, U. 8. Navy. 



Order of Captain WaZke, U. 8. Navy, to Pilot Deming, requesting his 
services on hoard the tl. 8. 8. Lafayette. 

U. S. S. Lafayette, 
Cairo, III., January 24, 1863. 
Sir: I am in great need of your services on the Lafayette, having 
no pilots, and do not know where I can get them. You will report 
to me on board of this vessel without delay. I will send a pilot to 
the Carondelet as soon as I can. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain., V, 8- Navy. 
Pilot John Deming, 

U. 8. 8. Carondelet, of Island No. 10. 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 ^13 



194: ITAVAli FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

Order of Commodore Hull, V. S. Navy, to Chief Engineer Shock, 
U. S. Navy^ to jn-oceed to Cincirmati and inspect the turret of the 
V. S. S. Ozark. 

, St. Louis, Mo., January H, 1863. 

Sir : You will proceed to Cincinnati for the purpose of inspecting 
the work of the turret in course of construction at that place for the 
gunboat Ozark, after which you will return to St. Louis. 
Very respectfully, 

J. B. Hull, 
Corrvmodore, Superintending. 
Chief Engineer Wm. H. Shock, 

St. Louis. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Hon. James 
W. Grimes, requesting restoration to the line of certain officers 
serving as volunteers, and referring to operations in Arkansas and 
against Vickshurg. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

January £4-) 1863. 

My Dear Sir : I once told you I had a favor to ask of you for some 
friends. It is not one that will give you any trouble, beyond chang- 
ing your mind, if you have already made it up. 

There are five officers in the Navy who have served throughout 
this war in subordinate capacities who are entitled to their former 
positions in the Navy, viz. Volunteer Lieutenants J. S. Barnes, 
Charles H. Baldwin, J. P. Sanford, P. G. Watmough, and Selim E. 
Woodworth. These officers left the Navy when there was no possible 
chance of promotion. They engaged in a lucrative business and 
gave it all up the moment the country wanted their services. 
Woodworth, Sanford, and Baldwin have been under my command; 
the others I have known personally. These officers have no superiors 
in the Navy, and have performed, gallant actions enough to satisfy 
anyone that they ask only what is just. Without entering into the 
details of what they have done, I merely beg the favor of you to try 
and get them placed in their former positions. They are subjected 
to many mortifications where they now are. Some officers object to 
their being restored, but it is an ungenerous feeling, and I am sorry 
to see it existing in our Navy. There is promotion enough for all. 

We are before Vicksburg once more, after having made a good raid 
into Arkansas. We captured every important fort and heavy gun 
the rebels had in that swampy State. Arkansas has now nothing but 
some fieldpieces. The rivers are consequently open to trade and the 
people quite glad to see us. 

At Fort Hindman your nephew Walker distinguished himself 
highly. I refer you for particulars to my reports to the Department, 
wherein he is particularly mentioned. 

This Fort Hindman affair has been the fairest stand-up fight 
during the war. It was a naval fight altogether as regards the fort. 
The army did not assault, although I believe they tried it once and 
were repulsed. The colonel commanding the fort surrendered his 
sword to me. 



NAVAL, FOECBS ON WESTERN WATERS. 195 

We are now opposite Vicksburg, with the whole armj landed on the 
neck of land in front of the city. What they a^e going to do there 
they only know. I suppose they will swim over when they are ready, 
and when they get in position call upon the gunboats to go in and 
pick them out. v icksburg is very strongly fortified in front and the 
forts are out of the reach of my guns. They are on the hilltops, and 
we can not even elevate that high. My plan is to work up the Yazoo 
and get in there and for an army to come down the Yazoo, cut off 
supplies, and attack their rear. 

The rebels have but little to eat now and poor clothing. Certain it 
is that we will never take Vicksburg in front by looking at them 
across the river. It is a pity that gallant fellow, Sherman, was not 
left in command. He didt nobly until the rain drowned his army out 
of the swamp, and although he met with a reverse it was a small one 
and not at all felt by the troops. I do not think this army good for 
an assault. They are too green. They have to be coaxed up to a rifle 
pit as Rarey coaxes his wild horses up to a drum. I do not think 
they would make a good business at assaulting Vicksburg in front, 
across the river, if they could not be brought to the assault of Fort 
Hindman by land. 

I hear that the rebels are getting very tired of the war and would, 
all of them, be glad if peace would come, but they express a deter- 
mination to fight it out. 

The greatest mistake we ever made was acknowledging them as 
belligerents ; otherwise we could hang and shoot every rascal we cap- 
tured. They are treated so well now that they like to be taken. 
Well, sir, I have bored you with a long letter. Hoping that we may 
see our way through our difficulties here, 

I remain, very truly and respectfully, yours, 

David D. Porter. 

Hon. James [W.] Grimes, 

U. S. Senate, Washington, D. 0. 



General order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding 

pay. 

G^^^:^AzOm>j^R]^ January 24, 1863. 

Commanders of vessels will see that the men receive half their 
month's pay, if they want it, when money is on hand. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Brentumd, TJ. S. Navy, com- 
manding U. S. S. Carondelet, explaining the cause of delay in 
arrival at Yazoo River. 

U. S. Gunboat CARONDEnET, 
Island \_No.'\ Ten, Mississippi River, January 25, 1863. 
Sir: The gunboat New Era arrived last evening from Cairo to 
relieve the Carondelet. I should have started immediately to join you 



196 NAVAL. FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

but for this reason : Our hog-chain stanchions had not arrived from 
Cairo. They have just arrived by the gunboat Linden. As soon as 
I can get them put up and the boat coaled I will report to you with- 
out delay. We have out one pilot ; Captain Walke has detached one 
for the Lafayette. All is correct at Island [No.] Ten. I am informed 
a company of guerrilla cavalry are in the vicinity of Tipton ville; 
they have not molested any of our boats, to my knowledge. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Edwaed E. Beennand, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, V. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Mouth of Yazoo River. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Woodworth, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Glide, 
regarding transportation of prisoners, contrabands, and refugees to 
Cairo. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Mouth of Yazoo River, January 25, 1863. 
Sir : You will receive on board the Glide such prisoners, refugees, 
and contrabands as may be sent you from the Benton and other ves- 
sels here. 

The prisoners and contrabands are to be delivered to Captain Pen- 
nock at Cairo. The refugees, if any, will take passage with you to 
Cairo. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Adm,iral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Selim E. Woodworth, U. S. Navy, 
Commanding U. S. S. Glide, Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Colonel 
Parsons, V. S. Army, regarding the convoy of transports. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Mouth of Yazoo River, January 25, 1863. 
Colonel : If your transports will stop at the mouth of the Yazoo 
Eiver, a gunboat will be ready to convoy them. As she is not as fast 
as your transports, the largest and fastest of your boats had better 
take her alongside. It will not (with steam up on both) impede her 
progress. The boats will have to keep together. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron, 

Colonel Parsons, 

Assistant Quartermaster. 



NAVAL POHCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 197 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter^ U. S. Navy, to Captain White, 
acting quartermaster, to proceed up the river for stores, towing the 
disabled Sovereign to Memphis. 

January 25, 1863. 
Sib: You will proceed up the river to Cairo, or such other place 
where it may be necessary to procure stores, and you will please de- 
liver the mail to Captain Pennock at Cairo. You will find the 
Sovereign disabled at White River. If possible, tow her up to Mem- 
phis. She has only one wheel. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gomm^nding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain White, 

Acting Quartermaster, Ram, Homer. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, V. S. Navy, to detail Acting Lieutenant Murphy, U. 8. 
Navy, to command the U. S. S. Carondelet. 

January 25, 1863. 
Sib : If Acting Lieutenant McLeod Murphy should arrive at Cairo, 
detail him for the command of the Carondelet. I hear that vessel 
met with an accident going up. I presume she has gone to Cairo for 
repairs. I hope you will get rid of her as soon as possible. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
Genercd McGlemand, V. S. Army, regarding measures for repres- 
sion of guerrillas at Greenville, Miss. 

January 25, 1863. 
Sir: Your letter of this evening has been received. I am going to 
station a gunboat at the point above Greenville, which will effectually 
stop the guerrillas. 

A convoy will go up with the steamers to-morrow. The planters 
along there complain that the guerrillas fire from there with the 
object of getting their houses burned, and ask our protection. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General McClernand, 

Commanding ZJ. S. Forces. 



198 navaXi forces on westekn waters. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Prichett, V. S. Navy, to proceed to Greenville, Miss., for the sup- 
pression of guerrillas. 

January 26, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed with all dispatch to Greenville, on the Mis- 
sissippi Kiver, and that town and 2 miles above will be your station. 
The guerrillas are at work along there, and you will do all you can 
to drive them away. When you see any number of white people col- 
lecting at the point, a mile and a half or two miles above the town, 
fire on them with shrapnel, observing the rules I have pointed out 
to you. 

Be careful never to tie up to the bank, nor let your people go on 
shore. 

Wlien you see a transport going by, get underway and protect her 
until she is below the town, the same going up, covering them until 
past danger. Show no lights at night, and anchor out of musket 
shot. 

If you or any other vessels are fired on from the town, tr^' and set 
fire to it with your shells, not wasting ammunition in doing so. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieutenant Commander J. M. Pricheit, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. Gunhoat, Yazoo River. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Prichett, U. S. Navy, to cut the levee at Greenville, 
Miss. 

January 26, 1863. 
Sir : When you arrive at Greenville, or the place where the vessels 
are fired upon, haul your vessel close to the bank where the men can 
work securely under your guns, and cut the levee, so that the whole 
country may be overflowed. If that succeeds, go to the other side of 
the point and do the same. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Jas. M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 
Commanding TJ. S. S. Tyler. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volun^ 
teer Lieutenant Scott, TJ. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Signal, to 
proceed to Greenville, Miss. 

Mouth of Yazoo, January 26, 1863. 
Sir : Proceed to Greenville and remain there until you are relieved, 
convoying transports by there. When relieved, report again to the 
commanding officer at White Eiver. 

KespectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant John Scott, 

U. S. S. Signal. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 199 

Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. 8. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Dominy, U. S. Navy, to assume cormnand of TJ. S. S, 
Signal. 

Mouth of Yazoo, January 26, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed in the steamer Brown and take command 
of the U. S. S. Signal, relieving Acting Volunteer Lieutenant John 
Scott of that vessel. You will report to the commanding naval 
officer at the mouth of White River, which is your station. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Cyrenius Dominx, U. S. Navy, 

V. S. S. Tyler. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennoek, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the proportion of light-draft 
vessels for the upper rivers. 

Mouth of Yazoo River, January 26, 1863. 
Sir : As fast as the light-draft steamers are finished, take one out 
of every three vessels fpr the defense of the upper rivers. This does 
not take into account the vessels now at Cairo, which I am anxiously 
looking for. 

When I can afford to do so, I intend to detail the Lexington for 
up-river work. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
A. M. Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, regarding affairs at 
Cairo, III., transmitting report regarding causes of delay in the 
completion of TJ. S. steamers Choctaw and Lafayette. 

Office of Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., January 26, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com- 
munications up to and including the 19th instant. 

Your secretary arrived here a little after midnight, night before 
last, and left yesterday (Sunday) in the noon train for Washington. 

The General Price has never had but one gun on board, a 32- 
pounder aft. There is no room for a gun forward. We will, how- 
ever, mount as heavy a gun aft as we can work, and if possible a 
24-pounder howitzer forward, if it meets with your views. 

Your galley and pipe have been procured and will be sent down by 
the Indianola, which will leave in the course of to-day. 

Paymasters Boggs and Watson are now absent at Cincinnati on 
business connected with the purchasing and inspection of supplies 
for the squadron. 



200 NAVAL POECES ON WESTEBN WATEES. 

The steamboat Ike Hammitt takes down a tow of 45,000 bushels 
of coal, with orders to leave it at the mouth of the Yazoo River from 
Mr. Boggs, chief clerk, in accordance with your orders. 

Paymaster Watson informs me that stores in sufficient quantity to 
supply all the articles not hitherto furnished on requisitions have been 
sent down on the Sovereign, and can be required for from that vessel. 

I received a telegram last night from Lieutenant Eiley, command- 
ing U. S. gunboat Silver Lake, at Smithland, that the "doctor" 
engine of that vessel became disabled up the Cumberland River, and 
that the gunboat had returned to Smithland. I shall have the ma- 
chinery repaired and sent up with the least possible delay. 

The Bureau of Ordnance telegraphs that it has no X-inch gun 
available to send here. 

I enclose for your information a letter * from Mr. [James] Laning, 
relative to the Choctaw and Lafayette. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

A. M. Pbnnock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississipjn Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, V. S. Navy, for the seizure of steamer Rocket for injuries 
to the U. S. S. Sovereign. 

January 26, 1863. 
Sir: You will seize the steamer Rocket whenever she comes to 
Cairo and hold her until the owners pay a fine of $1,000 damage done 
to the Sovereign at White River. 

This was an intentional thing; the Sovereign was tied up to the 
bushes with barges all around her, out of the way of everything, and 
the Rocket turned toward her, ran into her with a full head of steam, 
and cut through her guard, bringing the wheel down into the water ; 
after which the party on board set up a shout and went off in another 
direction. I will make them pay for it if it is a hundred years hence. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy. 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, U. S. Navy, in view of violation of revenue laws hy 
steamer Home. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January £6, 1863. 
Sir : The steamer Home has been guilty of violating the revenue 
laws. You will take such steps in the matter as the law requires. 
The engineers are witnesses against the captain. The captain also 
complains of mutiny amongst the engineers. Amongst them they 
lost a coal barge, the price of which Mr. Boggs will deduct from 

* Not necessary to publish. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 201 

the towage if it is proved that the Home had no licensed pilots. The 
6 barrels of whisky, 18 barrels of salt, and other things were bought 
for trading purposes, and the property of the Government was en- 
dangered by the act. I hope you will see that the whole party receives 
a lesson. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Poetek, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, OomTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Self ridge, V. S. Navy, command- 
ing U. S. S. Conestoga, making inquiry regarding construction of 
retaliatory orders. 

U. S. S. Conestoga, 
Off White River, January 26, 1863. 
Sir: In your instructions dated January 17 I am informed that 
only houses are to be burned where vessels of the Mississippi Squad- 
ron are fired upon. 

I respectfully ask the information if I am to understand that when 
transports are fired upon I am not to retaliate by burning the planta- 
tion in the near vicinity. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Seleeidge, 

Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Eear- Admiral DAvro D. Poetek, 

CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, announcing the clos- 
ing of the rendezvous at Chicago, and referring to mortar boats. 

Office Mississippi Squadeon, 

Cairo, III, January 26, 1863. 
Sie: I have the honor to inform you that I have to-day given 
orders that the rendezvous at Chicago be closed, in accordance with 
directions from you to do so when the number of men shipped was 
not sufficient to justify the expenditure. I am informed the chances 
of procuring men at Chicago are very few. 

The gunboat Little Rebel is now undergoing repairs. Her place 
in guarding the magazine and mortar boats has been supplied by 
the Springfield, a light-draft, stern-wheel boat, whose engines are 
of such small capacity that she can not stem the current. 

As soon as the mortar boats are received from St. Louis they will 
be sent down without delay. The ones here are perfectly water- 
logged and useless. I have the honor to be. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Poktee, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



202 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. 8. Navy,^ to Major- 
General McGlemand, TJ. 8. Army, regarding the securing of pro- 
visions at Greenville, Miss. 

jANtJAET 27, 1863. 
General : I have two gunboats at Greenville and am going to send 
up another as soon as she can get in coal. 

The commanding officer, Lieutenant-Commander Prichett, will 
show the officer in command of the troops the best place to obtain 
the beef, viz, at the foot of Island No. 92. The people there are well 
disposed to supply us with all we want, and I hope the officer in 
command will not allow his men to pillage or commit improprieties. 
Mr. Duncan, the proprietor, is a Union man, and has supplied us 
with provisions willingly, only taking a receipt. There are, however, 
cattle much nearer. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
■ Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General John A. McCleknand, 

Commanding the Army of the Mississippi. 



Report of Acting Ensign Wheelock, TJ. 8. Navy, regarding his 
service as memier of ioard of trade at Helena, Arh. 

Helena, Abk., January 27, 1863. 

Sir: I have sent you three communications, and as yet have not 
received any reply to them. Since I was left here in charge of 
the mortar boats I have not received an order from anyone, and 
have done what I considered best under the circumstances. As I 
informed you, four of the mortar boats broke loose on or about 
the 10th instant, three of which I have recovered, and the other one 
I am informed was caught by one of the Mosquito Fleet boats and 
is now anchored at Island 68. I have been acting as a member of 
the board of trade at this place, representing the Navy, and have 
been very busy overhauling steamers, examining their clearances, 
etc. The four mortar boats sent from Memphis were detained by 
order of Commander Walke, of the Carondelet, which leaves seven 
mortar boats and seven men at this place. Through the kindness of 
Brigadier-General Gorman, whom I consult on all occasions, I 
am allowed to draw rations for the men at the army commissary. 
I have free access to the post-office at this place, and forward all 
letters that may arrive here for the fleet. The enclosed dispatches 
to you came in the army mail yesterday. 

Awaiting orders from you, I am, most respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

E. W. Wheelock, 
Acting Ensign, U. 8. Navy. 

Acting KearrAdmiral D. D. Portek. 



NAVAL POECES ON WBSTEBN WATERS. 203 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter^ JJ . S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Gom/mander Smith, U. S. Navy, commanding light-draft vessels, 
for a reconnaissance in Yazoo River. 

January 27, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed up the Yazoo Kiver with the Rattler and 
the rams Queen of the "West and Lancaster, and make a reconnois- 
sance as far as you can go without sighting the fort or getting 
under fire. The object is to ascertain if the enemy are using a 
diving bell to work on the Cairo. 

Take every possible precaution against torpedoes, examining the 
banks closely, as you go along, for strings or wires, and look out 
for small buoys. Ascertain and report the height of the water, and 
if it overflows the banks and inundates the country on the starboard 
hand going up. If the water is high enough, and a good chance 
offers, at an open space, cut the levee. In doing so, keep your 
vessels close to the bank, that they may cover the men completely. 
Make a note of everything you see and report to me fully on your 
return, which you will try to accomplish before night. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Corrvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieut. Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding First Division Light-Draft Vessels, 

Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, regarding a 
reconnaissance in the Yazoo River. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Yazoo River, January B7, 1863. 

Sir: I have returned from the reconnoissance upon which I was 
sent to-day with this vessel and the rams Queen of the West and 
Lancaster. 

There were mounted pickets of the enemy at the mouth of the 
Yazoo at its connection with the old bed of the Mississippi. They 
fell back rapidly up the river bank, apparently communicating with 
a regiment stationed on the lower side of Chickasaw Bayou, near the 
river. By the time the vessels were abreast of Chickasaw Bayou 
their troops were beyond the range of our guns and traveling in the 
direction of Vicksburg. 

Continued on up, passing the place where the Cairo was destroyed 
without being able to detect the least evidence of any attempt hav- 
ing been made to recover from the wreck, no part of which was 
visible. As we approached Benson Blake's house, other troops left 
that neighborhood in the direction of Drumgould's Bluff. We were 
not able to distinguish their number. 

Saw no fresh earth or other evidence of the enemy having occu- 
pied the river bank. The banks were not overflowed nor the country 
on the starboard hand going up, inundated ; the water was not high 
enough to cause damage if the levee had been cut, which, in places 
where it could be best seen, was 10 or 12 feet above the river, 



204 ITAVAL J'OltCSS ON WfiSlERlif WAMES. 

Did not see any smoke of steamers in the river above. 
Expended on the service, in stirring bushes and starting pickets, 
seven 24-pounder howitzer shrapnel and one 30-pounder Parrott 
shell. 

EespectfuUy, yours, Watson Smith, 

LieuteTMnt-Gom/mander^ 
Gormrumdmg First Division Light Draft Steamers. 

Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from special agent of the Treasury Department to Lieutenant 
Bishop, TJ. S. Navy, requesting cooperation %n the arrest of steamers 
Arizona and TT. "PT. Crawford. 

Memphis, January %7, 1863. 
My Dear Sir : I am directed by Admiral Porter, when in want of 
the naval authority to assist me in my official wants as a special agent 
of the Treasury Department, to call on the commanders of navy 
vessels. 

I am therefore very desirous to arrest and have brought to this 
port the steamers Arizona and W. W. Crawford, now trading be- 
tween Memphis and Helena. Your very earliest attention will oblige 
Yours, respectfully, etc., 

Th. H. Yeatman, 
Special Agent, Treasury Department. 
Capt. J. Bishop, 

V. S. S. General Bragg. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Major- 
Genercd McClenuund, TJ. S. Army, in response to request for tugs 
to force water into the canal. 

Jajtuaey 28, 1863. 
General: Our tugs would not answer the purpose you propose, 
but one or two of three stern-wheel transports would throw a large 
volume of current into the canal, or a powerful side-wheel steamer 
would answer the purpose. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admircd, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Maj. Gen. J. A. McClernand, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, suggesting 
changes in the canal opposite Vicksiurg. 

No. Y7.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 28, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a communi- 
cation in relation to the canal across the neck of land opposite Vicks- 
burg. In reply I beg leave, most respectfully, to enclose a copy of a 
letter I wrote General Sherman. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 205 

The present canal is simply ridiculous, and will never succeed 
until oth&T steps are taken. It is improperly located, in the first 
place, and is not properly cut, in the second. General Grant, who is 
a very sensible person about some matters, and is willing to admit 
that sailors know something where water is concerned, sent Colonel 
Bissell, of the Army, to report to me and consult about the canal. 

I pointed out to him where it should begin and the course it should 
take. The beginning should be half a mile above the present mouth, 
and it should come out 2 miles below the lower opening. This would 
make the canal 3 miles long, and leave the mouth entirely clear of any 
batteries the enemy might raise. 

Colonel Bissell was much pleased with my suggestion. I gave him 
a fast boat, with orders to go to St. Louis, obtam powder and tools, 
and return here without delay. With the troops now here the canal 
should be opened by Colonel Bissell's plan in twelve days. He says 
he can do it in twenty-four hours, which is very doubtful. Whether 
it will be done or not is hard to say. I received a request from the 
General (McClernand) to-day to send him a tug to turn her wheel 
at the mouth of the canal and force the water in. At present it is a 
very feeble stream, and a dozen tugs would not help it. 

General Grant is here now, and I hope for a better state of things. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Admiral, GoTwmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, 'Washington, D. 0. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 27, 1863. 
General: One of my captains has been carefully examining the 
mouth of the canal, and very properly observes that there is a point 
jutting out above it that causes an eddy, and of course prevents the 
strong current from pouring into the ditch. This point could be 
blown away in a very short time with powder, and if the canal is to 
be widened, it will be done then. I am not sure that it will ever 
succeed where it is; at least, I have always predicted that it would 
not, and a man likes to have his judgment turn out right. It cer- 
tainly will not succeed unless it gets assistance. If it will not go 
fast enough there, I propose cutting another canal higher up, and 
when it is ready I would suggest cutting through the neck by Milli- 
ken's Bend, which is a very short distance. This will raise the water 
down here 2 feet at least, and it will go through with a rush. If this 
rain lasts much longer we will not need a canal. I think the whole 
point will disappear, troops and all, in which case the gunboats will 
have the field to themselves. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Bear-Admiral, 
Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 
Maj. Gen. Wm. T. Sherman, 

U, S, Army. 



206 NAVAIi POBCES OK WESTERN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IJ. 8. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, corrvmanding U. S. S. Cones- 
toga, at mouth of White River. 

Januakt 28, 1863. 
Sir: You will always keep one vessel at or near Napoleon, and 
try and keep that battery from firing on our vessels. 

There is no object in going up the Arkansas or TVTiite rivers further 
than I have indicated. Your application for the command of an 
ironclad will be attended to. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieut. Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, TJ. S. Navy, 

Commanding Conestoga. 



Report of Lieutenant Bache, U. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Cin- 
cinnati, recommending certain officers for promotion. 

U. S. Gunboat Cincinnati, 
Yazoo River, Miss., January 28, 1863. 
Sir : I have the pleasure to recommend for promotion to the grade 
of acting master Ensign A. F. O'Neil, and to the grade of acting 
ensign Acting Master's Mate Henry Boobvj both for coolness and 
bravery in action and general efficiency as officers. 

I should like their appointments, should you decide on promoting 
them, to date from the 11th instant, the day of our successful attack 
on the Post of Arkansas. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. M. Bache, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Comrnander Selfridge, V. S. Navy, commianding TJ. S. S. Conestoga, 
regarding retaliatory measures. 

January 28, 1863. 
Sir : Your letter of January 26th is received. 

The houses and plantations along the river are only to be destroyed 
when naval vessels, or vessels in company with the gunboats, are fired 
upon. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admirdl, Commanding Mississippi Squadron^ 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Conestoga. 



NAVAl. FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 207 

Order of Acting Rear-Adnrdral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Phelps, U. S, Navy, to assume command of the second 
division of ironclads. 

[Yazoo Eiveb,] January W, 1863. 

Sie: On your arrival at this place you will take command of the 
second division of ironclads, composed of the following vessels: 
Eastport, Benton, Tuscumhia, Indianola, Mound City, and Tyler. 

Captain Walke will command the first division, composed of the 
Lafayette, Louisville, Baron De Kall>, Cincinnati, Carondelet, Ghilli- 
cothe, Lexington, and Gonestoga. 

This will divide the duties and give me more leisure. You may, 
if you desire it, take the Choctaw when she is finished, although I 
think the Eastport, with her new battery, one of the most desirable 
ships in the squadron. 

I desire the commander of each division to have a ram, also a 
manageable vessel, that he may be moving about, regulating the 
position of his division. Let me know your wishes on this subject 
and I will accommodate you. The Choctaw will not be ready for a 
month yet, and I think you will like the Eastport the best. I want 
you here as soon as possible. Do not wait for paint ; I will have you 
greased as soon as you arrive. 

If you are short of men, I can make up your deficiencies for a fight 
from the crew of this ship and the light drafts. You will take 50 
of the new men coming down from the East and bring down 50 for 
the Benton. 

Captain Walke will take 50, and the rest will be for the Tuscumbia. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davu) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, TJ. S. Navy, 

Com/manding Second Division Ironclads, Cairo, III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Brown, TJ. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Forest 
Rose, to proceed to Helena with a hearer of dispatches from General 
Grant, V. S. Arm/y. 

January 29, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed to Helena with a bearer of dispatches from 
General Grant and report yourself to the commanding officer there 
for such duty as he may employ you on. You will report to me on 
every opportunity and carry out all the general orders with regard to 
proper precautions. 

very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Geo. W. Beown, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Forest Rose. 



208 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTEBN WATEKS. 

Letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury transmitting copy of dispatch from Acting Rear-Admvral Por- 
ter^ V. S. Navy, advising the restriction of trade in the Mississippi 
River. 

Navy Department, January £9, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a dispatch 
(No. 60) from Acting Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter, commanding the 
Mississippi Squadron, and fully concur in what he says respectmg 
traffic in the insurrectionary region. By a class of unprincipled and 
unscrupulous speculators, the blockade and the war are perverted and 
used for mercenary purposes. Trade itself is to them a monopoly m 
consequence of hostilities. There should be a remedy for all this, not 
only on the coast, but also on the Mississippi. 

I am, respectfuUy, etc., f.^^^^ Welles, 

Hon. S. P. Chase, Secretary of Navy. 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

[Enclosure.] 

No. 60.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 17, 1863. 

Sir : It is an erroneous opinion to suppose that the people of the 
section we have just left are suffering for want of provisions and 
clothing. They are supplied with everything in abundance, except- 
ing, perhaps, some luxuries which they can well do without. These 
supplies they receive from vessels allowed to trade by the general 
orders of the Treasury Department, which the Treasury agents and 
boards of trade, appointed by them, construe very liberally. 

The temptations to amass fortunes induce traders and boards of 
trade to resort to all kinds of deceptions, and they care very little how 
long this war lasts, provided they can make money by it. 

I would recommend that no trading be allowed outside or below the 
points occupied by our troops (at present Helena is the last place 
below), and that such restrictions be placed on vessels that they can 
not trade in anything but the necessaries of life. 

At one time I stopped all trade below Helena, and allowed no inter- 
mediate places to be stopped at, unless for wood. The result was a 
quiet river, and the boats passed up and down unmolested. Since I 
came down, the river has not been so quiet, and one steamer was 
lately burned 10 miles above Memphis, the captain having stopped 
to sell liquor; he allowed himself to be taken by five men, and ex- 
pects to be paid by the Government for his boat. These mishaps 
may look like a want of Adgilance on the part of the Navy, but we 
can not control events unless invested with authority to regulate the 
point where trade must cease and also regulate the stopping at dis- 
affected places. I beg that you will instruct me on this point. The 
trade alluded to is only for the benefit of the rebels and will tend 
to lengthen this war. 

Starvation only will bring these people to their senses. As long 
as they don't feel the war and can sell their cotton for 45 cents a 
pound they will never want the war to cease. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admi/ral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of tM NQ/oy., 'Washington, D. O. 



NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 209 

Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. 8. Navy, acknowledging 
Department's order regarding G (mfederate prisoners. 

No. 80.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 29, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation in relation to paroling rebel officers. 

The last we captured I sent to Captain Pennock, with orders to 
take your instructions in regard to them. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. 0. 



Report of Acting Rear-AdTniral Porter, U. S. Navy, referring to 
dispatches captured on the transport Blue Wing. 

No. 78.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, January 29, 1863. 

Sir : In answer to your letter of January 15, 1 beg leave to inform 
you that the Blu^ Wing was an army transport, towing army coal. 
She had no dispatches for me. 

The communications you allude to have been received. Captain 
Pennock has instructions to send no letters to me except in a vessel 
of war. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Brigadier- 
General Ellet, U. S. Army, thanking him for his congratulations 
on the reported fall of Yickshurg. 

January 29, 1863. 
Dear General: I thank you for your congratulations, but they 
were rather premature. Vicksburg, as you will see, is not yet taken, 
and the army got rather the worst of it, though it did not amount 
to much after all. These rascally newspaper reporters tell such 
lies that it is impossible to get a true account of affairs down here. 
Sherman managed his men most beautifully, but for want of nerve 
in one of his generals or colonels we lost our chance of getting into 
Vicksburg. I wish you were here. If you only had 300 men and a 
few horses we could break up guerilla warfare on the river. The 
army seems to think that 30,000 of them can not move without a 
gunboat, when detachments should land every time a musket is fired. 

711°— N w B— VOL 24r-10 ^14 



210 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

We had a good time at Arkansas Eiver, but cleaned it out com- 
pletely. The fighting at the Post was done by the navy and the 
army bagged all the rebels. 
Hoping soon to see you, I remain, general, yours, very truly, 

David D. Poetbk, 

Acting Rear-Admiral. 
Brigadier-General A. W. Ellet. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to E. B. Pike, 
esq., declining permission to enter St. Francis River for cotton. 

Jantjaky 29, 1863. 
Sm : Yours of the 23d instant is received. You will not, under any 
circumstances, be allowed to ascend the St. Francis Eiver at present. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

E. B. Pike, Esq., 

Memphis, Tenn. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Ensign 
Wheelock, TJ. S. Navy, to withdraw from the Board of Trade, and 
furnish information regarding the vessel Alhambra. 

January 30, 1863. 
Sir : I received two letters from you, notifying me that you were 
a member of a board of trade. It appears from reports received 
that you are meddling in matters over which you have no control. 
You will withdraw any connection with a board of trade and attend 
to your legitimate duties. You will also explain why the Alhamhra 
was released and what part you took in the matter, and by what 
authority you acted. Your duties do not seem to be so well performed 
that you can afford to act as a member of a board of trade. 
EespectfuUy, yours, etc., 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

E. W. Wheelock, 

Helena, Ark. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Major- 
Gensral Curtis, TJ. S. Army, stating that the action of Acting 
Ensign Wheelock was unauthorized. 

January 30, 1863. 
Sir : I am informed by Mr. E. W. Wheelock, of the Navy, that he 
is acting as a member of a board of trade at Helena, which is per- 
fectly unauthorized by me, and I am also informed that he permitted 
a vessel, the Alhamira, to be released without proper authority. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WBSTEBN WATEES. 211 

If you will be kind enough to have me furnished with the evidence 
in the matter, Mr. Wheelock, if guilty, will be dismissed the service. 
His business is to attend to his mortars. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General S. R. Curtis, 

Hdqrs. Dept. of the Mississippi, St. Louis, Mo. 



General Order. 

Janttart 30, 1863. 
The vessels at the mouth of the Yazoo will perform guard duty 
also, and permit no boat to pass them without they know the par- 
ties in it, or to go up and down night or day. They will permit no 
steamers not belonging to the squadron to pass the guard vessel, and 
when they go above the flagship they are to be stopped. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

The Benton, Louisville, Pittsburg, and Mound City are guard 
boats upstream in the order in which their names are written, and 
the vessel on guard will hoist the guard flag. 

No boat, night or day, will be permitted to pass up or down with- 
out being called alongside and examined, and authority for passing 
being required. 

A Doat that does not answer the first hail at night will be fired into 
with ball, and any boat belonging to the enemy attempting to come 
into or pass our lines for the purpose of spying or for our destruc- 
tion will be brought to, and all persons in said boat will be shot on 
the spot. 

Persons deserting to us from the enemy will easily be known ; they 
will go to the first ship to surrender themselves. Each vessel also 
will keep six lookouts on the upper deck with loaded muskets, and 
the officer of the deck will keep his watch where he can see all around. 

It is not creditable to the watchfulness of the Benton that two of 
her men should take a boat and leave the ship, and a full investiga- 
tion of the matter will take place. 

The guard ship wiU have a guard boat out in fogs, or after dark, 
and the guard officer will be sent to the flagship for orders at sunset. 

One of the vessels below will do guard duty also, and will be desig- 
nated daily by me. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from, Major-General Grant, U. S. Army, to Acting Rear- 
Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, requesting cooperation of gunboats 
in army expedition to cut canal at Lake Providence, La. 

Yoting's Point, La., January 30, 1863. 
By enquiry I learn that Lake Providence, which connects with Red 
Eiver through Tensas Bayou, Washita [Ouachita] and Black rivers, 
is a wide and navigable way through. 



212 NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

As some advantage may be gained by opening this, I have ordered 
a brigade of troops to be detailed for the purpose, and to be embarked 
as soon as possible. 

I would respectfully request that one of your light-draft gunboats 
accompany this expedition, if it can be spared. 

U. S. Grant. 
Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Com/manding Western Flotilla. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Smith, U. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Linden, to accompany 
exf edition to Lake Providence, La. 

January 30, 1863. 

Sir: You will accompany an expedition of the army to Lake 
Providence, where they are going to cut a canal. Before you attempt 
to enter or go anywhere have a boat ahead to sound. 

Report to General Grant that you are ready to accompany the 
expedition. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear-Adm,iral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master Smith, IT. S. Navy, 

Commanding TJ. S. S. Linden. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, regarding names of certain vessels. 

January 31, 1863. 
Sir : The Mary Miller will hereafter be called the Prairie Bird, 
the Duchess the Petrel, and the Florence the Curlew, and you will 
have them so registered on the books. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock;, U. S. Navy, 

Commandant of Station, Cairo^ III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Prichett, TJ. 8. Navy, for the arrest of parties con- 
cerned in the destruction of TJ. S. S. Sallie Wood. 

February 1, 1863. 

Sir: You will proceed to Point Chicot and arrest the following 
persons, whom you will send to Cairo, to be delivered to the provost- 
marshal, to be proceeded against for being accessory to the robbing 
and burning of the Sallie Wood: 

Eichard Sessions, Daniel Sessions, Porter of Island [No.] 82, 
Esquire Seabrook, for burning the boat. 



NAVAL FOBOES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 213 

Long, at Columbia; Diamond, at Point Chicot; Esquire Payne, 
Frank Cable, Judge Craig. 

These men must be delivered into the hands of Captain Pennock, 
who will obtain all needful testimony against them and deliver them 
over to the marshal. Kichard Sessions will be forced to deliver up 
a man he has incarcerated or hid by the name of Hill. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Poeteh, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississipjn Squadron. 

Lieut. Commander Jas. M. Pkichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding TJ. S. 3. Tyler. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the 
arrest of parties concerned in th^ destruction of TJ. 8. S. Sallie 
Wood. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February 1, 1863. 
Sik: I have the honor to inform you that I have arrested all the 
parties who were concerned in the robbing and burning of the steamer 
SaUie Wood, at Island No. 82, in August last. The evidence is strong 
against these men. The witnesses are on board the Juliet, who wit- 
nessed the whole affair, and the property is in the hands of the persons 
arrested. I have ordered them sent to Cairo, to the provost-marshal. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volun^ 
teer Lieutenant Shaw, TJ. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Juliet, 
regarding transportation of witnesses in the case of the TJ. S. S. 
Sallie Wood. 

Yazoo Eiver, February 1, 1863. 
Sir : Proceed to Cairo without loss of time and deliver over to Cap- 
tain Pennock the contrabands you have on board. He will take such 
steps for their comfort and employment as he may deem necessary. 
Explain to him everything in relation to the persons you may take up, 
and tell him who are the witnesses for the prosecution. Said wit- 
nesses to give security for appearance when wanted. The arrested 
persons are to be delivered over to the provost-marshal to undergo 
trial, and all the evidence you can collect will be delivered to Captain 
Pennock, who will forward it to the Secretary 6i the Navy. 

When you have reported and got rid of your passengers, coal and 
fill up with provisions without delay and join me here without allow- 
ing any orders or requests from anyone to detain you on the way. If 
Captain Pennock has ready some carpenters for me bring them down, 



214 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

but do not wait for them. I expect you to be here on the 8th of 
February. 

Eespectf uUy, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Edw. Shaw, U. S. Navy, 

V. 8. S. Juliet. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding the 

seizure of cotton. 

No. 87.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February 1, 1S63. 

Sir : I have the honor to report that, hearing that there was a lot 
of cotton at Point Chicot, on the Mississippi, belonging to the so- 
called Confederate Government, and that the agents were moving it 
back into the country or about to burn it, I sent up the ram Monarch, 
Colonel EUet, and the Juliet, Acting Lieutenant Shaw, and seized 
250 bales, which I now have and am using to protect the boilers of 
those vessels that are vulnerable. There are now altogether 300 bales 
in the squadron, which I recommend should be sold when no longer 
needed and the proceeds placed in the Treasury. 

All cotton on the river belongs to the rebel Government, and on 
that they depended to carry on the war. 

I recommend that it be all seized and sold for the benefit of the 
Government. There is authority enough on record to justify me in 
taking cotton under certain circumstances, but not enough to take it 
in all cases. Eight thousand bales will pay the expenses of the 
squadron per year, and I think there will be no difficulty in obtain- 
ing that amount when Colonel EUet gets his brigade ready and we 
can penetrate some 6 or 8 miles into the interior, where it is all stowed 
away. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 
Hov>ell, commanding TJ. S. ram Lancaster, to proceed to duty at 
Greenville, Miss. 

February 1, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to Greenville, where you will report to 
Captain Prichett, of the Tyler, whom you will relieve for the pres- 
ent, obtaining from him a copy of his orders, by which you will be 
governed. 

Be particular that your men have no communication with the shore 
other than is expressed in Captain Prichett's orders. 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant P. F. Howell, 

Commanding Ram, Lancaster. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 215 

Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. 8. Navy, regarding arrival of 
Captain Walke, V. S. Navy, to command U. 8. 8. Lafayette. 

OrriCE Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 1, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report to you that Captain Walke arrived 
here about a week ago and has assumed the command of the Lafay- 
ette. I have delivered to him a copy of your letter of instructions 
to me in regard to that vessel for his guidance. 
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of 8tation. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi 8quadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander 8elfridge, U. 8. Navy, regarding 
affairs at White River. 

U. S. S. CONESTOGA, 

Off White River, February 1, 1863. 
Sir: I regret to report the death by typhus fever of two of the 
Conestoga^s crew, Felix Donis and J. D. Callahan, firemen. The 
disease is prevailing. 

The Bragg has not yet made her appearance. I shall keep the 
Signal on picket duty at the cut-off for the present. 

I send down by the Wilson the mortar boat that was anchored at 
the foot of Island No. 68. 

There are two vacancies for ensigns on board and I cheerfully 
recommend Master's Mate Divine for promotion. 

There is an extra engineer aboard. Second Assistant Michael Nor- 
ton, ordered to report to me from Cairo. 

The steamer Evansville arrived yesterday from Helena for the 
purpose of trade and to purchase cotton. I have ordered her back to 
Helena. I believe it is not your wish that trade should at present 
be permitted. 
All quiet in this vicinity. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi 8quadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, V. 8. NQ,vy, regarding general 

matters. 

OiTiOE Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 1, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report to you that I received a telegram 
from Mr. Jos. Brown on the 27th ultimo, stating that the owners of 



216 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

the 'Wren refuse to sell her. I enclose herewith a copy of a letter from 
Mr. Brown on the subject. 

The General Lyon\z& been loaded with ordnance supplies and will 
leave to-day or to-morrow for the fleet under convoy. 

The New National has been loaded with iron, etc., for the Samson 
and stores for the fleet, and will go down under the same convoy as 
the General Lyon. 

The Eastport will act as convoy and will convey these dispatches 
and a mail for the fleet. 

Two mortar boats, with their mortars, equipments, and ammuni- 
tion, will be sent down in tow of the General Lyon; also twelve 
cutters, for the use of the squadron, will be sent. 

The 200 men sent out here from New York City for the squadron 
arrived here on the morning of the 29th ultimo. I have transferred 
75 to the Lafayette, 75 to the Eastport, and send 47 down in the latter 
vessel for the Benton. This takes all the men that I have at my 
disposal. 

The Duchess has just (10 a. m.) arrived from Cincinnati. The 
Florence and Mary Miller have not yet come down. 

I would respectfully suggest the propriety of sending the General 
Lyon and New National back as soon as you can spare them, as I am 
desirous of sending them to St. Louis for more supplies, and matters 
will be much facilitated by sending them. 

Four surgeons from the East (acting assistants) have reported 
here. One has been ordered to the Lafayette, two will go down to 
report to you on this opportunity, and one I have retained here sub- 
ject to your approval, to be attached to the Tuscumiia. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porteb, U. S. Navy, 

Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Major-General Sherman, U. S. Army, to Acting Rear- 
AdmiraH Porter, V. S. Navy, regarding charges made against ths 
former relative to operations against Vickshurg. 

Headquaetebs Fifteenth Abmt Corps, 
Camp near Yichs'burg, February 1, 1863. 

Deae Sir: The Northern press, stiniulated by parties here, have 
sown broadcast over our country the most malicious charges and insin- 
uations against me personally, in consequence of my failure to reduce 
Vicksburg. I have some friends that will, I know, be sadly troubled 
by these reports. 

You observed the embarkation of my troops, their movement to 
the point of attack, and their reembarkation. You know whether I 
took all possible means to gain information and whether I acted with 
promptness or otherwise. 

For the satisfaction of my brother, John Sherman, in the Senate, 
I would solicit a few lines from you on the matter generally, whether, 
to your knowledge, I brought my forces in good condition and well 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESXEBN WATEBS. 217 

supplied to Young's Point ; whether I delayed unnecessarily ; whether 
the point of debarkation was not the best and only one offered me, 
and whether I did not meet all difficulties promptly as they arose; 
whether I did not propose to you the attack on the Post of Arkansas 
as the best possible use we could make of time while awaiting the 
arrival of Grant and Banks, and, generally, whether I acted the part 
of an intelligent officer or that of an insane fool. 
With the utmost confidence in your judgment, 
I will ever remain, your friend and servant, 

W. T. Sherman, 

Major- General. 
Admiral D. D. Pokter, 

Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Detached expedition of the JJ. S. ram Queen of the West, including 
passage of Vicksburg batteries; attack upon steamer Gity of Vicks- 
hurg; and capture of supply steamers A. W. Baker, Moro, and 
Berwick Bay, in and near tied River, February 2-3, 1863. 

Letter from Acting Eear-Admlral Porter, TT. S. Navy, to Uajor-General Qrant, 
n. S. Army, regfarding preparation of the ram. 

Yazoo Eivee, February 1, 1863. 
General : I may be ready to-night to send down the ram to destroy 
the steamer Vicksburg, in which case our ram will be distinguished 
(after performing the duty) by three vertical lights. She will come 
to, if she gets past, at or near our batteries, when she will have her 
lights down. If you could ascertain if the Vicksburg is there at sun- 
set you would much oblige me. I am packing the ram with cotton 
bales, so that she can not oe injured. If she does not go to-night, she 
certainly will to-morrow night. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davto D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admired, Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Gommanding V. S. Forces in the Field. 



Beport of Acting Kear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. iravy, transmitting orders issued 
to Colonel Ellet, and report of the latter. 

No. 88.] Yazoo Eiver, February 2, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that on the Isl February I gave 
the following order to Colonel Charles E. Ellet, of the Eam Fleet . 

This order was carried out, excepting the destruction of the vessel; 
and we are now enabled to prevent supplies reaching the enemy at 
Vicksburg and Port Hudson by the Mississippi Eiver. The Queen 
of the West passed the batteries in broad dayhght, instead of in the 
d.ark, as I intended, and received twelve shot and shell, but as I had 
ordered her covered with two thicknesses of cotton bales, no damage 
was done to the hull, though she was exposed to the fire of all the 



218 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

batteries for fifty minutes ; some of the heaviest shot struck her. My 
orders were handsomely and gallantly carried out, and if the Viclcs- 
burg was not sunk, it was because of her wide guards and great 
strength. 

I have ordered the Queen of the West to proceed down as low as 
Red Eiver to capture and destroy all the rebel property she may 
meet with. The first favorable opportunity I will reinforce her, and 
if we can not take Vicksburg, the enemy will have to evacuate its 
other points on the river for want of supplies and transportation. 

I send Colonel Charles E. EUet's report. I can not speak too highly 
of this gallant and daring officer. The only trouble I have is to hold 
him in and keep him out of danger. He will undertake anything I 
wish him to without asking questions, and these are the kind of men 
I like to command. 

The enemy fired over fifty heavy guns and many fieldpieces. The 
caliber of shot that struck the Queen of the West was 100-pounder 
rifle, 64-pounder solid and shell, 50-pounder shell, 30-pounder shell, 
and 32-pounder smoothbore. The Yichsburg is in a sinking condition, 
and has her steam pumps going all the time. 

I have the honor to remain, v«ry respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral^ Commianding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

[Enclosures. ] 

Yazoo Eivek, February 1, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed with the ram Queen of the West to Vicks- 
burg and destroy the steamer Vicksbu7'g, lying off that place; after 
which you will proceed down the river as far as our batteries below 
the canal and report to me. In going down, you will go along under 
low speed, having steerage way enough, and keeping close to the 
right-hand shore going down. Before you start it would be better 
to have a large bed of coals in, so that you will not have to put in 
fresh coal; the smoke might betray you. After you have destroyed 
the steamer, go down stream, and, when clear of the city, show three 
vertical lights, that our batteries may not fire on you. If you get 
disabled, drift down until abreast of our batteries, and the small 
army steamer will go to your assistance. Have every light in your 
ship put out before you leave for Vicksburg, except the three lights 
to be shown to our batteries, which must be kept covered up. See 
that no lights show from the stem as you pass the town, enabling 
them to rake you, and adopt every means of concealment. The best 

Slace to strike the steamer is 20 feet forward of her wheel. After 
isabling her there so that she will sink, fire through her boilers and 
in among her machinery as she goes down. 

It will not be part of your duty to save the lives of those on 
board ; they must look out for themselves, and may think themselves 
lucky if they do not meet the same fate meted out to the Harriet 
Lane. Think of the fate of that vessel while performing your duty, 
and shout " Harriet Lane " into the ears of the rebels. If you can fire 
turpentine balls from your bow fieldpieces into the light upper works, 
it will make a fine finish to the sinking part. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 219 

Further orders for duty to be performed below will be given after 
you report. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Charles R. Ellet, 

Earn Queen of the West. 



U. S. Ram Queen or the West, 

Below Vickshurg, February 2, 1863. 

Admiral: In compliance with your instructions I started on the 
Qv^en of the West at half -past 4 o'clock this morning, to pass the 
batteries at Vickshurg and sink the rebel steamer lying before that 
city. 

I discovered immediately on starting that the change of the wheel 
from its former position to the narrow space behind the Queen's 
bulwarks did not permit the boat to be handled with sufficient accu- 
racy. An hour or more was spent in rearranging the apparatus, 
and when we finally rounded the point the sun had risen and any 
advantage which would have resulted from the darkness was lost 
to us. The rebels opened a heavy fire upon us as we neared the city, 
but we were only struck three times before reaching the steamer. 
She was lying in nearly the same position that the Arkansas occupied 
when General EUet ran the Qtieen into her on a former occasion. 
The same causes which prevented the destruction of the Arkansas 
then saved the City of Vicksburg this morning. Her position was 
such that if we had run obliquely into her as we came down the bow 
of the Queen would inevitably have glanced. We were compelled to 
partially round to in order to strike. The consequence was that at 
the very moment of collision the current, very strong and rapid at 
this point, caught the stern of my boat, and, acting on her bow as 
a pivot, swung her around so rapidly that nearly all her momentum 
was lost. I had anticipated this result, and therefore caused the 
starboard gun to be shotted with three of the incendiary projectiles 
recommended in your orders. 

As we swxmg round, Sergeant J. H. Campbell, detailed for the 
purpose, fired this gun. A 64-pound shell crashed through the barri- 
cade just before he reached the spot, but he did not hesitate. The 
discharge took place at exactly the right moment, and set the rebel 
steamer in flames, which they subsequently succeeded in extinguish- 
ing. At this moment one of the enemy's shells set the cotton near 
the starboard wheel on fire, while the discharge of our own gun 
ignited that portion which was on the bow. The flames spread 
rapidly and the dense smoke rolling into the engine room suffocated 
the engineers. I saw that if I attempted to run into the City of 
Vicksburg again that my boat would certainly be burned. I ordered 
her to be headed downstream, and turned every man to extinguishing 
the flames. 

After much exertion we finally put the fire out by cutting the 
burning bales loose. The enemy, of course, were not idle ; we were 
struck twelve times, but though the cabin was knocked to pieces, no 



220 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATEBS. 

material injury to the boat or to any of those on her was inflicted. 
About two regiments of rebel sharpshooters in rifle pits kept up a 
continual fire, but did no damage. The Queen was struck twice in 
the hull, but above the water line. One of our guns was dismounted 
and ruined. 

I can only speak in the highest terms of the conduct of every man 
on board. All behaved with cool, determined courage. 
I remain, very respectfully, 

CHAEIiES RrVERS EtlJlT, 

Colonel, Corrumanding Ram Fleet. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gonvmanding Mississippi Sguadron. 



XJ. S. Mississippi Squadron, February ^, 1863. 

The following is a list of the officers on board the Eam Queen of the 
West while running the batteries at Vicksburg to-day : 

Colonel Charles Elvers Ellet, Captain E. W. Sutherland, First 
Lieutenant J. E. Tuttle, Master Sims Edison, Master J. C. Duncan, 
Engineer Eeuben Townsend. 



Beport of Colonel Ellet, commanding Bam Fleet, transmitting: copy of report sent 
to Acting Bear-Admiral Porter. 

U. S. Steam Eam Queen or The West, 

Below Vicksburg, February 8, 1863. 
General: I have the honor to transmit you a copy of a report* 
I have just made to Admiral Porter, concerning the passage of the 
Vicksburg batteries by the Queen of the West, and the attempted 
destruction of the rebel steamer lymg before the city. You will 
perceive that I met with the same impedimentSj and was frustrated 
by the same causes, which prevented you from sinking the Arkansas, 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Eiveibs Ellet, 
Colonel, CoTwmanding Ram Fleet. 

Brigadier-General A. W. Ellet, 

Com/mandirkg Mississippi Marine Brigade. 



[Telegram.] 

Yazoo Eiver, February 2, 1863. 
(Eeceived from Cairo, 111., 10.45 p. m., 8th.) 
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that on the 1st instant I 
ordered Colonel Charles R. Ellet, in the ram Queen of the West, Cap- 
tain Sutherland, commander, to run the batteries at Vicksburg and 
destroy the steamer City of Vicksburg, lying before that city. She ran 
the batteries under a heavy fire of fifty guns and struck the steamer, 
leaving her on fire and in a sinking condition. The fire was put out, 

* See p. 219. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 



221 



marrmt^dmmtmmtiiia^ 



TioksBtTBa AKTO ifro'iNiTY'. 



llattrpads. ... .';. »■( -M--^ ■* 
KiKwiiKinnmiliiiiifl 




154 ft. high. 



222 NAVAL POBCES ON WESTEBN 'WATEES. 

and the steam pumps still keep the steamer afloat. The Queen of 
the West is off down the river, with orders to capture and destroy 
all vessels she meets with. This cuts off all the enemy's means of 
supplies of Port Hudson and Vicksburg by the way of Bed Kiver, 
and cuts off all communications up the Big Black. I will reinforce 
the Queen of the West as soon as an opportunity offers. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Poetek, 
Acting Bear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GmEON Welles. 



Report of Acting Reai-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, regarding damages Inflicted 
upon the steamer City of Vicksburg. 

No. 98] U. S. Mississippi Squadbon, February 8, 1863. 

SiH : I am happy to inform you that the steamer Vicksiurg was so 
badly injured by the ram Queen of the West that she has to be kept 
afloat with large coal barges fastened to her side. Her machinery 
has been taken out, and she will likely be destroyed. This is the fifth 
steamer we have deprived the rebels of. The Vickshurg was the 
largest and strongest steamer on this river, and I think they were 
preparing to use her against our transports, being very fleet. Her 
wheel and guards were all smashed in, and a large hole knocked in 
her side, so deserters report. 

Last night I started a coal barge with 20,000 bushels of coal in, 
from the anchorage up river, " to run the batteries at Vicksburg." 
It had 10 miles to go to reach the Queen of the West, and arrived 
safely within ten minutes of the time calculated, not having been 
seen by the sentinels. This gives the ram nearly coal enough to last 
a month, in which time she can commit great havoc, if no accident 
happens to her. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Bear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, regarding captures made 

by the ram. 

Captain Pennock will please telegraph and send this letter by mail. 

No. 90] TJ. S. Mississippi Squadeon, 

Mouth of the Yaeoo, February 5, 186S. 

Sib: After the ram Queen of the West had reported progress before Vicks- 
burg, I ordered her down the river to sink and destroy all vessels she met with. 
Colonel Ellet returned this morning, passing the fort at Warrenton in broad day- 
light, and was hit several times. He destroyed below three large steamers 
loaded with pork, sugar, molasses, and army supplies. He captured five cap- 
tains and two lieutenants. A number of rebel officers made their escape by 
jumping overboard. 

Colonel Ellet came within two hours of catching General Dick Taylor with a 
transport load of troops. The Queen of the West went 10 miles up Red River, 



NAVAL POECBS ON WESTEEN WATEES. 223 

where there are many fine steamers that are supplying Port Hudson ; they will 
likely not attempt to go out while the ram is about. She is now out of coal and 
had to return on that account. I am going to supply her, either by drifting a 
barge around at night, or by sending across the land. 

Colonel Ellet learns from the prisoners that General Banks Is 7 miles from 
Port Hudson. They had a severe engagement a few days ago. The rebels 
withdrew, and went back to the fort, and our troops went back to their camp — 
a drawn battle I presume. The ram took all the vessels by surprise ; the people 
did not dream of .anything of the kind. 

If we can not take, just now, the 6 miles of river in front of Vlcksburg we can 
take anything that steams upon that portion of the Mississippi between Vlcks- 
burg and Port Hudson. 

Very respectfully, David D. Poetee, 

Acting Rear-Admiral. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D, C. 



Beport of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, transmitting report of capture 
of steamers A. W. Baker, Uoro, and Berwick Bay. 

No. 93.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 6, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith Colonel Ellet's report of 
his proceedings down the river. 

I hope to be able to get him off again as soon as I can get coal 
around to him. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welubs, 

/Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. 0. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Steam Eam Queen of the West, 

Below Vicksburg, February 6, 1863. 

Adjueal: I have the honor to report to you that I left the landing 
below the Cut-off, about 1 o'clock p. m. on the 2d instant, and pro- 
ceeded down the river. At Warrenton, a few miles below, the enemy 
had two batteries of four pieces each, of which four are 20-pounder 
rifled guns. They opened upon us as we passed, but only struck us 
twice, doing no injury. 

On reaching the Big Black River I attempted to ascend it, but 
found it impossible from the narrowness of the stream. Passing it, 
we reached Natchez just at midnight. I landed at Vidalia, on the 
opposite shore, threw out some pickets, and went into the village in 
the hope of picking up some rebel officers. There can be no tele- 
graphic line between Vicksburg and this point, for not a word of our 
coming had reached the place, and the people scarcely knew who we 
were. One rebel. Colonel York, was halted, but made so rapid a re- 
treat that he escaped the shots fired after him. 

Leaving this point, I kept on down the river. We passed Ellis 
Cliffs at 3 o'clock a. m. There are no fortifications at that or at any 
other point between Warrenton and Port Hudson. We had got about 
15 miles below the mouth of Ked River when we met a side-wheel 
steamer coming up. Her pilot blew the whistle for the Queen to take 



224 NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEBS. 

the starboard side, supposing her to be a Southern boat. Eeceiving 
no answer, and not liking the Queen^s looks as she bore straight down 
upon him, he ran his boat ashore. As we neared her, numerous rebel 
officers sprang into the water and made their escape. She proved to 
be the A. W. Baker; had just discharged her cargo at Port Hudson, 
and was returning for another. We captured on her 5 captains, 2 
lieutenants, and a number of civilians, among them T or 8 ladies. I 
had just placed a guard on the boat, when another steamer was seen 
coming down the river. A shot across her bows, brought her to ; she 
proved to be the Moro, laden with 110,000 pounds of pork, nearly 500 
hogs, and a large quantity of salt, destined for the rebel army at Port 
Hudson. 

I placed Captain AsgiU Conner in command of the captured boats, 
and as the Qv^en's supply of coal was very limited, I thought it best 
to return. A short distance above our landing, I destroyed 25,000 
pounds of meal, awaiting transportation to Port Hudson. 

On reaching Red River I stopped at a plantation to put ashore the 
ladies, who did not wish to go any farther. I also released the 
civilians. While doing so another steamboat, the Berwick Bay, came 
out of Red River and was immediately seized. She was laden with 
supplies for the rebel forces at Port Hudson, consisting of 200 barrels 
of molasses, 10 hogsheads of sugar, and 30,000 pounds of flour; she 
had also on board 40 bales of cotton. 

I ascended Red River 15 mUes in the hope of getting some more 
boats, but found nothing. Night came on as we again started on our 
return. I found at once that the progress of the three prizes was so 
slow that our short supply of coal would not permit us to wait for 
them. I accordingly ordered them to be set on fire ; we had not time 
to transfer their cargoes. 

We met with no interruption on our return until we reached War- 
renton. Before arriving at this point I landed and sent my prisoners 
around by land, under a strong guard, to avoid exposing them to the 
enemy's fire. On passing Warrenton we found another battery had 
been erected there, and the three combined opened a very heavy fire 
upon us; they struck us several times, but did no damage worth 
mentioning. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

Charges Rivebs Ellet, 
Colonel, GoTmrMnding Ram Fleet. 

Acting Rear-Admiral DAvro D. Porter, 

GoTrnnanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Major-General Gardner, C. S. Army, transmitting report regarding 

capture of steamers. 

Headquarters, 
Port Hudson, February 5, 1863. 
Major: I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a letter from 
General Sibley. I do not know the boats named, except the Baker, 
which I started from here on the morning of the 2d instant to go up 
Red River, and she ought to have passed into Red River before the 
night of the 2d. Why she did not I do not know. This boat came 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 225 

down Ked River on a private speculation with salt and bacon, and, 
being a slow boat, I did not wish to retain her in my employ, but 
ordered her immediately up Red River. I have the Beatty here now 
and have kept her since the gunboat passed. I sent a courier to Gen- 
eral Sibley, and also one to Red River on the receipt of your telegram 
that the gunboat had passed, but it appears to me that the informa- 
tion could not have reached Red River. My object was to warn 
boats going down, not having knowledge of any boats in danger 
going up, except the Beatty, which I kept at this place. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Fbanklin Gardner, 

Major-General. 
Major J. R. Waddy, 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Jackson, \Miss. 

[Enclosure.] 

Headquarters Department East or Atchafalaya, 

Rosedale, February 4, 1863. 
General: I have just received a dispatch from one of my officers 
near the mouth of Red River, who reports that the gunboat which 
passed Vicksburg has appeared there; had captured three of our 
boats — ^the Moro, the Baker, and the Berwick Bay. The gunboat is 
the Queen of the West. She is an ironclad, but is arranged on 
Magruder's plan, with cotton bales. Prisoners released from her state 
her armament is composed of twelve 12-pounders. She placed prize 
crews on the boats captured, and has proceeded up the Red River. I 
have ordered a company of cavalry and one section of artillery to 
that point to attempt the recapture of the boats, which, at last ac- 
counts, were lying near the river banks and but slimly guarded. 
T have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

H. H. Sibley, 

Brigadier-General, 
Major-General Frank Gardner, 
Commanding at Port Hudson. 



Capture of cotton hy the U. S. 8. Tyler, February 3-9, 1863. 
KepoTt of Acting Bear-Admlral Porter, TJ. S. Navy. 

No. 100.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 9, 1863. 

Sir : I send up by the New National 113 bales of cotton, captured 
by the Tyler, Commander Prichett, from rebel parties. I directed 
Captain Pennock to hold it until you direct the disposal of it. Three 
hundred more bales are in my possession, captured from rebel parties, 
but I am using it at present tor protecting the boilers of the different 
boats. When no longer needed, I will forward it to Cairo. The ram 
Queen of the West has 250 bales on her sides, and has captured 40 
more since she went the other side. 

As it is likely that a great deal of cotton will fall into our hands, I 
would recommend that an agent of the Navy Department be ap- 

711°— N W E— VOL 24—10 15 



226 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATEBS. 

pointed out here to protect the interests of the Navy. If the Depart- 
ment will permit me, I will appoint a suitable person. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GmEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington. 



Seport of Lieutenant-Commander Prlohett, IT. S. Navy, commanding IT. S. S. 

Tyler. 

U. S. Gunboat Tyler, 
Yazoo River, Fehruaiy 9, 1863. 
Sir: I have to report that on the 3d instant I discovered secreted 
in the house of J. L. Jones 23 bales of cotton, which I seized and 
took on board this vessel. Mr. Jones was formerly in the Confed- 
erate Army and an overseer of Judge Griffith's. 

On the ith instant I found secreted in the woods 20 bales belong- 
ing to R. A. Long, who was an accessory to the burning of the 
steamer Sallie W.ood^ On the 5th, 6th, and 8th I discovered secreted 
in the woods and outhouses of Mr. Warfield, Gregory, Dr. Duncan, 
William Cannon, and Michael Henderson the respective quantities 
of 4 bales and 1 sack, 16 bales and 1 sack, 6 bales, 42 bales, and 2 
bales, all of which I have taken on board of this vessel as a prize to 
the United States Government, the owners being secessionists. Total 
amount on board, 113 bales and 2 sacks. Endosed is a list of the 
officers and crew of this vessel. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James M. Prichett, 
Lieutenant-C ommander. 
Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadrmi, Yazoo River. 



Order of Aetlnir Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain Pennock, 
U. S. Navy, regarding the disposition of captured cotton. 

February 9, 1863. 
Sir: I send by the New Nationalll2, bales of cotton, seized by the 
Tyler, as confiscated property. You will please receive it until such 
time as the Secretaij of the Navy orders it sold. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdmiraH, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and GoTmnandant of Station, Cairo. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 227 

Letter from Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U.S. Navy, to Major-Gen- 
eral Sherman, U. S. Army, commending Ms conduct in the assault 
on Vickshurg. 

Yazoo Rivek, Felruary 3, 1863. 

General : I have received your letter of February 1. I have read 
with much indignation and surprise the malicious attacks of the 
Northern press. The same indignation is felt by all under my com- 
mand. We understand perfectly the motives by which newspaper 
reporters are actuated in these matters, viz, your order to prevent 
any improper and unauthorized agents of the press following the 
army and furnishing the enemy with accounts of our anticipated 
movements. I recognize in your order the wisdom of a military 
leader. I take the liberty of enclosing some reports I made to the 
honorable Secretary of the Navy. If I have made any mistake 
therein, in relation to the assault at Vicksburg, it was owing to 
information I received from several quarters, and from my desire 
that you should have full credit for your untiring efforts to take 
Vicksburg. 

From the day I became acquainted with you, at Memphis, until 
our embarkation at Yazoo River for Arkansas Post I have to remark 
that I never saw anything more promptly or better conducted, and I 
do not believe that any expedition, of such magnitude, was ever con- 
ducted with more order, or system. It was the remark of myself and 
all those about me, and we predicted the best results at Vicksburg 
from seeing things commence so auspiciously. 

The landing at Johnson's Place and the taking position under the 
hills of Vicksburg are all matters you will find mentioned in my 
reports, and as it was all written previous to any attacks on you by 
the press and merely in accordance with my duties, no one can sup- 
pose me influenced by what has since taken place. 

As to the Arkansas Post affair, it originated with yourself entirely, 
and you proposed it to me on the night you embarked the troops, and 
before it was known that you had been relieved, and that General 
McClernand had arrived. 

Whatever disposition was made of the troops after landing, your 
plans at least were carried out, as far as the state of the woods and 
country would admit, and the position you took so promptly under 
adverse circumstances and without any knowledge of the country, 
would have enabled you to cut off five times the number of the 
enemy, had they been there. 

In conclusion, general, permit me to say that I feel as indignant as 
you can be at the attacks made on you. They would hardly be worth 
notice except for the satisfaction of your friends. As I am sure you 
have no political aspirations, you can well afford to pass without 
notice what is said by the press, which is not, in all cases, the most 
loyal. 

You possess, in an eminent degree, the confidence and love of your 
soldiers, who will follow you anywhere, and in saying that, I pay you 
the highest compliment that can be paid to a general. 

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdTniral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General W. T. Sherman, 

Commanding Fifteenth Army Corps. 



228 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATBKS. 

Report of Acting Master Brown, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. 

Forest Rose, regarding operations of that vessel en route to Yazoo 

Pass. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Eose, 
Mouth of Yazoo Pass, February 3, 1S63. 

Sir: I have the honor to inform you that in obedience to your 
orders I left the Yazoo on the evening of the 29th and proceeded up 
the river. At 9.30 a. m., on the following morning, I saw a flatboat 
start out from Lake Providence to cross the river, but on my approach 
they put back and landed. After searching the negroes and the boat 
for letters, I destroyed the flat. "While doing this two women came 
down to the boat and claimed to be Union, and said they would like 
to get North. I took them on board, together with four children, and 
landed them at Helena. They informed me that there were some 
rebel pickets in the negro quarters at the lower end of the town, and 
that there were some two or three hundred 1 mile out of the town on 
a Mr. Wilson's plantation. I dropped down to abreast of the quar- 
ters, when their cavalry started out upon the gallop. I fired shrapnel 
after them, which exploded just short, one of its balls struck one of 
them in the back kilhng him instantly. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson 
shot another with a rifle, so only one escaped. I then landed and 
burned the buildings that had given them shelter. I have destroyed 
three flatboats and ten skiffs and canoes. 

I arrived and reported to General Gorman on Sunday afternoon. 
Yesterday at 10 a. m. the general came on board, and, in company 
with three transports, we ran over to the mouth of Yazoo Pass and 
commenced cutting the levee, which will be finished to-day ; but it will 
be some four or five days before we shall be able to enter, as there is 9 
feet fall to the water. It is thought there will be but little trouble in 
getting to Coldwater. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of the 
Navy, regarding the restriction of trade. 

Treasury Department, February 3, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 29th ultimo, enclosing dispatch No. 60, from Acting Rear-Admiral 
Porter, of the Mississippi Squadron, relative to supplies being fur- 
nished to rebels in the Mississippi Valley, and concur fully m the 
views expressed by you. 

Unless the rules and regulations of this Department are misinter- 
preted in a manner and to an extent hardly possible by its subordi- 
nate officers in that section. Admiral Porter must rest under a misap- 
prehension in supposing that such supplies are furnished by "ves- 
sels allowed to trade by the general orders of the Treasury Depart- 
ment," etc. 



NAVAL rOBCES ON WESTERN AVATEKS. 229 

Trade is only authorized by it with newly occupied places or sec- 
tions when, in the opinion of the special agents exercising concurrent 
jurisdiction, it can safely be permitted. At present no trade is sanc- 
tioned by me below Helena, and only with that point since the 1st of 
January last, in accordance with instructions, copy of which is here- 
with enclosed. 

I have transmitted a copy of your letter and enclosure to Mr. Spe- 
cial Agent Mellen, with instructions to report whether the practices 
referred to result from a misunderstanding or violation of its rules 
and regulations by officers of this Department, and also to confer with 
Admiral Porter for the purpose of devising a plan by which the inter- 
ests of the Government in this particular may be better protected. 
With great respect, 

S. P. Chase, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

[Enclosure.] 
Regulations. 

The only places on the Mississippi between Memphis and Cairo to 
which merchandise can be permitted to go for sale are Columbus, 
Hickman, and New Madrid. Permits to all other places can only be 
granted for strictly family supplies, upon the personal application of 
the party who is to use them, and upon his affidavit that they are for 
his own use and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of to other 
parties, and that he is loyal to the Government of the United States, 
and will in all things so deport himself. 

It is agreed that trade with Helena, Ark., shall be opened from the 
1st day of January, 1863, subject to the following conditions, viz: 

First. Permits may be granted to ship merchandise to that place 
only upon the recommendation of the board of trade, to be appointed 
at once, there, by the special agent of the Treasury Department at 
Memphis. 

Persons residing on or near the river, between Memphis and Helena, 
may have permits for strictly family supplies for their own use, but 
all applications for such permits must be made in person by the party 
who is to use them, to the surveyor at Memphis or board of trade at 
Helena, and the permits granted must be subject to compliance with 
any military orders pertaining to the place of destination. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant 

Howell, commanding U. S. ram, Lancaster, to proceed to duty near 

Napoleon, Ark. 

February 3, 1863. 

Sir : You will proceed to Napoleon and take your station \\ miles 
below the town, and will give convoy and protection to all vessels 
that pass up or down. 

You will fire on any body of men or horsemen who show them- 
selves anywhere about the vicinity of your station on the Arkansas 
shore. 



230 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

You will not leave your station until relieved or ordered to do 
so, and you will report to Captain Selfridge, the naval commanding 
officer, the first time he comes to Napoleon. Send him word that 
you are there by the first opportunity. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Eear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Sgvadron. 

Lieutenant P. F. Howell, 

Commanding Ram, Lancaster. 



Letter from the Secretary of the Navy to tlw Secretary of War, trans- 
mitting complaint from Mr. James B. Eads, constructor of iron- 
clads, regarding impressment of transports. 

Navy Department, Fehruary 3, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a letter re- 
ceived by this Department from Mr. J. B. Eads, of St. Louis, rela- 
tive to the difficulties experienced by him in receiving iron, caused 
by the impressment by the Government of the steam transports on 
the Ohio River. 

Mr. Eads is a contractor with this Department for the construc- 
tion of four ironclad gunboats, and has relied upon these transports 
for the delivery of the iron plating from the rolling mill. The work 
on his boats has been seriously delayed by not receiving the iron 
plating as fast as required, owing to the want of transports, and as 
the Department is anxious to have these gunboats finished at the 
earliest possible date, I would earnestly request that the petition of 
Mr. Eads, " to have the packet Bostona exempted from impress- 
ment ; " also " that the superintendent of the Ohio and Mississippi 
Railroad be instructed to avoid delay in delivering his iron at St. 
Louis," be granted. 

Very respectfully, Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 

[Enclosure.] 

Washington, January 31, 1863. 

Sir: I beg to inform you that I have repeatedly suffered serious 
disappointments in receiving my supplies of iron for building the 
gunboats contracted for, caused by the impressment of transports on 
the Ohio River engaged to transport said iron to me. 

The Government officers on that river have taken nearly every 
steamboat on it for the purposes of the service, and I have now to 
rely almost solely upon the packet Bostona, plying between Ports- 
mouth and Cincinnati, for the delivery of the iron at Cincinnati from 
the rolling mill, and pray that some order be given which will pre- 
vent her from being taken also; and that a further order be issued 
instructing the superintendent of the Ohio and Mississippi Rail- 
road to avoid delay in delivering the iron to me at St. Louis, as I 



NAVAL FORCES OK WESTERN WATEES. 231 

am, by the monopolizing of the river steamers by the Government, 
compelled to depend almost entirely upon this line of transportation 
from Cincinnati. 

With great respect, I remain, your obedient servant, 

James B. Eads. 
Captain G. V. Fox, U. S. Navy, 

Assistant Secretary of the Navy. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter^ V. S. Navy, to Captain 
Sutherland, commanding U. S. ram Monarch, to proceed to duty 
off Greenville, Miss. 

Yazoo River, February 3, 1863. 
Sir : You will proceed up the river as far as Greenville and relieve 
Lieutenant-Commander Prichett at that place. You will protect all 
vessels going up or coming down, and do all the harm you can to 
guerrilla parties. Lieutenant-Commander Prichett will turn over to 
you all his orders, which you will also turn over to the person who 
relieves you. You need not relieve Lieutenant-Commander Prichett 
until you have attended to your own affairs in that quarter. Be 
prudent in visting the shore, and take every precaution against sur- 
prise. If any of our own troops visit the plantations and commit any 
outrages on the inhabitants or property, you will order them to em- 
bark; and if they do not do so, you will fire upon them until they 
obey my orders. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain E. W. Sutherland, 

U. S. Ram Monarch. 



Report of Commodore Hull, U. S. Navy, transmitting list of iron 
gunboats under construction at St. Louis and Pittsburg. 

St. Louis, Mo., February 3, 1863. 
Sir: In reply to your letter of the 26th ultimo, in relation to the 
progress of the iron gunboats, their names, and the batteries they 
are calculated to carry, I herewith enclose a list containing their 
names, present condition, and the time required to finish them, as 
estimated by the constructor, Mr. Hartt. 

The progress of their construction has been very much retarded by 
causes connected with the disturbed state of things beyond the con- 
trol of the contractor. A large number of workmen have been con- 
stantly employed, and the contractor at this place has used his best 
efforts to hasten the work. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

J. B. Hull, 
Commodore, Superintending. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo. 



232 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Enclosure.] 
List of iron gunboats building at St. Louis and Pittsburg. 



Name of vessel and armament. 


Where 
building. 


Present condition. 


Time 
required 
to finish. 


1. Osage, one turret, 2 Xl-inoh guns. . . 

2. Neosho, one turret, 2 Xl-inch guns. 

3. Winnebago, two turrets, 4 Xl-mch 

gnns. 

4. Milwaukee, two turrets, 4 Xl-inch 

guns. 
6. Chickasaw, two turrets, 4 Xl-inch 

guns. 
6. Kickapoo, two turrets, 4 Xl-inch 

guns. 

7 Marietta, one turret, 2 Xl-inch guns. 

8 Sandusky, one turret, 2 Xl-inch 


St. Louis 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Pittsburg 

do 


Launched; nearly complete 

Ready to launch 


Bays. 
60 
76 


In frame and planked ond much 
inside work done. 

Inframeandpartlyplanked; bulk- 
heads mostly done 

Partly In frame and planked 

Not yet laid down; considerable 
iron ready. 

Partly in frame and planked 

.do 


130 

140 

150 

190 

140 
140 


guns. 









Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Hoel, U. S. Navy, command- 
ing U. S. S. Pittsburg, giving list of men transferred from the 
Army. 

U. S. S. PirrsBrrRG, February 3, 1863. 
List of men transferred from the army by General Grant, now on 

this vessel, their time having expired on the following dates : 



Name. 


Branch of service. 


Date. 


David Morgan 


Stuart's Cavalry 


February 2, 1863. 
Do. 


Henry Hempdt 


do..w 


John Eenney 


do 


Do. 


Danl. Breene 


do . 


Do 


John Scanlin 


do 


Do. 


Bart Stoker 


do 


Do. 


Georg"© Lamber 


do 


Do 


Charles Bidell 


do .... 


Do 


Fredk. Hartman 


do 


Do. 


Thomas Burke 


do 


Do 


David H. Hakes 


Thirty-third Illinois Volunteers 


February 6, 1863. 
Do 


Levi F. Harson 


do 


John Carr '. 


Fourth Illinois Cavalry 


January 29, 1863. 
February 4, 1863. 


Joseph Blythe 


Sixteenth Illinois Volunteers 







Sir : The above men belonging to this vessel claim their discharge 
from the accompanying dates. They are upon the books of this vessel 
for the war, but they all deny ever having signed articles except for 
one year's service. The original shipping articles, as near as I can 
learn, are not to be found. The accompanying circular explains the 
condition upon which the men entered the gunboat service. Ten of 
the men were transferred from General Sherman's command (see 
original order accompanying this communication), the other four 
were transferred from General Grant's command. I would respect- 
fully recommend that the above men be discharged from the service. 
I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. R. Hoel, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding U. S. S. Pittsburg. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 233 

[Enclosure- — Circular.] 

Headquarters District of Cairo, 

Cairo, III., January 20, 1S62. 
Commanders of regiments will report to these headquarters without 
delay the names of rivers and seafaring men of their respective com- 
mands who are willing to be transferred from the military to the 
gunboat service. Seeing the importance of fitting out our gunboats 
as speedily as possible, it is hoped there will be no delay or objections 
raised by company or regimental commanders in responding to this 
call. Men thus volunteering will be discharged at the end of one 
year, or at the end of the war, should it terminate sooner. 
By order : 

U. S. Grant, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding. 

The above is a true copy of a circular published in the St. Louis 
Democrat of January 22, 1862. 

Wm. E. Hoel, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, 
Commanding V. 8. S. Pittsburg. 



Report of Lieutenant Howell, commanding U. S. ram Lancaster, 
making request regarding the disposition of a prisoner. 

Steam Kam Lancaster, 
Yazoo River, February 3, 1863. 
Sib: Captain Sutherland, of the U. S. ram Queen of tlie West, 
took a prisoner at Skipworth's [Skipwith] Landing while the di- 
vision of the fleet, under Lieutenant-Commander Prichett, was lying 
there. His name is Thomas J. Frisby. 

On the evening of February 1, Captain Sutherland sent said 
prisoner to my boat, as the Queen was about to run the blockade. 

I have no accommodations for him, my boat being already crowded 
to its full capacity; and, besides, he is quite sick and I have no 
physician on board. 

I respectfully request that you will make some other disposition of 
him or authorize me to do so. 

Very respectfully, P. F. Hoavell, 

Lieutenant, Commanding Ram I^ancaster. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Major-General Sherman, JJ. S. Army, to Acting Rear- 
Admired Porter, TJ. S. Navy, expressing indignation at the state- 
ments of the press. 

Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 

Before Vicksburg, February 4, 1863, 
Dear Sir : I thank you most heartily for your kind and considerate 
letter, February 3, received this day, and am more obliged than you 



234 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 

can understand, as it covers many points I had neglected to guard 
against. Before Vicksburg my mind was more intent on the enemy 
intrenched behind those hills than on the spies and intriguers in my 
own camp and " at home." 

The spirit of anarchy seems deep at work at the North, more alarm- 
ing than the batteries that shell at us from the opposite shore. I am 
going to have the correspondent of the New York Herald tried by a 
court-martial as a spy, not that I want the fellow shot, but because I 
want to establish the principle that such people can not attend our 
armies in violation of orders and defy us, publishing their garbled 
statements and defaming officers who are doing their best. You of 
the Navy can control all who sail under your flag, whilst we are 
almost compelled to carry along in our midst a class of men who 
on Government transports usurp the best staterooms and accommo- 
dations of the boats, pick up the drop conversations of officers, and 
report their limited and tainted observations as the history of events 
•they neither see nor comprehend. This should not be, and must not 
be. We can not prosper in military operations if we submit to it, and 
as some one must begin the attack I must assume the ungracious task. 
I shall always account myself fortunate to be near the officers of the 
Old Navy, and would be most happy if I could think it possible the 
Navy and the Army of our country could ever again enjoy the high 
tone of honor and honesty that characterized them in the days of 
our youth. 

With sentiments of profound respect for you and the officers of 
your fleet, I am, truly, yours, 

W. T. Sherman, 
Major-General of Volunteers. 

Admiral David D. Porter, 

GoTnmandmg Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Major- 
General Grant, V. S. Army, regarding distinguishing lights for the 
V. S. ram Queen of the West. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February If, 1863. 
General: In case the Queen of the West should come up the. river 
from below Vicksburg at night she will carry three vertical lights. I 
mention this so that she will not be fired upon by our batteries. 
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Department of Tennessee, etc. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Langthome, V. S. Navy, for the protection of the steamer Sov- 
ereign, at Memphis. 

Febrtjart 4, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to Memphis without delay and lie close to 

the Sovereign while she is undergoing repairs. No doubt, attempts 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 235 

will be made to burn her. • See that your guns cover her completely, 
and also see that every precaution is taken at night against a sur- 
prise on the Sovereir/n of any kind. Tell the commander I say to 
have his planks hauled in at sunset, and guns trained on the bank. 
When she is ready convoy her down here and do not lose sight of her. 

Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master A. R. Langthorne, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Cricket. 



Letter from Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Laning. TJ. S. Navy, to 
Captain Walke, U. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Lafayette, re- 
garding worh on that vessel. 

St. Louis, February 4, 1863. 
Sir: Captain Pennock refers me to you in all matters relating to 
construction on the Lafayette with regard to altering the ports. I can 
only say that they were made under orders of Captain O. C. Badger 
fthe ordnance officer in charge at the time) 32 inches- wide, and I 
think the expense of altering and the labor required should be fur- 
nished by the Navy. If. however, you differ with me, or think that 
the work can be expedited so as to get the vessel ready for service 
sooner thereby, you will please direct Mr. Cutting to make such alter- 
ations as you deem necessary. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. Laning, 
Acting [Volunteer'] Lieutenant, U. S. Navy, 

Superintendent Construction. 

Captain H. Wai.ke, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Gunhoat Lafayette. 



L^ett^r from the Secretary of War to the Secretary of the Navy, 
acknowledging receipt of complaint of James B. Eads. 

War Department, February J/., 1863. 

Sir : The Secretary of War directs me to acknowledge the receipt 
of your communication of yesterday, transmitting a copy of a letter 
received by your Department from Mr. J. B. Eads, of St. Louis, a 
contractor for the construction of ironclad gunboats, relative to the 
difficulties experienced by him in receiving iron, by the impressment 
by the Government of the steam transports on the Ohio River, and 
requesting that his petition to have the packet Bostona, plying 
between Portsmouth and Cincinnati, exempted from impressment, 
and also that the superintendent of the Ohio and Mississippi Rail- 
road be instructed to avoid delay in delivering his iron at St. Louis, 
may be granted. 

in reply, the Secretary instructs me to say that this Department 
has no control of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. If Mr. Eads 



236 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

will state what quantity of iron he desires to transport from Ports- 
mouth to Cincinnati and the times at which he wants to send the 
same, orders will be given to the military authorities to afford such 
facilities as they are able to render. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

P. H. Watson, 
Assistant Secretary of War. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Seizure at Island No. 10, hy the U. S. S. New Era, of the steamboat 
W. A. Knapp, Feiruary 4, 1863. 

Beport of Actings Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, transmitting papers. 

No. 112.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, Fehruary 15, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith papers in relation to the 
seizure of the steamer W. A. Knapp by U. S. S. New Era, for having 
on board contraband goods and munitions of war. 

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GriDEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 5, 1863. 
Gunboat New Era has captured steamboat W. A. Knapp, with 
valuable cargo. The captain, crew, and others, calling themselves 
passengers, have been made prisoners. Come to Cairo in order to 
take measures in regard to the prize and prisoners immediately, if 
possible. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
D. L. Phillips, 

U. S. Marshal, Springfield, III. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, transmitting report of executive 
officer of the V. S. S. New Era. 

Ofpice Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 6, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith copies of two reports 

made to me by Acting Ensign Hanford, U. S. S. New Era, relative 

to the capture of the steamboat W. A. Knapp, at Island No. 10, by 

that vessel, and the seizure of her cargo and detention of all on board, 



NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 237 

for being engaged in contraband trade. The Knapp and prisoners 
are now at Cairo (I having turned the latter over to the military 
authorities for safe-keeping), and I have telegraphed to the U. S. 
marshal at Springfield, 111., to come to Cairo for the purpose of 
taking proper measures in regard to them. I have placed Acting 
Master Tayon on board of the prize as prize master. 

A man by the name of Montgomery came here yesterday with an 
order from the Secretary of the Treasury for the release of the 
steamer New National. I referred him to you, and I believe that 
he has gone down to the fleet. It is my impression that I wrote 
you on the subject in my private letter of the 1st instant. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Cowmandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Pohter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat New Era, 
Island No. 10, February i, 1863. 

Sir : I hereby transmit to you a statement in regard to the capture 
of the steamer W. A. Knapp. 

At 10 : 30 this a. m. I saw a small steamer coming down the river, 
which I concluded to bring to and overhaul, which I did immediately. 
I went on board and asked to see her papers, which were shown me, 
and noticing that they had been tampered with, I determined to over- 
haul everything on board and to give her a thorough examination. 

Seeing a great number of men on board for so small a boat, I asked 
the revenue aid if there were any passengers on board. He told me 
there were none. I next went below, and noticing a large box with 
the marks obliterated from it, I concluded to open it, and sent for the 
carpenter's mate to open it, when the revenue aid told me it was all 
right and that it was no use to open it. I told him I would see for 
myself. When I opened the box I found it to contain contraband 
goods — calicoes, flannels, and butternut cloth. I also opened several 
other boxes and found them to contain all goods contraband of war 
and not entered on the manifest. I then ordered the revenue aid, pas- 
sengers, and crew on board the gunboat and manned the steamer with 
my own crew and officers. I next went into the cabin and found 
three trunks, which I burst open, the revenue aid continually remon- 
strating with me on the course I was pursuing, as he repeatedly told 
me the goods were all under his charge and he knew them to be all 
right, and found them to contain revolvers, quinine, and morphine. 

As soon as possible after the capture I took the captain of her (Cap- 
tain Day) on board and proceeded on my way to Cairo. At the foot 
of Island No. 8 the piston rod of the doctor broke, and I hailed the 
towboat Jim Watson to take me in tow to Cairo. Being short of 
coal, I gave her 100 bushels from the prize and signed her bill of 
towage, subject to your approval, as I was not acquainted with the 
rates of towing on this river. The passengers, together with the crew 



238 NAVAL POECES ON WBSTEEN WATERS. 

of the W. A. Knapp, are held as prisoners on board the New Era, 
awaiting your orders. My prize crew consists of an onginear, pilot, 
two master's mates, and seven men. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. C. HANrORD, 

Executive Ofjfvcer New Era. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Gonvmandant of Station. 



Cairo, III., Fehrua/y 6, 1863. 

Sir: In accordance with your order, I transmit to you a report of 
the conversation that passed between me and the Government aid of 
the prize steamer W. A. Knapp. 

My first question to him was, " Have you any passengers on 
board ? " He distinctly told me, " No ; there were no passengers." 
But I found out afterwards that there were quite a number. The 
reason of my asking that question was that I saw a greater number 
of men on board than were necessary to man so small a steamer. I 
next went on the forecastle, where a large box (the marks just taken 
off) attracted my attention. I sent for our carpenter to bring a cold 
chisel and hammer, as I wished him to open a box. The revenue aid 
heard me, and stepped up to me and told me [that] that box was 
going to Memphis and was all right, and that everything on board 
was under his charge and that the box was entered upon the manifest 
for Memphis. I went for the manifest and found out that it was 
not on it, and told him I would examine the box and satisfy myself, 
which I did, and found it to contain goods contraband of war and 
for which there was no permit to have them landed at Memphis. I 
next opened two more boxes with the marks obliterated and found 
them to contain shoes and stove fixtures, cavalry boots, etc. I next went 
to the cabin and found three trunks that I opened, the Government 
aid remonstrating with me about opening them and stating to me 
that they were all right and were under his charge. I opened them 
and found them to contain arms and medicine. I ordered all on board 
ih&New Era, with the Government aid, to be held as prisoners, 
subject to your order. 

I have been on board the 17. A. Knapp during and since her cap- 
ture. I seized all her books and papers, together with the steamer 
and cargo, and have delivered them all over to Captain Woodworth, 
according to your order. 

From what I have seen in the actions of the whole number of men 
on board, revenue aid not excepted, I believe that they are all impli- 
cated in the matter, with the exception of the firemen. I visited the 
guard house this morning, according to your order, and found all the 

passengers and crew there, with the exception of Day, master, 

who is held as a prisoner on board U. S. gunboat Glide. 

There is one man who calls himself John Allen, and from the 
description I have had of the man, his right name is J. C, Freeman, 
and has been arrested several times for being in the same business, 
and Captain Day, of the prize, has stated to me that this John Allen 
was under a fictitious name, but that he was not acquainted with his 
right name. 



NAVAL POBOES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 239 

I have now given you a complete statement of my proceedings in 
regard to her capture, and it is my opinion that all are guilty and 
none innocent. 

Hoping that all my proceedings in regard to her capture will meet 
your approval, 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. C. HANrORD, 

Executive Oficer^ New Era. 
A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 5, 1863. 

(Received 3.10 a. m., 6th.) 
I have received the following dispatch for transmission to the De- 
partment : 

Memphis, Tenn., February 5, 1863 — a. m. 
Major-General Hamilton iuforius me that be has reliable information from 
Mobile that a very extensive expedition is about to be made to capture the 
storeships at that place, the men engaged in it to have one-half the prizes. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain. 
Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of Navy. 



Report of Lieutenant Howell, commanding ram, Lancaster, regarding 
the impaired condition of that vessel. 

U. S. Ram Lancaster, 
Mouth White River, February 6, 1863. 
Dear Sir : I have to report to you that my boat is in a disabled con- 
dition and totally unfit for service. Her boilers are completely worn 
out and leaking at all points. My engineers have tendered their resig- 
nations on account of their dangerous condition, and were they not 
compelled would not stay by them an hour longer. I may, with great 
care, be able to take her to Cairo for repairs, but nothing more. 
Very respectfully, 

P. F. Howell, 
Lieutenant, Commanding Steam Ram Lancaster. 

Captain Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Commanding U. S. Gunboat Coivestoga. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Donelson, February 5, 1863. 
Expect to leave for Nashville in the morning early. Gunboats all 
right. Did their duty here, and have the satisfaction of knowing that 
we killed a rebel. 

Le Ror Fitch, 

Commanding. 
Captain A. M, Pennock, 



240 NAVAL, FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 5, 186S. 
Admiral Porter' writes me that there is an urgent necessity for the 
new mortar boats. Will you please inform me what progress is being 
made with them, and send them down here as soon as finished? 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Caftain and Commandant of Station. 

Commodore J. B. Hull, 

St. Louis, Mo. 



[Telegram.] 



St. Louis, February 5, 1863. 
The mortar boats are finished and waiting for transportation down. 
River obstructed by ice. 

J. B. Hull, 
Comimodore. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain, Cairo. 



Letter from, Majo7'-General ShermMn, 11. S. Army., to Acting Rear- 
Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding measures for supplying 
coed to the vessels. 

Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 
Camp before Vicksburg, February 6, 1863. 

Dear Sir : I did not get to my quarters till near midnight last night, 
when I found your note of yesterday about the coal. Major Ham- 
mond had told me that he had answered that the roads were awful, 
and to haul the coal in wagons is a simple impossibility. You saw 
them in fair weather and can judge of them in foul. No drainage, 
rain above, and water underneath and all around, and a sticky, slimy 
clay, all militate against roads. The canal is full of water and 
threatens our camps; still I think barges could work through the 
canal. In this way coal could reach here at great labor. 

Again, a barge could be carried by night and turned loose and let 
her pick it up. This latter plan was suggested by the officer of the 
ram Queen of the West when I was on board of her yesterday after- 
noon. Colonel Ellet seems to be full of energy and resources. If he 
will devise a practical method of getting coal to his boats and needs 
assistance which I can give, tell him to call on me. 

Since Captain Breese passed through the canal in his skiff several 
logs and obstructions have been removed and the current has cut more 
width and depth. Captain Prime, to facilitate the opening of a new 
mouth, has temporarily closed the old one; still water finds its way 
in and runs through with a strong current, and so threatens the over- 
flow of the ground south of the railroad that I have ordered the 
removal of the camps to this side of the railroad, but will keep 
strong guards at the foot of the canal and at the Biggs place. 



NAVAL TOBCBS OW WESTBEN WAXEBS. 241 

Don't you want two 30-pounder Parrott guns on that side, and tha 
ferryboat now all loaded with cotton and covered with ixon ? 
I am, etc., 

W. T. Sherman. 
Admiral Davh) D. Pobtee, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Pilot Duffy, of the U. S. S. GenerdL Bragg, regarding 
the advantages of that vessel as a dispatch hoot. 

U. S. S. General. Braso, 
Off Mouth of Arkansas River, February 6, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor of stating to you the qualities of this vessel, 
having been detailed to her by Flag-Officer C. H. Davis, on the 6th 
of June, 1862, and having become thoroughly conversant with her 
running, and being under the impression that you are not aware of 
her peculiar fitness for a dispatch boat. She is the fastest vessel in 
your squadron, making lOJ miles by the bank, upstream, in the 
present stage of the river, and from 17 to 18 down the river. She 
is also one of the cheapest boats in regard to fuel in the squadron, 
consuming only 260 bushels of coal in twenty-four hours when run- 
ning. 

As a fighting boat not much can be said for her in her present 
condition, her guns being of too small caliber for effective service, 
but by giving her a lOO-pounder Parrott gun forward and a 10-inch 
smoothbore shell gun aft her batteries would be made much more 
effective, and the heavy weight forward and aft would have a tend- 
ency to straighten her up and counteract her extra draft amidship, 
caused at present by the weight of her machinery and the bulkhead 
of compressed cotton used for the protection of her boilers. 

Believing that your knowledge of the above facts will be for the 
benefit of your squadron, 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

D. L. Dumr, 
Pilot, U. S. S. General Bragg. 

Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Cormnanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Com/mander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, regarding 

affairs in Arkansas. 

U. S. S. CONESTOGA, 

Off White River, Felruary 6, 1863. 

Sir: I was compelled to write you in great haste last evening, 
thinking it important that you should know that the army are mak- 
ing use of the navy coal at Helena. 

From the information gathered by Lieutenant Dominy, of the 
Signal, I should judge the rebels have no heavy guns in the river up 
to Little Eock. A passenger told him that after the capture of the 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 ^16 



242 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

post the gunboats were daily expected, but the idea was now gen- 
erally given up. 

The ram Pontchartrain has not had steam up for some time. Some 
men are still at work upon her. She requires a good deal of pump- 
ing to keep her free. She has as yet no guns. She has no officers 
of consequence. One of her engineers was on duty on the flag-of- 
truce boat. She is represented as being casemated with 20 inches of 
wood and railroad iron to abaft her wheels. 

Hindman is represented with 16,000 troops at Little Rock, Mc- 
Cullough with 6,000 at Pine Bluff fortifying, Marmaduke with 
3,000 cavalry at Dardenelle. These numbers are greatly overesti- 
mated as effective troops, as Little Eock is represented as full of sick 
soldiers. 

I think a sudden movement upon Little Rock very feasible, and, 
barring accidents, we could capture or destroy the ram, and destroy 
the public property to a vast extent. 

I should like very much to command an expedition for this purpose. 
My present force, not' including the Bragg, with the addition of the 
Tyler and a side-wheel ram, would enable us to move with celerity, 
and sufficient, if we can effect a surprise, to accomplish the main 
object. 

My plan would be to run all batteries and make no more stoppages 
than possible until we reached the Pontchartrain or Little Rock. 

If you think favorably of my plan, and are willing that I should 
try it, a pilot acquainted with the river would have to be obtained 
from the lower fleet. 

I regret to report another death from typhus fever. Will Akers 
(seaman). We have a large sick list, but I hope no more dangerous 
cases. 

The ram Lancaster reported verbally for duty yesterday. Her com- 
manding officer represented her to be in a totally unfit condition; a 
copy of his report I enclose. I sent my chief engineer aboard to exam- 
ine, who, corroborating the statement, I allowed her to go on to Cairo. 

I have four men enlisted for one year whose times have expired; 
shall I discharge them and send them to Cairo to be paid off ? 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant-Conumander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



JJno-jficial letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Navy to Acting 
Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, regarding matters pertaining to 
the Mississippi Squadron. 

Navt Department, February 6, 1863. 
Dear Sir : I have your letter. You did well at Arkansas Post, and 
we shall get you a vote of thanks for it. All the New Orleans names 
being thrown out. If you open the Father of Waters you will at 
once be made an admiral; besides, we will try for a ribboned star. 
Your victory is well timed. The disgraceful affair at Galveston has 
shaken the public confidence in our prestige. Five gunboats were 
sunk and dispersed by two river steamboats armed with one gun 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 243 

(which burst at the third fire) and filled only with soldiers, the 
attack of the enemy being known the day before. It is too cowardly 
to place on paper. Poor Wainwright did well. Renshaw — bah! he 
is dead. The others ran, though one of the enemy's river boats was 
sunk and the other jammed under the Harriet Lane's guard. Bell 
was sent down immediately with a large squadron and bombarded 
it from the ocean ; nobody hurt. The Harriet Lane, our best boat, will 
soon be off privateering. We have exciting news from Charleston, 
which, though it looks like a hoax, is yet very possible, and impossi- 
ble to have guarded against and stood faithfully by the blockade. 
Charleston will get enough of it very soon, and the whole nest of 
traitors there be roasted put. Frank Blair writes very complimentary 
of your operations, and says they are very jealous of the Navy. I 
trust your people will not show any of it. Do your work up clean, as 
at Arkansas, and the public will never be in doubt who did it. The 
flaming army correspondence misleads nobody. Keep cool, be very 
modest under great success, as a contrast to the soldiers. Let them all 
see that the public service is your guide. Strengthen the Mississippi 
at Jeff. Davis's place, and be very sure we shall take care of you and 
your best interests. You have rather left Rosecrans in the lurch, 
and there is the devil to pay about his communications. We have 
telegraphed Pennock a dozen times about it, and the War Department 
has made several appeals to us. I see they have just taken five trans- 
ports on the Cumberland River. His communications are of vital 
importance. 

* « » * * * «• 

We wrote you about cutting the canal farther back. My impression 
is that it would be cheaper and better to set the whole army to work 
upon the new spot and turn the river clear of the hills and let Vicks- 
burg go. I doubt whether the army can take it, and I do not see how 
you can do anything more than bombard it, which I would not do 
except for an object. The moment the canal is opened, away you go 
to Port Hudson. Banks will never take that, so it must come from 
you and Grant to really open the river. I dislike to see you all set 
down for a long siege at Vicksburg. The country can not stand it 
at home or abroad. The President is of my opinion, that you better 
cut through farther back and do if at once. 

Very truly, yours, G. V. Fox. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo, III. 



Combined expedition through Yazoo Pass into the Coldwater and 
Tallahatchee rivers, including attacks upon Fort Pemberton 
{Greenwood), February 6 to April 18, 1863. 

Detailed report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, XT. S. Navy, commanding ex- 
pedition, to Uarch 18, 1863. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Flagship Black Hawk, November 2, 1863. 
Sir : In accordance with your request, I have the honor to offer the 
following report of the expedition down the Yazoo Pass, Coldwater 



244 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

and Tallahatchie rivers, for the time that I commanded the vessels 
of the squadron engaged in it, being from February 6, 1863, to March 
18, 1863. 

I insert your order in relation to the time of leaving, organization, 
and force of the expedition: 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 6, 1863. 

Sib: You will proceed with the Rattler and Borneo to Delta, near Helena, 
where you will find the Forest Rose engaged in trying to enter the Yazoo Pass. 
You will order the Signal, now at White Kiver, to accompany you ; and if the 
Cricket comes down while you are at Delta, detain her also, or the Linden. 

Lieutenant-Commander Foster will also be ordered to accompany you. 

You will obtain coal enough from Helena to enable you to carry on operations 
for some time. Your vessels had better all go to Helena and coal and start 
from there with as much coal in tow (say two barges) as will answer. 

Do not enter the Yazoo Cut until the current is quite slack ; and some small 
transport will have to go ahead, and the soldiers will cut away the trees and 
branches, so as not to endanger the smokestacks of the steamers. 

Proceed carefully, and only in the daytime; 600 or 800 soldiers will be de- 
tached to accompany you, and you will take 100 on board of each light-draft. 
See that the army send a very small steamer, with stores from Helena. 

Get all the pilots you can who are acquainted with the different branches of 
the rivers. You may find them at Helena. 

You will keep perfect order among the troops while on board your vessels or 
under your orders. 

Subject them to strict military rules, and see that every order you give is 
promptly obeyed. 

When you get to the Tallahatchie, proceed with all dispatch to ascend it as far 
as the railroad crossing, and completely destroy the railroad bridge at that 
point, after which you will, if possible, cut the telegraph wires and proceed 
down the river to the mouth of the Yalobusha. 

You will fill up with coal and leave the coal barges at that place in charge of 
a light-draft vessel and dash on to Grenada ; destroy completely the railroad 
bridge, and retire at once down the river without any further damage, excepting 
to destroy means of transportation (which you will do in all cases) and you will 
destroy all small boats. 

When you get to the Yalobusha, you will proceed with all your force down the 
Yazoo River and endeavor to get into Sunflower River, where, it is said, all the 
large steamers are stowed away. 

These you will not have time to capture; therefore you will destroy them, 
keeping an account, as near as you can, of the value of the property that falls 
into your hands. 

Obtain all the information you can in relation to Ironclads, and destroy them 
if you can while they are on the stocks. 

If this duty is performed as I expect it to be, we will strike a terrible blow 
at the enemy, who do not anticipate an attack from such a quarter. But you 
must guard against surprise, and if overwhelmed run your vessels on the bank 
and set fire to them. 

Be careful of your coal, and lay in wood where you can find it. 

By going along only in the daytime, under low steam, you can cruise some 
time. But after doing the damage I have mentioned in my orders, ascend the 
river again to the Yazoo Cut-off, and report to me by a dispatch boat. 

You will likely find Honey Island fortified. If it has guns on it, and you can 
take them, destroy them effectually and blow up the fort. 

Do not risk anything by encumbering yourself with prisoners, except officers, 
whom you must not parole. 

Do not engage batteries with the light vessels. The Chillicothe will do the 
fighting. Let me hear from you as soon as possible, and give me full accounts 
of what you do. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Poeteb, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, V. S. Navy, 

Commanding First Division Light-Draft Vessels, Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 245 

[Extract] 

U. S. Mississippi Squadkon, February 16, 1863. 
Sir: * * * i have already written to you not to go up the Tallahatchie, 
and If there Is any danger of the Yalobusha being obstructed with trees, don't 
go there. The greSt object is to get to Yazoo City, and below, and up the Sun- 
flower, to destroy the boats. 

^ ***** * 

Very respectfully, 

David D. Poster, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commatiding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding First Division Light-Drafts, U. 8. S. Rattler. 

On reaching Helena, Ark., February 13, learned that the clearing 
of the Yazoo Pass for the unobstructed passage of the gunboats and 
transports of the expedition was a work of far greater magnitude 
than had been anticipated, and that, instead of a few days being suffi- 
cient to clear its course, weeks would be required with an additional 
force of thousands of troops to the hundreds who had commenced the 
task. 

As from this delay the expedition would no longer bear the charac- 
ter of a surprise upon the enemy, as I believe had been intended at 
its conception, the interval was employed in obtaining additional 
ordnance and other stores, and the steamer Baron De Kalb and 
light-draft steamer Marmora were added to the force. 

On February 20, believing the Pass to be almost free from obstruc- 
tions and ready for our entrance, I entered Moon Lake in the U. S. S. 
Rattler, accompanied by the GhilUcothe, Lieutenant-Commander 
James P. Foster; Baron De Kalh, Lieutenant-Commander John G. 
Walker; Marmora, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Robert Getty; 
Forest Rose,k.ciJm^g Master George W. Brown; Romeo, Acting En- 
sign Robert B. Smith ; Signal, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant C. Dom- 
iny; and S. Bayard, towboat, with three coal barges; in all, 27,000 
bushels, to be taken through in charge of the gunboats and that 
vessel. 

Anchoring at a convenient position for entering the Pass, awaited 
the report of the commanding officer of the force engaged in clear- 
ing the pass and the arrival of the troop steamers that were to accom- 
pany us. 

On February 26, the vessels engaged in the work of clearing the 
pass having reached Moon Lake, the expedition, consisting of the 
gunboats mentioned, with 100 soldiers on each light draft and 
13 transports, said to bear 4,500 troops, entered Yazoo Pass, the 
Chillicothe having the advance, followed by the De Kail), the light- 
draft gunboats being distributed for the convenient transportation of 
the coal and the protection of the troop vessels. 

The width of the stream admitted only of the passage of the vessels 
in one line, and it was soon evident that the speed would be much 
less than had been hoped for. 

It was necessarily less than the current of the stream, backing and 
checking with lines being the only means of rounding the numerous 
turns and to avoid collision with trees and shore. 

February 28, reached Coldwater River. This stream admitting of 
more rapid progress, the leading gunboats were hastened, gaining 
distance upon those yet in the pass. 



246 NAVAL, FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

While waiting for the transports, emptied one of the coal barges, 
it being desirable to free the expedition of those encumbrances. 

At this time the light-draft gunboat Petrel^ Acting Volunteer 
Lieutenant George P. Lord, with a 13-inch mortar^ and ammunition 
for 75 rounds, and the rams Lioness and Fulton, reported for duty in 
the expedition. 

Neither of the rams being in condition for service, the means at 
hand for improving them were at once employed. 

The vessels had suffered in the narrow stream just left, some being 
without smokestacks and with damaged wheels, the woodwork of the 
light-draft being much torn, but nothing had occurred to impair 
their efficiency. 

Such repairs as were necessary were made at night. 

At this time detailed the Petrel and ram Lioness to act in conjunc- 
tion with an army force in collecting cotton for defense. 

An abundant supply was thus obtained without delay, and reliable 
defenses arranged for riflemen upon the upper decks. 

At about 10 miles below the junction of the Coldwater and Talla- 
hatchie rivers burning cotton gave evidence of the recent presence of 
the enemy. 

Sending the Chillicothe and De Kalb ahead, a large steamboat 
named the Parallel, loaded with cotton, was fired by the rebels to 
avoid its capture ; vessel and cargo were completely destroyed. 

The navigation of the Tallahatchie was much more free than that 
of the other two streams. 

"V\Tien within 20 miles of a neck of land, fourth of a mile across 
and 7 by the course of the river, were informed by negroes that the 
site had been selected by the rebels as a point of defense; that guns 
had been mounted, an obstructing raft built and placed in the river, 
and the place strongly garrisoned. 

On the next morning, March 11, advanced on board the Chillicothe, 
accompanied by Brigadier-General L. F. Ross, commanding the 
troops of the expedition, to learn something of the enemy's position 
and strength. 

A turn in the stream brought us within view, at about 900 yards 
distance. 

The enemy immediately opened fire, with apparently five guns, 
striking the Chillicothe repeatedly and seriously damaging the for- 
ward face of the casemate, starting the iron plates and bolts, and 
driving back the 9-inch white-pine backing. 

Returned the fire from the CMllicothe\'i battery of two 11-inch 
gims, and, on concluding our observations, withdrew the Chillicothe 
to arrange an attack. 

Soon after, however, the rebels appeared to be shipping cattle and 
goods from the battery. 

Advanced the Chillicothe and De Kalb and commenced shelling the 
enemy, the ram Lioness being in readiness for immediate use. 

They had been engaged but a few minutes, when, going on the 
Chillicothe, found that the forward face of her casemate had been 
nearly destroyed by the enemy's fire of solid conical shot. 

Much damage had also resulted from the explosion of one of the 
Chillicothe'' s 11-inch shells, caused by being struck by a shell from 
the enemy at the moment of loading, both exploding; pieces of each 
were found. The enemy's shell had entered the port, though it was 



NAVAL FORGES ON WESTERN WATERS. 247 

at the time opened only enough to allow the handle of the rammer, 
about to be used, to pass out in the operation of loading. 

The explosion had killed and wounded 14 of the gun's crew, and 
thrown the port, covers out, one overboard, the other upon the for- 
ward deck. They each weighed 1,800 pounds. 

The 11 -inch gun, although struck on the muzzle, proved to be 
uninjured. 

Other shots struck, killing 1 man and reducing the casemate almost 
to a wreck. 

The Chillicothe and De Kalb were strengthening themselves with 
cotton when advanced, and I now withdrew them for the purpose of 
completing that work. 

As there was but room for the Chillicothe and the De Kalb to lie 
abreast in engaging the rebel battery, and the light-draft gunboats 
being prohibited from engaging batteries, I landed a 30-pounder 
Parrott gun from the Rattler and subsequently one of the same kind 
from the Forest Rose. 

These guns the army dragged at night to a position about 600 
yards from the enemy in the woods, on the right bank, and protected 
them with a serviceable breastwork of earth and cotton. 

The guns were manned and provided from the gunboats. 

March 12 was occupied in protecting the bows of the Chillicothe 
and De Kalh with cotton, and repairmg as far as practicable the 
Chillicothe in front, substituting the side port covers for those lost 
or irreparably injured. 

The vacancies occasioned in the Chillicothe's crew were supplied 
from the light-drafts, and at 11 a. m. of March 13, recommenced the 
attack with the Chillicothe and De Kalb, the mortar in charge of 
Acting Master W. E. H. Fentress, and the two 30-pounder Parrott 
giins on shore. 

The vessels engaged at about 800 yards distance. 

It being necessary to secure them against falling below, if disabled, 
boats manned and equipped with the necessary lines attended them 
from the light drafts. 

In the commencement of this fight the enemy fired with rapidity 
and accuracy, delivering their shot with damaging effect upon the 
Chillicothe. 

The De Kalb was also severely handled, one shot penetrating the 
forward casemate, another entering between two ports as she swung 
a little, cutting a dozen beams, killing 1 man, and mortally wounding 
an officer and another of the crew ; also cutting the wheel ropes. 

The enemy's best guns were silent for a time before the Chillicothe 
and De Kalh were withdrawn, the former to fill shells. 

When about to advance, received information from General Ross 
of the approach of reinforcements for his command, and a proposal 
to await their arrival before assaulting the place. 

The condition of the Chillicothe induced me to agree to this, and 
the two days following were employed in repairing and strengthen- 
ing that vessel and the De Kalb. 

On the night of March 15 landed an 8-inch broadside gun from 
the De Kalb, the troops placing it with the others, the light-drafts 
manning it. 

On March 16 the Chillicothe and De Kalb, having had their powers 
of endurance increased by placing well-pressed bales of cotton before 



248 NAVAL POBCES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

their casemates, and the shattered casemate of the Chillicothe being 
as strong as our limited means could make it, a plan of attack was 
agreed upon with General Ross, the intention being to attack the 
fort at a less distance, and if successful in silencing the enemy to 
advance three of the light-drafts with all the troops they could carry, 
provided that before landing to storm the fort the general could in 
the meantime ascertain the character of the landing where his men 
must disembark. 

Conscious of the dependence of the expedition for success upon the 
Chillicothe and De Kalb, means were again provided for withdrawing 
them in the event of their becoming disabled, our experience of the 
effect of the enemy's fire rendering such a result quite possible. 

At 11 : 30 opened fire with the 8-inch and two 30-pounder Parrott 
guns on shore as the Chillicothe and De Kalb advanced to a closer 
position than before. 

In less than fifteen minutes the Chillicothe was rendered quite 
ineffectual by the port slide cover of the port front port being struck 
with a 68-pound shot, breaking through, though not passing through, 
and causing such elevations and depressions in the plates as to render 
it impossible to slide back the port covers for the purpose of running 
out the gun. 

At the same time the iron covering and surrounding the other 
port was similarly disarranged, preventing the working of that gun 
also. 

So situated and with limited means for remedying the difficulties, 
the only alternative was to withdraw for repairs. 

Meanwhile no additional information had been reported concern- 
ing the place where it had been designed to land the troops. 

The Chillicothe's powers of endurance were evidently unequal to 
the task of sustaining the fire of the guns used by the enemy. 

The work of giving additional strength as well as repairing was 
commenced with the best mechanics that the army and gunboats 
could furnish. 

It now seemed advisable to retain the ammunition remaining in 
the Chillicothe and De Kalb for defense until a fresh supply could be 
obtained for aggressive operations. 

The light-draft steamer Marmora was therefore dispatched to you 
with requisitions for ordnance stores and provisions, also relieving 
the vessels of sick and wounded. 

At the same time my health, which was seriously affected at the 
time of being ordered to command the gunboats of the expedition, 
failed entirely, obliging me to permit the medical officer to exercise 
his judgment in regard to the best measures for securing my re- 
covery. 

The report of a board of assistant surgeons informed you of the 
necessity of my immediate return to a Northern climate. 

Consequently I left the command to the next senior officer, Lieu- 
tenant-Commander James P. Foster. 

At the time I had no fear for the final success of the expedition. 

It seemed necessary only to await the arrival of the additional 
stores of ammunition and provisions, already sent for, and such addi- 
tions to the force ordered to engage batteries as you would think 
proper to send. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 249 

The passage to the Mississippi was still clear, and patrolled by a 
light-draft gunboat. 

In closing this report I desire to commend the zeal and energy of 
those engaged in the expedition. 

In their engagements the Chillicothe and De Kall>, under their re- 
spective commanding officers, were handled with a coolness and skill 
which I am sure would have elicited your admiration. 

The details from the light-draft gunboats for manning the guns 
in battery on shore, and attending the movements of the vessels en- 
gaged, performed their duties satisfactorily. 
Very respectfully, yours, etc., 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant-Cormnander, 17. S. Mississippi Squadron. 

Rear-Admiral DAvro D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

G ommMnding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Uaster Brown, V. S. Navy, commanding^ IT. S. S. Forest Rose, 
regarding the opening of the levee. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 
Mouth of Yazoo Pass, February 4, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report that the levee is cut, and the water 
is gushing through at a terrible rate. We got the water started about 
7 o'clock last night. After cutting two ditches through and ready 
for the water, we placed a can of powder (50 pounds) under the 
dam, which I touched off by means of three mortar fuzes joined 
together. It blew up immense quantities of earth, opening a passage 
for the water, and loosened the bottom so that the water washed it 
out very fast. We then sunk three more shafts, one in the entrance 
of the other ditch, the other two on each side of the mound between 
the two ditches, and set them off simultaneously, completely shatter- 
ing the mound and opening a passage through the ditch. The water 
ran through very fast, taking old logs, trees, and everything in its 
way, so that by 11 o'clock there was a channel 50 yards wide. This 
morning we have a channel 70 or 75 yards wide. It is thought that 
it will be at least four or five days before we can enter. I will report 
the progress every opportunity. There is a large number of my crew 
whose time is out, and they are very anxious for their discharge. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Uajor-General Grant, U. S. Army, to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, 
XT. S. Navy, suggesting a programme of operations. 

Headquarters Department of the Tennessee, 

Before Vichshurg, February 6, J863. 
Admiral: I would respectfully advise the following programme 
to be followed as near as practicable by the expedition through 
Yazoo Pass. 



250 NAVAL POKCES ON WESTEKN WATEKS. 

They necessarily go through the pass into Coldwater Eiver, thence 
down that stream into the Tallahatchie, which, with its junction with 
the Yalobusha, forms the Yazoo, which it is the great object of the 
enterprise to enter. 

At the town of Marion, on the Yazoo Eiver, the enemy were said 
at one time to have had a battery. But it has since been removed, 
and unless a mistrust of our present design has induced the enemy 
to reoccupy that point no guns will be found there. It would be well 
to approach it carefully. 

Below Marion the river divides, forming a very large island, the 
right-hand branch descending, being known as the Big Sunflower, 
or at least connecting with it, and the left-hand branch retains the 
name of Yazoo. On this is Yazoo City, where, in all probability, 
steamers will be found; and if any gunboats are being constructed 
it is likely at this place. 

According to the information I receive most of the transports are 
up the Sunflower Kiver. I would therefore advise that both of these 
streams, and in fact all navigable bayous, be well reconnoitered 
before the expedition returns. 

The Yalobusha is a navigable stream to Grenada. At this place 
the railroad branches, one going to Memphis, the other to Columbus, 
Ky. These roads cross the river on different bridges. The enemy 
are now repairing both these roads, and on the upper one, the one 
leading through the middle of west Tennessee, have made consider- 
able progress. I am liable at all times to be compelled to divert from 
the Mississippi River expedition a large portion of my forces, on 
acccount of the existence of these roads. If their bridges can be 
destroyed, it would be a heavy blow to the enemy and of much 
service to us. 

I have directed 600 men, armed with rifles, to go up on transports 
to Delta, leaving here to-morrow, to act as marines to the expedition. 
Have also ordered the regiment spoken of this morning to report at 
steamer Magnolia at 10 a. m. to-morrow to join your service. 
EespectfuUy, etc., 

U. S. Grant, 
Major-General, etc. 

Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi River Squadron. 

P. S. — I have directed the troops sent with the Yazoo expedition 
to take fifteen days' rations with them. 

U. S. G. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to lieutenant-Commander 
Foster, V. S. Navy, commanding TT. S. S. Chillicothe. 

Febexjaey 6, 1863. 
Sir: Proceed to Helena and coal and report to Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Watson Smith at Delta, old Yazoo Pass. 
EespectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieutenant-Commander J. P. Foster, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. 8. 8. Chillicothe. 



NAVAL FOKCBS ON WESTERN WATERS. 251 

Report of Acting Master Brown, TI. S. Navy, commanding IT. S. S. Forest Rose, 
of entrance into the pass being accomplished. 

TJ. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 
Moon Lake, Saturday evening, February 7, 1863. 

Sir : This morning at 11 : 30 we entered the pass. We experienced 
but little difficulty in passing through into Moon Lake, a distance of 
about 1 mile ; and from there to the mouth of the Old Pass, a distance 
of about 4 miles, there is a good, wide channel with 4 fathoms and 
upward. I went on shore and brought three men on board who had 
just landed from a skiff. They had come up the pass from the Cold- 
water. They say that the rebels are felling trees across the pass below. 
We can not enter the pass with this boat until the trees are trimmed 
and some of the overhanging trees cut down. I took my cutter and, 
with an armed crew, went down the pass about 1 mile, but the strength 
of the current would not permit our going any farther. We met no 
serious obstruction, and the prisoners say that it is 4 miles to where 
the rebels have been at work. There was a party of 10 or 12 cavalry 
here yesterday. Finding that we could do nothing without a small 
steamer, we returned and met General Gorman, with the Carl, a small 
side-wheel steamer, who came in and entered the pass a little way, but 
it was so late that he had to return. He has gone to Helena for 100 
men with axes, etc., and will return early in the morning, when we 
shall renew our attempt. 

Sunday, February 8. — This morning I got underway and ran up 
nearly to the head of the lake, but discovered nothing. At 1 p. m. 
(the Carl not arriving as expected) I manned my cutter and started 
down the pass. We went about 6 or 7 miles. We met with no very 
serious difficulty on the way. There are some trees that will have to 
be cut before this boat will be able to enter. The rebels have saved us 
the trouble of cutting a number by cutting them themselves. Out of 
about 30 or 40 that we saw that they had cut, only two will require 
anything done to them. We could have gone farther, but did not, on 
account of the strong current that we had to return against. We met 
two men, whom we found, on questioning, belonged to Porter's com- 
pany of Mississippi Cavalry (known as the " Feather-bed Eangers "). 
I paroled and allowed them to remain at home. They say the com- 
pany is broken up. We returned to our boat and are now on our 
way to Helena. 

Colonel Wilson will leave to-morrow for Vicksburg, and we shall 
return to the pass. General Washburn is now in charge of a force 
that will attempt to clear the pass. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Comm,anding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Wavy, expressing a wish for the 
services of the TT. S. S. Linden. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Islands 101 and 102, February 8, 1863— ^ a. m. 
Sir: I have just stopped the Linden on her way to you for coal. 
Although your written instructions are to take her with me, you 



252 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATEKS. 

afterwards spoke as though you wished her to remain with the army 
if still wanted there, so I let her pass. She has not sufficient coal, 
either, to tow upstream. I would like very much to have the Linden 
with me on this duty. The commanding officer of her will give the 
news concerning the operations at Lake Providence. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant-Commander, [Commanding'] Light-Drafts. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

CoTnmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, assigned to command expe- 
dition, of arrival at Helena, Ark. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Helena, Ark., February 13, 1863. 

Sir: I arrived at this place last night and have the Forest Rose, 
Signal, Romeo, and ChUlicothe. 

I have detained the towboat S. Bayard and three small barges of 
coal, about 33,000 bushels, there not being much navy coal here ; the 
Bayard I may take in the pass with me. The general spoke of 
30,000 or 40,000 bushels of coal being here in army, for the use of this 
expedition, but I believe you would prefer being independent. I 
went with General Gorman to-day through the new channel. 

This was a work of nature, the army cutting simply through the 
levee. 

The difference of level at first was 10 or 12 feet, and the fall and 
rush soon widened the opening. The current now is moderate, and 
the inside water falls with the Mississippi. The new channel soon 
empties into the lake, a broad sheet of water, and from this a few 
miles (2 or 3) the Yazoo Pass commences. A heavy army force is 
clearing this, which in places, at turns, may not admit of our vessels 
getting through. Our force takes the trees from the stream while 
the rebels on the other end cut them from both sides to fall across. 
The army is expected to be through with this pass in one week. We 
have one light-draft in the lake. I expect to be all ready before the 
army have finished the part they have undertaken ; we have only to 
find a steamer and pilots. 

I will give you the information which I have gathered concerning 
our affairs here, stating that it is mostly from General Gorman. 

The enemy is in respectable numbers in advance of our Avorking 
force and at the mouth of Coldwater. They were fully apprised of 
the expedition before, or as soon as, the work was commenced. 

I was told yesterday by an officer that he heard of it in Memphis. 

They are in force at Grenada, Panola, and along the line of rail- 
road, and are already disputing our advance through the Yazoo 
Pass. The country is thickly populated. 

General Gorman says his estimate for the force necessary for this 
work was 30,000 men. I only give you some of his views, being re- 
quested in part to do so. 

I shall go on with my part as far as possible without being influ- 
enced by them, having confidence in the authority that sent me here. 



NAVAL rOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 253 

Mr. Morton, pilot, says that the water which forms Honey Island 
on the western side is not navigable, and has never been traversed by 
a vessel. 

You will remember that it was by this that you told me to pass and 
yet avoid Yazoo City. 

I have inquired into Brown's guerrilla shooting. He says he knows 
that one was killed, because he fired the canister or shrapnel at him, 
saw him fall, went on shore, saw the hole in his back and out in 
front, and that the man made no resistance when deprived of his 
sword and belt. The other was shot, he says, by the lieutenant-colonel 
(passenger) with an Enfield at 1,000 yards. Brown was reported 
to me to-day as having been badly burned and blown up in an experi- 
ment. To my surprise he came on board, hands bound up and face 
greased. Had tried, for throwing in vessels, a box containing powder, 
a bottle of coal oil, and one of spirits of turpentine stuffed around 
with cotton close, and a 15-second fuse. He tossed it on the water and 
received the explosion in hands and face in three seconds, or prema- 
turely. He now has an order, if not satisfied, to carry on his experi- 
ments at a distance from the vessels. 

February H, a. m. — I regret that the illness contracted in the Yazoo 
a week before I left still remains. I thought yesterday that I would 
soon be right and well, but to-day it has all returned and I feel of 
very small worth. 

Eespectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant-Gommander, First Division Light-Drafts. 

Acting Rear- Admiral DAvn> D. Pokter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron^ near Vicksburg. 



OrdeT of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander 
Walker, U. S. Navy, commanding IT. S. S. Baron De Kalb, to join the expe- 
dition. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir: You will proceed to Delta, below Helena, and report to 
Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith for duty with your vessel, 
to go through the Yazoo Pass into the Tallahatchie. 

If Lieutenant-Commander Smith has gone through, follow him 
and go on right down to Yazoo City, or wherever he may be. 

If you find a light-draft guarding the coal barges, take her place 
and let her go and report your arrival, if it is up river that the 
vessels have gone. 

Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral , Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker, 

Commanding JJ. S. S. Baron De Kalb^ 



254 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTESN WATERS. 

Instructions from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to lieutenant- 
Commander Smith, IT. S. Navy, commanding expedition. 

February 13, 1863. 

Sir : I send you a refugee from the Yazoo. 
He gives information that no fortifications are at Yazoo City. 
You can then push on down the Yazoo to Grenada, up the Yalo- 
busha, destroy the bridge there, push on then down the Yazoo, capture 
Yazoo City, allow them twenty minutes to surrender and deliver up 
all stores and munitions of war, which you will see destroyed. 

Pass Yazoo with the light-drafts, push on up Sunflower, destroy 
all the boats there that you can not bring away, and return to Yazoo 
City. 

Hold that as long as you can and send up a dispatch boat to report 
to me. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, U. S. Navy, 

Gomm,anding First Division Light-Draft Vessels, 

Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, IT. S. Navy, regarding various matters, 
including measures for obstructing the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha rivers. 

U. S. S. Battler, 
Helena, Ark., February H, 1863. 

Sir: The Forest Rose captured the stern-wheel boat Chippewa 
Valley at Island No. 63, engaged in the cotton trade and without per- 
mits or papers of any kind, having 118 bales. I believe the seizure 
to be in accordance with your General Order No. 2, and shall allow 
Acting Master George W. Brown to send the vessel and cargo to 
Cairo, in charge of an acting master's mate, to leave to-morrow. 

She will take some men whose terms of service are reported to have 
expired. Jerry Waters, pilot of the Forest Rose, will take the prize 
to Cairo. I send him because he is represented by Mr. Brown as 
unskilled in the management of steamboats, being a flat-boat pilot. 

The Signal having four pilots, I have ordered John Montague 
from that vessel to the Forest Rose. I have transferred thirty navy 
rations to Acting Ensign Wheelock for his three men in charge oi 
mortars here. James "Whittaker, first assistant engineer, and A. J. 
Batchelder, third assistant engineer, of this vessel, each struck a 
negro named John Van Buren, a contraband, to-day. Mr. Whitaker 
is confined to his room for the offense, the other is still on duty. I 
hope others will be ordered to take their places. 

Do not you think a ram would be serviceable on this expedition ? 

Perhaps the Lioness, which I am told is at Memphis, almost 
ready for service, could be spared for this, and overtake us as we 
go to the Yazoo. 

If she is sent, she should approach with her distinguishing three 
balls. 

The Little Tallahatchie (which is the one to the upper railroad 
crossing) and the Yalobusha to Grenada, Mr. Morton says, can be 
obstructed by felling trees across them. The Tallahatchie proper, or 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 255 

below Coldwater, can not be obstructed in that way. The Yazoo is 
somewhat like it is below. I estimate the distance to be steamed 
from this entrance over the route of your orders^ and back to coal at 
the mouth of the Yalobusha to be about 1,500 miles. 

February 15. — The Signal being short of provisions, and having 
just heard that the Romeo is deficient in ordnance, I will send the 
Signal to the Yazoo for a supply of each. The Yazoo Pass Avill not 
be cleared in six or seven days yet, with 2,000 or 3,000 men at work, 
and by that time the vessel can be here again. 

Thirty-five boxes of shrapnel, 15 of canister, 10 of shell, and 600 
cannon primers is what I would like to have for the Romeo. 

The Cricket may come in a little short, too, but with this additional 
supply of provisions and ammunition, I will have sufficient. 

Mr. Morton is still the only Yazoo pilot I have, excepting that one 
of mine has some knowledge of these waters. The only others known 
are in Ohio. I can go on with what I have. 

The river here fell a foot last night. General Prentiss has relieved 
General Gorman or assumed a part of his duties. 

A few small rebel steamers have been seen on Coldwater. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Watsox Smith, 
Lieutenant-Commander, First Division Light-Draft Steamers. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commw/nding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Sear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Acting Volunteer lieutenant 
Getty, U. S. Navy, commanding TI. S. S. Marmora, to join the expedition. 

Confidential.] 

February 15, 1863. 
Sir: Proceed to Delta, the old Yazoo Pass, and report to Lieu- 
tenant Commander Watson Smith as part of his expedition. 

All steamers that you meet between White River and Helena, 
coming down to trade, you will turn back up the river and convoy 
them up as far as Delta ; inform them that no trade is allowed below 
Helena. 

If you meet any vessel taking in cotton below White River, seize 
vessel, cotton, and all, and leave her at White River under charge of 
captain of the Conestoga or other naval commander. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Robt. Getty, 

Commanding Marmora. 



Report of Brigadier-Qeneral Gorman, IT. S. Army, regarding the work of opening 

the pass. 

Headquarters at Helena, February 15, 1863. 
General: I have been steadily engaged for more than ten days 
cutting through the drift in the Yazoo Pass. Two thousand men are 
there now. The enemy have a force of cavalry a short distance ahead 



256 NAVAL FOBCES ON WBSTEEN WATEES. 

of US, and an occasional skirmish takes place. I learn that the enemy 
sent a little boat up the Tallahatchie and Coldwater, with two guns 
on her bow, to look after us, but soon returned. 

Secrecy is out of the question, as it is as fully known at Grenada 
what we are doing as it is here. Grenada is only about 84 miles from 
here, and only 54 from Coldwater. 

The obstacles become more and more formidable, but not, perhaps, 
insurmountable, and I am yet fearing that boats as large as the gun- 
boats are will not be able to pass through, and it will take ten days 
more to get out the drift from the cut-off, and then it is uncertain 
what further obstructions the fleet will find in the Coldwater. The 
scouts I send report unfavorably to taking boats through of any size, 
or as large as gunboats. 

I am, general, very truly, your friend, 

W. A. GOEMAN. 

Major-General John A. McClernand, 

Thirteenth Army Corps. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, commanding expedition, 
making reference to army operations in clearing the pass, and other matters, 
including capture of steamer lottie. 

U. S. S. Kattler, 
Helena, Ark., February 18, 1863. 

Sir: The Juliet has just touched for coal. Nothing has occurred 
that has come to my knowledge to hasten or retard the operations of 
the army in clearing Yazoo Pass of its obstructions since my last date, 
the 15th instant. Not knowing the orders of the Cricket, and believ- 
ing that she was only waiting to convoy the Sovereign to you, and the 
tenor of your orders seeming to express that I might attach her if I 
could, I sent word to Langthorne to join me here. 

Fortunately, instead of coming, he sent me a copy of your orders, 
and stating that the Sovereign was watched for an opportunity to 
destroy her, even as she was at Memphis. I at once sent the Forest 
Rose to him, with orders for the Cricket to remain with the Sovereign. 

The Forest Rose is now just above Helena on her return. 

By the Juliet I learn that the Cricket remains at Memphis. 

The Chillicothe and this vessel have been obliged to engage their 
whole force of men in saving the coal from one of the navy barges, 
carelessly allowed to snag or ground by the river falling. 

This is our second day with it, and I expect to have it secure by 
night. I have two small barges of coal ready for our expedition, and 
will have for a third the one which we are now filling from the 
injured barge, in all about 27,000 bushels. Large barges could not be 
managed in Yazoo Pass. These are of 12,000, 10,000, and 5,000 
bushels capacity ; will have to drop them ahead of the steamers. 

The Forest Rose has returned. She was fired into opposite Buck 
Island, on the Arkansas side. She landed and destroyed the prop- 
erty near, consisting of dwelling, storehouses, and negro houses. She 
took away 21 negroes and delivered them to the army at Memphis. 
Took also 2 horses, 2 mules, 500 pounds bacon, 154 blankets, 40 
shovels, 16 barrows, 1 barrel molasses, and 4 sacks of corn. He also 
has 5 prisoners, which I send with his statement by the Juliet., Qn 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 257 

his way up, too, he captured a small steamboat called the Lottie, and 
sent her to Cairo with his other prize, the Chipfewa Valley. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
liieutenant-Com/mander, First Division Light-Drafts. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Portek, 

Gorwmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, refen'ing to reported pres- 
ence of Confederate vessels in Coldwater Biver. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Helena, Ark., February 18, 1863. 
Sir : The Marmora has arrived and your letters, two of them of the 
14th instant, have been received. One orders that George W. Brown, 
acting master, in command of the Forest Rose, be kept under close 
arrest, the other that he be sent down to you. I send him down in 
the Juliet. 

I enclose his account of the capture of three men. I hope a com- 
mander will be sent for the Forest Rose, as sickness has made us 
deficient of oiRcers already. The copy of your letter to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge and memorandum No. 7 from the Ordnance 
Bureau have also been received. 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker has reported with the De Kalb. 
On his strong recommendation of his executive officer, John V. John- 
ston, acting volunteer lieutenant, I have put Mr. Johnston in tem- 
porary command of the Forest Rose. 

A person, an army officer I believe, reported to Foster that he had 
seen a rebel ram (I. N. Brown in command) and other vessels in 
Coldwater. General Gorman says it is so, too ; General Prentiss does 
not credit it, and I merely mention it as rumor. 
I am not at all annoyed by it. 

Respectfully, yours, Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant- Commander, 
First Division Light-Draft Steamers. 
Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, TT. S. Navy, commanding expedition 
referring to the work of the army in clearing the pass, and progress of the 
naval force. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Helena, Ark., February 19, 1863. 
Sir: Yours of the 16th instant by the Signal has been received. 
Nothing else directing me not to go up the Tallahatchie had reached 
me, though there was an allusion to it, I believe, in Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Walker's orders. I am confident that Yazoo City and Sun- 
flower should be our first care. 

Standing trees are not the only obstructions in the Yazoo Pass. 
The rebels have felled the heaviest to fall across the stream, and the 
711°— N w B— vox, 24—10 17 



258 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATBES. 

labor of clearing these out is the tedious work that the army is per- 
forming. The pass has perhaps not been used since 1853, when the 
levee was made. 

It is about wide enough to admit of vessels of the length of this to 
pass around its turns. Barges in tow can not be taken alongside; 
we will drop ours before us. In conversation with Generals Prentiss 
and Gorman yesterday, General Prentiss expressed fears that their 
transports would not get through. Thev have increased their force. 
In view of the possibility of the channel being blocked by any army 
transport, I shall take care to have all of our force with the 100 
soldiers on each light-draft, our coal and tow boats all ahead of the 
army force. We will then be able to go on. I will get through as 
soon as a vessel can pass. The coal that I stopped was necessary for 
the expedition. The barges were strong, and had the advantage of 
being small. The S. Bayard is a suitable boat for the work of taking 
them through. There is about enough coal here for us. 

The barge that we were relieving sank last night with 2,000 bushels, 
but I have it dry again and hope to save it all. Besides this, 
we have a frail barge with 6,000 or 7,000 bushels, from which our 
vessels take their current supply. 

I have sent the Signal to Memphis for paymaster's stores for that 
vessel, the De Kali, and some for this. 

Our part of the expedition will go to the pass entrance in the 
lake to-morrow. The water has fallen there 6 feet. It seems to be 
a fact that the rebels have a ram and some small steamers on Cold- 
water. I think we will all be through to Coldwater by the 23d 
instant. 

Respectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant-Com/mander, First Division Light-Draft Steamers. 

Acting Rear-Admiral DAvm D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Lientenant-CommandeT Smith, TJ. S. Navy, announcing readiness to 
enter the pass, and referring to engagement of the troops. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
In the Lake, February £1, 1863. 

Dear Sir: Our party, consisting of thQChillicothe,BaronDeKalh, 
Marmora, Romeo, Forest Rose, S. Bayard (side-wheel towboat), and 
three barges of coal, containing 12,000, 10,000, and 5,000 bushels, 
are all snug at the entrance of Yazoo Pass, ready to go through the 
moment the stream is clear and the working boats get out of the 
way. A small army transport is to go through with us, with the 
excess of men over the 500, which the light-drafts will carry. 

The rest of the troops in the expedition wiU follow. 

General Ross, I believe, commands them. My intention is to coal 
full from the small barge at Coldwater. It is leaky and I may 
leave it there. The other two will go on with us, the Bayard one, 
the transport or ourselves the other. I expect the Signal from Mem- 
phis to-night. I am to receive the troops to-morrow. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 259 

Our troops had a small fight at the mouth of Yazoo Pass and 
Coldwater. Killed 6, wounded 3, and captured 15 of the enemy on 
the 19th instant. 

I shall push on for Yazoo City and Sunflower. 
Yours, etc., 

"Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 
Gomm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

Only one of our vessels had a want this morning. He had all 
that he Avished excepting " a little red and white paint to mark 
clothes." 



Order of Uajor-General Prentiss, V. S. Army, to Brigadier-General Boss, IT. S. 
Army, assigning transports for his command. In which to enter the pass. 

Headquarters District of East Arkansas, 

February 21, 1863. 

You will, on Monday next, the 23d instant, proceed with your com- 
mand on board of steamers SmMll, Lawyer, Lebanon No. 2, Citizen, 
Lebanon, Cheeseman, Mariner, Saint Louis, Volunteer, Lavinia Lo- 
gan, John Bell, and Key West No. 2, with fifteen days' rations and 160 
rounds of cartridges. Having placed your command on board, you 
will proceed at once to Yazoo Pass and join fleet or gunboats now at 
Moon Lake, at which point a fleet of gunboats under Commodore 
Smith awaits your arrival. You will proceed through Yazoo Pass 
for the purpose of complying with instructions contained in follow- 
ing communications received from General Grant, of which I send 
copy attached. As you may meet with obstructions, it becomes neces- 
sary that your command be supplied with a large quantity of axes 
and spades. You will take all such belonging to your command, and 
if, in your judgment, more is wanted, apply to Quartermaster [Keuben 
B.] Hatch for such. 

You will take but few tents, as the general commanding Department 
of the Tennessee is desirous that this expedition move as soon as 
possible. 

You will, when you arrive at Moon Lake with your command, ren- 
der all aid in your power to remove any obstruction that may tend 
to prevent passage of steamers through said Yazoo Pass. 

B. M. Prentiss. 

Brigadier-General Eoss, 

Commanding Thirteenth Division, Thirteenth Army Corps. 



Beport of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Navy, announcing movement of 
the advance into the pass. 

U. S. S. Eattler, 

Entrance to Yazoo Pass, February 2^, 1863. 

Sir : As the steamers of the army working party came oiit of the 

pass this afternoon our advance entered, and at daylight the whole 

force will pass through, consisting besides our party of 2 ironclads, 5 

light-drafts, 1 towboat, an army transport, and our coal, of 13 army 



260 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

transports with troops. I do not see any coal here for the use of the 
army vessels. 

I called the general's attention to it the other day. 
KespectniUy, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant- Gom/mander. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississif-pi Squadron. 



BepoTt of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, IT. S. Wavy, commanding: expedition, 
regarding general matters. 

U. S. S. Kattler, 
Yazoo Pass, February 26, 1863. 
Sir: If we get through this with our casemates up and wheels 
serviceable, it will be as much as can reasonably be expected. There is 
about room for one of your tugs handled skillfully. 

Our speed is necessarily less than the current, as backing is our 
only and constant resort against dangers and to pass the numerous 
turns. This gives every vagrant log a chance to foul our wheels, and 
as many do foul them, delays are frequent. Our damages so far, 
though not serious, are felt. 

Evening. — Yours of the 20th, announcing your having sent the ram 
Fulton to me, has been received. Have heard that she is at the end 
of the line. 

I will take her in hand as soon as she can pass to the front, and if 
cotton can not be had for the protection of her boilers, will timber her 
heavily and effectually in Coldwater. 

One of her boilers is reported as defective, but she moves with the 
others. 

I can proAdsion the Ghillicothe from the light-drafts. You have 
probably heard that it was not a light-draft that burned at Memphis. 
But this class of vessels can not be too careful with their boiler fires. 
In some instances the deck below is imperfectly protected, and the 
side-protecting bunkers are too close to the boilers in others. 

General Koss said he had coal for ten days, and that he should 
depend upon wood. Our barges are all right yet. 

February £7, 1 f. m. — ^Are about 1 mile or 2 from Coldwater. The 
ironclads, particularly the De Kalb, go through this with more ease 
and facility than any of the others. 

The work of keeping the pass clear should be continued; it will 
choke in a few days if neglected. 

If any of our vessels should enter the Coldwater after we have 
gone south, would it not be well for them to look into the Talla- 
hatchie for any vessels the rebels may have concealed there to foul 
our wake? We can not well spare time to look there before going 
down. 

We have stopped for the night. General Washburn is here, going 
up. This must be my opportunity for sending this. We are still 2 
miles from the mouth after the afternoon's work. All promises well. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FORCES OK WESTEEN WATERS. 261 

Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to lieutenant-Commander 
Greer, XT. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. Carondelet, regarding firing of signal 
guns up the Yazoo. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Near Vickslurg, February 27, 1863. 
Sir : Have a good lookout and listen for the sound of guns up the 
Yazoo Eiver. 

Captain Smith has got through the worst of the pass, and when 
he arrives above Haynes' Bluff will fire, at midnight, nine guns, one 
minute apart, then, after an interval of five minutes, will fire three 
guns, ten seconds apart. . Let me know at once if you hear them. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, . 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander James A. Greer, 

Gommianding Carondelet, Yazoo River. 



Beport of Iiieutenant-Commander Smith, M. S. ITavy, of arrival at Coldwater, Hiss. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Coldwater, March 2, 1863. 

Sir: Our part of the expedition reached this on the 28th. Since 
then have been waiting for the closing up and getting through the 
Yazoo Pass of the transports. 

Our two rams, Fulton and Lioness, and the Petrel having entered 
last, are now pressing forward. 

We have fared pretty well ; a few pipes down, but nothing serious, 

I pulled back to the last vessels this morning; found matters sat- 
isfactory. 

I can not do much for the rams, excepting to pack cotton forward. 

Your letters of February 22, 23, 24, a proclamation, and rates of 
vessels and regulations from Treasury Department have been re- 
ceived. In regard to firing the signal guns near Haynes' Bluff at 
" midnight exactly," I mention that our time may not be correct. I 
have endeavored to keep it so, however. 

I rather like to see that mortar. 

I shall return the Key West to Helena this afternoon, the rams 
and Petrel enabling me to relieve her of her troops, the number in 
excess of what the light-drafts (100 each) were able to take. 

She also will take back the small barge, which, by crowding bunk- 
ers, I have emptied. The Key West is in bad condition. I am 
glad to spare her. We now have, besides our fighting party, only 
the S. Bayard (towboat) and two barges, containing about 21,000 
bushels. We will gather wood and rails when stopped and practicable. 

Acting Master's Mate Joseph Brown, of the ChiUicothe, is repre- 
sented by his commander and surgeon as quite ill. I shall, if pos- 
sible, send him to Cairo or the hospital vessel. 

I am told that a steamboat will continue to ply to and fro in the 
Yazoo Pass to keep it clear. 

It would be bad if the boat by which I am to notify you of our 
presence in front of Yazoo City should meet her in the pass ; neither 



262 NAVAL POECES OlT WESTEBN WATEBS. 

could turn but in very few places. The officer that I send wiU have 
orders to forward my dispatch to you by a cutter to Helena rather 
than delay; perhaps a vessel may be sent by you to meet the one I 
send and allow mine to return. I write in great haste. 
KespectfuUy, yours, 

Watson SinrrH, 
Lieutenant- ComTnander, 
First Division, Light-Draft Steamers. 

Acting Eear- Admiral DAvro D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

I have learned that the Yazoo Pass steamboat is quite small, and 
not likely to stop a vessel going the opposite way. This stream is 
a little wider and much easier to navigate than the pass. May make 
40 or 50 miles per day unless detained by the desire to find cotton. 
The army started with rations for fifteen days; they have sent for 
six days' more, but I am afraid that they will consume valuable 
time by endeavoring to extend their supplies by foraging. Foraging 
parties, properly commanded and instructed, will go in advance 
while in these upper waters. I shall urge the necessity of advancing 
as rapidly as possible ; there shall always be room for the transports 
to close up. 

Yours, etc., W. S. 



Report of Xieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Navy, of the advance from Cold- 
water into the Tallahatchie Biyer. 

U. S. S. RATTr.ER, 
Coldwater, March 5, 1863. 

Sir: We are advancing but slowly. This stream is not so much 
wider or clearer than the pass as to make much difference in either 
speed or the amount of damage inflicted on these vessels. 

Our hull has suffered as much to-day as on any day yet. We can 
only advance with the current ; faster than that brings us foul. Our 
speed is not more than IJ miles per hour, if that. 

Wheels and stacks have escaped through care, but with over 200 
feet above water, and less than 3 in it, without steerageway, light 
winds play with us, bringing the sides and trees in rough contact. 
I imagine that the character of this navigation is different from 
what was expected. We will get through in fighting condition, but 
so much delayed that all the advantages of a surprise to the rebels 
will have been lost. 

Evening. — The steamer Bayard broke her sternpost to-day, and 
that has caused delay. In the pass had a hole punched in her below 
water; she half filled, but was recovered. The crooked course of 
the stream and the thickly wooded shore prevent our having more 
than an occasional glimpse of other vessels. Each has its position 
and distance assigned, but the knowledge of the whereabouts of those 
next can generally only be ascertained by means of a boat. 

The ironclads have the least trouble from trees or overhanging 
branches and are scarcely affected by the wind. 

A case of smallpox was reported by the Petrel to-day, and was 
immediately transferred to a returning transport for passage to 
Helena and the hospital. 



Naval foECEs 6n WEfeiEEtr -w-Aiis&s. S63 

The shore occasionally makes down to the clear water, but much of 
the route is through a clearing amidst trees standing in water. I 
don't think we have seen a plantation in the last 8 miles; all is swamp. 

March 4- — The Petrel comes in with her wheel much damaged and 
without the means of repairing. I can repair it, but my supply wa? 
for but one vessel. 

March 5. — ^The river is clearer, and we make better speed. If we 
reach the Tallahatchie this evening, which our advance may do, our 
total distance from Delta will be but 50 miles, not 6 miles per day. 
I am having an account of the navy rations in the expedition taken. 
No vessel has more than a month's supply at this date, and the Ghilli- 
cothe but seven days, the Lioness thirteen, and the Fulton seven. The 
last reports one boiler badly burned. My first knowledge of the 
Petrel, Lioness, and Fulton being attached to the expedition was 
received after entering the pass. They joined after reaching Cold- 
water, too late for me to prepare them for the expedition, which 
could only have been done by sending them to Memphis. We are 
better off than the army, however, and have a fair supply of coal. 
An organized party of army and navy collects beef for rations and 
cotton for defense. The people report rebels and batteries below, etc. 
Gathered some cotton to-day ; much that we find is so badly baled as 
to be dangerous. I hope to make better speed from this time through. 

Tallahatchie River, 12 miles from Ooldwater, March 6, evening. — 
Stopped for the night, and waiting for the others to close up. 

Our intelligence, received from various sources at different places 
from different people, is that Yazoo City is being fortified, 3,000 
negroes doing the labor, and that a large army is there for its defense, 
provided with heavy guns. 

The same is said of Greenwood, but I do not place the same credit 
in the reports concerning Greenwood. 

A receipt in the possession of a man near us on the shore for cotton 
for a rebel steamer shows a naval organization among them. It reads 
this way : 

By command of Isaac N. Brown, I take (specifying quantity, quality, etc.) 
cotton for the steamer Saint Mary's, to protect her from the enemy's shot. 

F. B. Shepperd, 
Lieutenant, C. 8. Navy. 

As he has a few bales left he will have another receipt to-morrow 
from a grade above that in the United States. 
The river is high and the current strong. 

KespectfulTy, yours, _ W. Smith, 

Lieutenant- Gom/mander. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississifpi Squadron. 



Keport of lieutenaat-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, commanding expedition, 
giving general items of information. 

U. S. S. Eattler, 
Tallahatchie River, March 7, 1863. 
Sir: I am obliged to leave the Petrel about 12 miles from Cold- 
water, in the Tallahatchie. Her wheel is about destroyed by acci- 
dents and bad management. We will coal to-night, and go on to 



264 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Greenwood with the gunboats and transports, leaving the Marmora 
at the junction of the Yalobusha and Tallahatchie to guard the coal 
(two barges), and the steamer Bayard and an army transport with 
troops. The Romeo follows with the mortar. The little provision 
that the army has is spoiling. They have five days' on hand, and 
have sent for only six days' in addition. I can maintain my party 
(those now drawing rations) for one month. If all entitled drew 
rations, would have rations for twenty-two days. 

We have these disadvantages, that we must fight downstream, and 
that all are stern-wheelers but one, and the rams can not reach a 
vessel with wide guards in a tender place without bringing up against 
their own works in front of the boilers. I have cut away their bitts 
and made the most of those vessels. 

The Lioness has 85 bales of cotton for defense, two deep before the 
boilers ; the Fulton can not carry any on the sides forward. The army 
have, I believe, sent for more provisions, but they will be scant when 
those are received. This delay has spoiled our chances. There will 
be more of it, as they must forage for provisions and fuel, and every 
transport, I am told, has an empty hold. I anticipate a rough time. 
Have made the best preparations that our means and time would ad- 
mit, and go to work trustingly. 

Two cases (contrabands) of smallpox were reported by the Forest 
Rose to-day. I will have them sent to Helena, and thence to Cairo, 
if possible. Several of the light-drafts are cottoned forward and on 
the sides abreast the boilers; a good defense of bales, too, on cabin 
decks forward and around the bows inboard of hammock nettings, 
the trees having nearly brushed the nettings away. The light-drafts 
with hurricane cut roofs have had all the after parts of decks swept 
away. 

KespectfuUy, yours, W. Smith, 

Lieutenant-Commander, 
Commanding Gunboats, Yazoo Expedition. 

Acting Eear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gorrvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Sear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, announcing arrival of the 
expedition in the Tallahatchie River. 

Mississippi Squadron, 
Yazoo River, March 12, 1863. 

Sir: I received a communication to-day from Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Watson Smith, informing me that on the 7th instant the 
whole expedition had arrived safely in the Tallahatchie, which gives 
us control of the heart of Mississippi. 

This achievement has not been performed without some damage to 
the vessels and much labor. The vessels had to work their way 
through a narrow creek for over a hundred miles, while two vessels 
can not pass each other. 

They had to remove trees that had grown up thick and intervened, 
and sometimes they would not advance a mile per day. Vessels had 
their pipes knocked down, wheels carried away, and cabins swept off ; 
but they all got through in fighting condition except the Petrel, which- 
lost her wheel entirely. But for our newspapers, this would have 



NAVAIi rOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 265 

been a surprise ; but the rebels heard of it in time to be able to delay 
the progress of the vessels by felling trees across the stream. The 
rebels are very much alarmed at this move and are working with 
all their energy to meet it. Fifty thousand men, it is said, have been 
pushed forward to fortify the river bank, and every steamer is being 
defended with cotton bales. Our steamers are doing likewise. Still 
the rebels are not aware of our force of gunboats ; and if we are not 
delayed by the troops (which move very slowly) , we will clean out 
the river before they can do a thing. 

This was to have been a naval aflfair altogether, only I borrowed 
800 men from General Grant to fill up our crews. At the last mo- 
ment (and without my knowing it) 6,000 soldiers were ordered to 
join the expedition. Six days were lost waiting for them, though 
they worked like heroes in clearing away the obstructions after they 
joined. Indeed, I do not know how the expedition could have got 
through without them. 

My object was to get in with the gunboats, surprise the rebels, 
and capture or destroy all the vessels. Great numbers escaped into 
this river on the capture of New Orleans. 

Everything now depends on the speed with which our forces act. 
I have ordered them to bum, sink, and destroy, and waste no time in 
giving the towns time for the people to evacuate, but to shell them 
if they do not surrender in half an hour. 

I believe that I have done all that could be done to carry out this 
important operation. I could not go with the expedition myself, 
for I must be where I can direct all the other operations in the river. 

If we succeed, it drives the rebels out of Mississippi. If we do 
not, it will be because the people I have sent can fight no longer, 
and have been overpowered by a force that we have had no intima- 
tion existed. 

I sent you a telegram informing you that the Indianola had been 
blown up by the rebels for fear she would fall into our hands. We 
heard a report here that the Essex had been captured by the rebels 
when she was aground or up a creek, but the report lacks confirma- 
tion and does not come from the right quarter. General Grant is 
sending 30,000 men to reinforce our expedition, and I may send 
another ironclad or two. This leaves but 8,000 men here, which will 
not be enough to do anything if an opportunity offers. 

There is much distress in Vicksburg; they have no meat and are 
living solely on corn meal. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, ComTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Weixjes, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Navy, referring to the approach to 
Confederate hattery, near Greenwood. 

U. S. S. Eattiek, 
Tallahatchie River, March 10, 1863. 
Sir : I will not give you a detail of our annoyances and casualties 
experienced in navigating these streams, but will deal with the pres- 



266 KAVAL tOBCEs oir western waters. 

ent and future. Our position for the night is about 20 miles from a 
half-mile-wide neck of land which is a dozen miles above Greenwood 
by water. 

On this neck our information is that there are several thousand 
rebel troops with a battery of three guns, one a rifle, parapet of 
cotton and sand, and ditch around, enough they say to whip 7,000 
Yankees. That is a matter which it is intended to decide before 
noon of to-morrow. They have a most convenient route for leaving 
if they wish, being only 3 miles from Greenwood, while we will be 
10 or 12. 

A raft of gum logs is in readiness to be swung into place, and the 
steamer Btar of the West is just below the raft, ready ror sinking, to 
more effectually obstruct the passage. 

We will first see the fort at 400 yards distance. 

A rebel party has been up the river yesterday and to-day burning 
cotton. Came near catching a steamer yesterday, and Forrest and 
cavalry had just left a place as we arrived. The steamer threw 
overboard corn in quantities and escaped by being able to make the 
turns easily. 

This afternoon came upon a steamer that, on inquiry, learned 
damaged herself last evening. She was loaded with cotton and in 
flames, almost consumed ; sank as we passed her. 

General Ross has expressed his intention of staying at Greenwood 
after we take it until provisions reach him. The troops are on half 
rations. This interferes very much with our arrangements, chang- 
ing entirely the character of the expedition and making it necessary 
for me also to call upon you for provisions and coal. We can not 
even afford to keep low fires for the indefinite time which will elapse 
before they (the troops) are supplied; meanwhile our supplies will 
be exhausted. 

From carefully prepared returns our gunboats and rams have, for 
those entitled to draw Navy rations, sufficient for nineteen days from 
yesterday. The number entitled to draw (and almost all draw from 
the vessels in some way) is 855. 

This 855 is the number of rations required for one day, supposing 
all to draw. With these figures you will know what to send. 

Our coal has not been relieved much by wood, running all days 
and not being near fences at night. There is no cut firewood. My 
returns, as far as they have come, show 11,500 bushels now in the 
bunkers of the 11 vesselsj and I should have 14,000 bushels in 
barges, all about sufficient to start down the Yazoo for Sunflower and 
Haynes' Bluff and enough to return to Yalobusha with, for I should 
think [it] unwise to go down without means of returning at hand. 
Three vessels have joined us since starting, and the rams are heavy 
burners. My allowance does not include delays, but is for prompt 
movements. Twenty-five thousand bushels in addition to what we 
have would make matters pleasant. This in two strong barges, rigged 
as we fixed ours with two or three oars on each end, might come as 
safely as ours have to last accounts. Strict attention is given to 
using coal economically, and the returns look gratifying. 

While waiting at iareenwood, if we must wait, may look up 
Yalobusha. 



NAVAIi POBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 26*7 

Our speed has been far below my expectations, and without the ad- 
vantage of small consumption of fuel, for low steam in these cur- 
rents and turns will not control the vessels. 

I shall probably have to send a light-draft with dispatches now 
as far as Helena. The general fears mat his small steamer has been 
stopped by guerrillas, being several days overdue. "Would drift tim- 
ber accumulate to any great extent, say 2 miles above the Haynes' 
Bluff raft? ^ 

The Petrel is in line again. I had some wheel timber sawed, which 
proves very useful. 

The S. Bayard is a worn-out vessel, and I believe would be pleased 
through her owners to be left down here. Seeing her fresh from 
Cairo, with a valuable charge of coal, I supposed her reliable. She 
tows well, but is old; she half sunk in the pass and broke a rudder, 
but is doing fairly now. "William Anderson, seaman, and John 
"Walker, ordinary seaman, deserted from this vessel March 8, taking 
a revolver, it is presumed, with them, one being missing. A de- 
scriptive list to the dispatch boat, and an order from the general for 
her commander to examine and compare distressed applicants for 
passage out, was the only step to be taken. 

Respectfully, yours, "Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Foster, U. S. Nav7, commanding IT. S. S. Chilli- 
cothe, regarding destruction of bridge and sawmill, and captures made by the 
crew of that vessel. 

U. S. S. Chillicothe, March 10, 1863. 
Sir: To-day the CMlUcothe's crew destroyed a large bridge and 
sawmill and captured a flat-bottomed boat loaded with household 
furniture and articles contraband of war ; among the latter, 2 barrels 
of molasses, one-half bag of coffee, 1 barrel of sugar, and 3 shotguns. 
The former articles I turned into the paymaster's department, the 
guns into the ship's armory. 

I also took for the cabin a lot of crockery ware, of which I have 
taken a strict and accurate inventory. The acting assistant surgeon 
and carpenter also took for their respective departments a few 
articles, and have furnished me an inventory of the same. The crew, 
after putting the household furniture, etc., ashore, destroyed the 
flatboat. 

Very respectfully, Jas. P. Foster, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 
Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, 

Commanding Yazoo Pass Expedition, Tallahatchie River. 



letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Uajor-Qeneral Orant, 
V. S. Army, requesting a small vessel to carry provisions and ammunition. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, March 12, 1863. 
General : Lieutenant-Commander "Watson Smith informs me that 
he has but a month's supply of provisions. I am anxious to supply 



268 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

him, but have no vessel. Can you furnish me with a small steamer 
that will go without fail through the pass and join the vessels and 
troops you have sent up? He will also want ammunition, which I 
will send him by same conveyance. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Poktek, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Navy, regarding the first engage- 
ment with Fort Pemberton (Oreenwood). 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Tallahatchie River, Evening March 11, [^1863'\. 

Sir: Stood on this morning to within a mile of the battery, and 
went ahead with General Ross in the Chillicothe to observe. A 
turn brought us within view of the enemy's works. Almost imme- 
diately they opened fire from five guns. One shell struck the Chilli- 
cothe on the starboard side of the starboard forward port, damaging 
the plate and breaking and starting several bolts. Another struck 
on the port side ahead, 6 inches above water; also a conical rifle 
shot, making as great an indentation as possible without breaking 
through. Another glanced from the deck. Captain Foster, in reply, 
threw three shells from his 11-inch guns. 

With this knowledge of their strength and position we then turned 
the point until concealed by the trees, and arranged to advance 
as soon as the army should report ready, which would not be until 
morning. 

In the afternoon the rebels appeared to be shipping cattle and 
goods from the battery, which we believed to be indications that they 
were preparing to leave. 

Advanced the Ghillicothe, the De Kalh following, the Lioness in 
readiness, and was about to bring up the Rattler, but on going on board 
the ChUlicothe found her already much injured by the shot of the 
enemy, one of which struck between the slide covers of the port for- 
ward port, which was at the time sufficiently ajar to allow the rammer 
handle to pass out. The men were in the act of sending the shell down, 
when this shell, striking the ChUlicothe'' s shell, both exploded — 
fragments of each being found — killing 2 men and wounding 11 
others, 3 of them perhaps mortally. The 11-inch was struck 
on the muzzle, damaging but not disabling it. The slide covers of 
this port were blown out, one going overboard. Other shot struck, 
killing 1 man. The ChUlicothe and De Kalh were strengthening 
themselves with cotton when advanced, and I now withdrew them 
for the purpose of completing that defense. The short distance, 
and the stream being narrow, prevents the easy use of two vessels 
upon the fort. I have therefore landed the 30-pounder Parrott gun 
from the broadside of this vessel, and, with the assistance of the 
troops, expect to have it in position to annoy the rebels' best gun 
at about 600 yards by morning, and well protected by cotton and 
earth. Of the seven shells fired by the Chitlicothe, two appeared tfl> 



NAVAL. FOBCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 



269 



burst well and two to strike a steamboat lying just beyond the fort 
below Greenwood. There is a steamer sunk there by the rebels, not 
quite in position desired by them. A rebel called over this after- 
noon that they had a vessel ready for the ChilUcothe. She will 
be guarded, and if boarded, will, if possible, be swept by our own 
vessels, her crew going below. This is different from engaging with 
head upstream. 

The ChilUcotJie works well, but the De Kalb and other stern wheels 
are very awkward. The base of a rifle shell measuring 6^ inches 
shows the size of one of their guns. Another seems like a 68 ; another, 
a 4i-inch rifle. 

Mr. Morton, the pilot, was badly blown by the explosion of the 
shells on board the GMllicothe. He is not seriously injured, and will 
soon be on duty. I shall use all the means we have of silencing this 
battery — ^the mortar, with the others, when it arrives. 

The ChilUcothe' s turret is not well backed; neither she nor the 
De Kalb can stand the rifle shot. 

I have not ascertained suiEcient about the raft to speak of it with 
certainty. 

My letter of yesterday acquaints you with our situation as regards 
provisions and fuel. Those of us that are but partly manned feel 
the want of men. The soldiers serve the guns well, but the others are 
needed. It is with difficulty that the small boats can be manned. 

The small army steamer has arrived, not having been interfered 
with by guerrillas. 

Midnight. — The rebels are busy at something; do not think they 
are leaving. The Yalobusha is probably fortified at each bluff, as 
they feared for Grenada. 

I am obliged to keep steam now at night, which is exhausting to 
the coal. 

Respectfully, yours, Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant- Commander. 



Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter 



Commaitding 



<i Squadron. 



[Enclosure.] 



List of the killed and wounded. 



U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
V. 8. Crunboat Ghillicothe, March 11, 186S. 



Name. 


Class. 


Injury. 


J F. Morton 


Pilot 


Wound pd 


TixoniEis Qreenslade . 


Quarter gunner 

Marine . 


Killed. 
Do 


Jerry Norton 


John G Singfleton 


... do 


Tin 


John Henderson 


do... 


Do 


Henry B. Levague 


Boatswain's mate 

Marine 


Wounded. 
Do 


Newton Porter ' 


James H. Young , 


do 


Do 


James G. HoUaday 


do 


Do 


Patrick Conner 


do 


Do 


Robert Brown , 


do 


Do 


J.A.Briton 


do 


Do 


C.C.Huff... , 


do 


Do 


Stephen N. Cornell 


Seaman . 


Do 









W. C. Foster, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon. 



270 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 



List of womided on board the V. 8. gunboat Chillicothe, in the action before 
Fort Pemberton (Oreenwood) on March IS, X86S. 



Name. 


Class. 


Injury. 


Francis O'Neil 


landsman 

Marine 


Wounded badly in the arm. 


Leopold Trost 


"Wounded in the face. 


RoneyHupple 


Seaman 


Contusion of the hand. 


John Mitctiell 


do 


Violent concussion of the brain. 


D.Miller 


Marine . . . 


Wounded in the hand. 


Harrison Gill . 


Landsman 


Wound of the hand. 







W. C. Foster, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon, Chillicothe. 



List of killed and wounded on board the U. 8. gunboat Chillicothe during action 
at Fort Pemberton (Oreenwood), March 16, X86S. 



Name. 


Class. 


Injury. 


John Young 


Seaman 


Wound In right side. 

Drowned by falling overboard aa we 


Christopher Talbot 


First cabin boy... 




were going into action. 



Wm. C. Foster, Jr., 
Acting Assistant Surgeon, V. 8. Navj/. 



Keport of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. ITavy, transmitting^ report of the 
commanding officer of the XT. S. S. Chillicothe, regarding the first attack upon 
Fort Pemberton (Oreenwood), Uarch 11. 

U. S. S. Eattler, 
Tallahatchie River, March 17, 1863. 
Sir: The accompanying report of Lieutenant-Commander Foster 
came after my otner letters were sent. I am in hopes that it will 
reach you, as it gives something of the character of the Chillicothe'' s 
defenses upon which so much reliance has been placed for reducing 
the apparently small obstructions that detain us here. 

There are also some specimens of spikes for holding armor in place 
in soft pine, sent with the Marmora. Properly backed, the iron would 
have stood much more. 

EespectfuUy, yours, Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant-GoTnmander. 

Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Gunboat Chillicothe, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 12, 1863. 
Sir : On yesterday, the 11th instant, the Chillicothe, with Lieuten- 
ant-Commander Watson Smith, commanding the gunboats, Yazoo 



NAVAL, FOECES ON WESXEEN WATEES. 



271 



MAP OP OPERATIONS OF THE YAZOO FA89 EXPEDITION, 
UNDER COMMAND OP LIEUT. COMMANDER •WATSON SMITH, U. S. NAVY, 1863. 




Marion. 



272 NAVAL, FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

expedition, Lieutenant- Colonel Wilson, topographical engineer, and 
General Ross, of the volunteer army, and commanding the troops of 
the Yazoo expedition, on board, proceeded to reconnoiter Fort Green- 
wood on the Tallahatchie Eiver, and distant from the Yazoo River 
by water about 3 miles. After she had been underway about thirty 
minutes, and at fifteen minutes past 10 a. m., the enemy opened on her 
at about 800 yards distant with five pieces of artillery. One gun was 
en barbette, 6J-inch caliber, throwing conical steel-pointed shell ; the 
other four guns throwing shot and shell supposed to be from 12 to 30 
pounders, rifles. The enemy during the reconnoissance fired at the 
Chillicothe twenty-five or thirty times, striking her twice. Their 
first shot that struck the GMllicothe was in her port bow, and about 
18 inches above the water's edge ; this shot did not penetrate through 
the armor, but almost buried itself in the iron plating. Their second 
shot struck the ChUUcothe's starboard side of the turret, and about 
4 feet from her forward starboard port, and about 6 feet above the 
deck, indenting and fracturing both plates of the turret and smash- 
ing in the framing or backing abaft of where the shot struck. 

The Chillicothe fired three five-second shell, but with what effect 
it is unknown, as the smoke obstructed our view. The reconnoissance 
being completed, the Chillicothe backed up the river to within long 
range of Fort Greenwood. Casualties: 1 man, contusion of the shoul- 
der, caused by the flying off of a turret-bolt nut. We were under fire 
about twenty minutes. 

At ten minutes past 4 p. m. the Chillicothe got underway to attack 
the fort, and at fifteen minutes past 4 p. m. the fort opened on the 
Chillicothe with all her guns. In seven minutes she was compelled 
to back up the river and out of range, in consequence of having one 
gun's crew (No. 2 or port gun) rendered perfectly useless, 3 men 
being killed outright, 1 mortally wounded, and 10 others seriously 
wounded, while the other 5 of the gun's crew had their eyes filled 
with powder. This occurred in this way : One of the enemy's largest 
shell penetrated the port slide (3 inches thick) and struck the tulip 
of the Chillicothe'' s port gun, and, exploding, ignited her shell just 
after it was in the muzzle of her port gun, and it not being home 
exploded at or about the muzzle, carrying away the two forward port 
slides, weighing 3,200 pounds, and a portion of the turret's backing, 
and tearing the bolts out of a large space of the armor, besides set- 
ting the cotton on fire that had been placed forward of the turret 
after the reconnoissance of the morning. 

One of the port plates was carried overboard. The Chillicothe 
fired four five-second shell ; two of them, it was said by those on shore, 
did great damage. The enemy fired at the Chillicothe about twenty 
times and struck her four times, one time as above related, one on the 
bow deck, one carrying the jackstaff away, and the fourth time aft; 
this fourth shot passed over the port quarter and aft of the turret, 
and between the wheelhouses. 

The damages to the Chillicothe have now been repaired, after 
thirty hours' hard labor, and is now ready for action. 

My gun's crew behaved well. The casualties the accompanying 
report of the surgeon will show. 

It is to be regretted that from the ease with which the enemy's 
shell, in weight not to exceed 68 pounds, penetrates the armor of the 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 273 

Ghillicothe that she is almost a failure and will remain so until altera- 
tions are made in the backing of the turret. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. p. Foster, 
Lieutenant- C ommander. 
Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, 

Commanding Gunboats Yazoo Expedition^ 

" Tallahatchie River, Miss. 



Report ot Lieutenant-Commander Smith, IT. S. Navy, transmitting report of 
Lieutenant-Commander Walker, IT. S. Navy, regarding reopening of the attack 
upon Fort Femberton (Qreenwood), Uarch 13. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Tallahatchie River, Evening, March 13, 1863. 

Str: My letter of the 11th instant reports to that date. Yesterday 
was occupied in protecting the two heavy vessels with cotton and 
repairing the Chillicothe^s damages. Erected another 30-pounder 
Parrott in the woods, detailed men from the Petrel and Signal to 
make a gun's crew for the Ghillicothe, and giving them two hours' 
drill commenced again at 11 a. m., the Ghillicothe, De Kalb, mortar, 
and two Parrott guns with navy officers and men being engaged; 
distance of vessels about 900 or 1,000 yards. 

It was necessary to secure the De Kalb against turning or falling 
below if disabled; secured her, therefore, so that if necessary she 
could be drawn out of view against the current. 

The rebels fired with great accuracy, especially from one gun or 
two, the shots of which struck with telling effect. As the result of 
the day's work, I may mention that the Ghillicothe has been struck 
about thirty-four times, generally full and fairly on the casemate, 
which has not stood it well. I saw three hit in one place, under the 
edge of the hurricane deck, port side forward. These have bent 
down the grating so as to confine the steering wheel and broken the 
beam. Some shots have been turned well, probably 20-pounders, 
but the 6^-inch conical do mischief. Her wheelhouses and wheels 
suffered somewhat. 

One of the port covers was struck three times, saving the men, 
but it at last bounced out. 

I expected Foster's report before this, and I can not wait for it 
and his requisition for ammunition, as the dispatch boat is to leave 
soon. He had but 2 wounded, and may require time to-morrow to 
secure iron. Our means of doing this are not efficient. The De Kalb, 
Lieutenant-Commander Walker, was struck six times, one going 
through the forward casemate iron and stopping in the timber. 
Another entered between two ports on her swinging a little, cutting 
away over a dozen beams ; killed 1 man, mortally wounded 1, 1 officer 
mortally wounded, probably, and 3 others wounded ; wheel ropes cut. 
The guns on shore (ours) were not injured, though fired upon. 

The enemy's best gun was silent for a time before we ceased, and 
our intention was to take a closer position after the Ghillicothe had 
prepared some shells, which her captain said he could not well do in 
action. When about to advance, however, General Ross informed 
me that dispatches notified him of the approach of reinforcements 
711°— If w B— VOL 24—10 ^18 



274 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

for him, and proposed an attack by us and assault by the army on 
the arrival or remforcements, to which I agreed rather than have 
time elapse wherein the rebels might repair after our attack and his 
assault. 

It will not be easy to approach them, there is so much water. 

There was no room for light-drafts to-day, but I shall hope for 
something from them, this one perhaps, if we*get as close as we prob- 
ably will. 

Many of our shells were effective, but the dense smoke holding 
between the trees prevents our noting results at the right time. 

I enclose Captain Walker's requisition for ammunition, also a 
report. The Chillicothe will also require a supply, plenty of five- 
second fuzes for each. 

Have only 26 mortar shells left (had but 75). I did not think 
they were going so fast. It works well. 

There are many sick officers and men, besides wounded, who will 
require a better climate than this for recovery. Of coal and pro- 
visions, my previous letters speak. A supply of ammunition for 
30-pounder Parrott guns will also be needed, say an assortment of 
200 shots, shell and solid ; would prefer the majority of fuzes to be 
five-second. 

In placing the Chillicothe and De Kalh, I have recognized the 
importance of our interest in those vessels, the army and fleet of 
transports, and it is only because the enemy's fire slackened ven'^ 
much to-day that I think of approaching to an easier distance. We 
will feel our way, and the De Kalb be kept ready for hauling out ; 
fighting downstream is awkward. 

Walker complains bitterly of the closing up of the vents of the 
9-inch guns, never having more than one clear. He was obliged to 
devise means of blowing them out while receiving the enemy^ fire. 
The vents fill up at the bottom. 

I enclose Lieutenant-Commander Foster's report of casualties, and 
of engagement of the 11th, and Lieutenant-Commander Walker's 
requisition for ammunition. 

Those two vessels do not resist shot well. With much opposition 
the Chillicothe' s turret would be demolished. The De Kalb is pretty 
strong directly in front. If this expedition meets with this kind of 
opposition, other and better vessels will be required. The Chilli- 
cotheh thin white pine backing will not sta,nd. 
KespectfuUy, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. S. Baron De Kalb, 
Mouth of Yazoo, April 13, 1868. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the opera- 
tions of this vessel before Fort Pemberton, Tallahatchie River : 

We arrived before the fort on the 11th of March, and after exam- 
ining the work prepared for action, but, owing to the temporary dis- 
abling of the OhilliGothe by a shot from the enemy, were ordered to 



NAVAIi FOHCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 



275 



withdraw. On the 13th went into action at 10 : 45 a. m. in company 
with the Ghillicothe and mortar boat, engaging the fort at about 800 
yards. The engagement was severe until about 2 p. m., when the 
Ghillicothe was forced to retire for the want of ammunition. This 
vessel remained in her position until dark, firing upon the enemy 
at intervals of fifteen minutes, the enemy having ceased firing. After 
dark, by order of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, she was backed up 
to her old position. 

The enemy fired but few shots after 2 p. m. On the 15th landed 
an 8-inch gun with a supply of ammunition and placed it in battery 
on shore with a crew to work it. At 12 : 30 p. m. on the 16th we again 
moved into action, but the Chillicothe, being disabled in a few min- 
utes after getting under fire, withdrew by order. 

On the 19th took on board the 8-inch gun from the shore battery. 

In the engagement of the 13th the loss on board this vessel was : 



Name. 


Class. 


Injury. 


JohnO'Neil 


Quartermaster 

Ordinary seaman 

Master'smate 


Killed. 


Robert Murphy 


Do. 


F. E. Davis 


Mortally wounded ;since dead. 


G. W. Male 


Seaman 


Lost a leg. 
Slightly wounded. 
Do. 


J olin McGowan.... . ... .. . ■ 


do... 


Frank McGuire 


do 









This vessel was considerably cut up, losing the gun-deck beams, 
having the wheelhouse and steerage badly knocked to pieces, and 
various other damages to the wooden parts of the vessel, but nothing 
to render her unserviceable. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

John G. Walker, 
Lieutenan t-G ommander. 
Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Xieutenant-CommandeT Foster, V. S. Nary, commanding IT. S. S. 
Chillicothe, regarding attack of Hatch 13. 

U. S. Gunboat Ghillicothe, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March H, 1863. 
Sir : In pursuance to your orders, the Ghillicothe, on the morning 
of the 13th instant, advanced down the Tallahatchie Eiver to attack 
the rebel Fort Greenwood [Pemberton] , and at 11 : 25 a. m. opened her 
starboard gun upon those of the enemy at a distance of about 800 
yards. Almost at the same instant the port gun opened on the fort 
also ; the rebel guns had been firing at the Ghillicothe some three min- 
utes before the latter returned the fire. The Ghillicothe, after getting 
the position assigned as nearly as possible, was tied up by her stem 
and a breast line on the starboard side forward to keep her in position. 
In this position the Ghillicothe remained one hour and thirty-eight 
minutes, keeping up a constant fire on the fort, using most of the time 
five-second shell and shrapnel, and until all the ordnance of this 
length of fuze in the magazine was shot away, amounting in all to 



276 NAVAL FORCES OK WESTEKN WATEES. 

fifty-four shot. The enemy's fire was almost exclusively directed at 
the GMlli&pthe. When the ammunition of the Ghillicothe, as above 
reported, was exhausted, and after being on fire three times during 
the action, and at the time on fire, and after being struck thirty-eight 
times, ten shot striking her in a space of 10 feet on the port side of 
her turret forward^ seven through her wheelhouses, the remaining 
shots striking her in and about her bow, on starboard side of her 
turret forward, and on her port quarter and hurricane deck, and with 
her forward port slide carried away, and with her side port slide 
gone, and with the cotton bales that had been put up as an additional 
protection thrown out of place and on fire, and upon your orders, the 
Ghillicothe withdrew from the action to repair damages and to fill 
the remaining empty shell on board. 

The Ghillicothe is now in condition to engage the enemy ; she is, 
however, badly battered and shattered, and does not withstand the 
enemy's shot and shell near as well as expected. 

The accompanying surgeon's report will show her casualties. 

The port gun's crew, although never drilled until the morning of 
the action, and who were never under fire before, behaved remarkably 
well. The officers and the other gun's crew and the marines acted 
their part bravely, without exception. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. p. Foster, 
Lieutenant-Gommander. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, 

Gommanding Gunboats, Yazoo Expedition, 

Tallahatchie River, Miss. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Foster, U. S. Navy, commanding TT. S. S. ChllU- 
cothe, Tcgardinir attack of March 16. 

U. S. Gunboat Ghillicothe, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 16, 1863. 
Sir: In obedience to your orders, the Ghillicothe to-day, at 12:43 
o'clock p. m., took position before Fort Greenwood, about 200 yards 
in advance of her positions on the 11th and 13th instant, and was 
kept in this position by a stern line made fast to a tree on the right 
bank of the river the short time she remained in action. She was 
engaged fifteen minutes, during which time she fired seven five- 
second fuze shells. After the discharge of the seventh shell, all of her 
forward ports being closed, she was struck by four shots from the 
enemy's guns, two striking simultaneously on her forward ports, one 
on her starboard slide ports forward, and the other on her port slide 
port forward, and so forcible and heavy were the projectiles of the 
enemy that all the forward slide ports of both forward ports were 
either penetrated or so smashed in, or the armor bolts so driven out, 
that it was impossible to open them (every effort being made by the 
gun's crew) and run out the guns. Thinking it possible that the star- 
board gun could still be worked, the command was given by me to 
maintain the action with it alone, when it was reported to me that 
it was impossible to get the starboard gun out, the forward starboard 
ports being held fast iji their closed position by the arnjoi: bolts hay- 



NAVAL POECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 277 

ing been started out so much as to prevent the ports from sliding 
almost to the same extent as those of the forward slide ports. I per- 
sonally ascertained these facts, and finding it perfectly impossible to 
fight the Ghillicothe through her forward ports, and it not being 
possible to fight her except bow on, and in accordance with your 
orders that if anything serious occurred to withdraw from action, I 
ordered the Ghillicothe out of range to repair damages. I would 
remark in passing that many of the armor bolts are very weak and 
imperfect spikes, with large heads (of which I send you a sample), 
and it is astonishing that the weight of the armor has not heretofore 
forced them out. The Ghillicothe was struck to-day eight times, four 
doing the damages as above described and rendering her guns useless, 
the other four striking her upper and lower decks. The projectiles 
that struck the forward part of the turret were two 68 solid shot (I 
have had them weighed) and two 6^-inch conical shell (weighing 
about 64 pounds) . The backing to the turret is shattered all to pieces, 
and the iron plating on the turret is penetrated, knocked loose, stove 
in, and almost unfit for service. 

The enclosed surgeon's report will show casualties. 

The Ghillicothe's total loss on the 11th, 13th, and to-day is 22 
killed, wounded, and drowned. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. p. Foster, 
Lieuten ant- Commander. 

Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, 

Gom/manding Gunioats, Yazoo Expedition, 

Tallahatchie River, Miss. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, IT. S. Havy, regarding the reopening of 
the attack upon Fort Femherton, If arch 16. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Tallahatchie River, Evening, March 16, 1863. 

Sir: Having a number of wounded and sick in the force, whose 
condition will be improved by a change and greater comforts, I 
have trusted that giving them quick dispatch in a light-draft to 
the hospital steamer will meet your approbation. It combines, too, 
the advantage of showing force through the passages in the rear and 
will relieve me of the necessity of sending for that especial purpose. 

The three medical officers in the six light-drafts divide the duty 
between them. The two smallpox patients of the Forest Rose were 
not taken out by the army dispatch, and now their condition does 
not favor their removal, they being convalescent and, in the opinion 
of the surgeon, less liable to spread disease where they are than if 
removed elsewhere. 

Our plan of to-day was to attack this battery, or Fort Pemberton, 
as it is termed by the rebels, and if successful in silencing it, to ad- 
vance the light-drafts full of troops to occupy. 

With this view landed an 8-inch gun from the De Kalb, yesterday, 
adding it to the battery of two 30-pounder Parrotts already on 
shore. 



278 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 

Our experience of the enemy's guns' effect upon our best vessels 
made me careful to secure them against dropping with the current 
if disabled, and with boats and lines to hold them, advanced at 11.30 
a. m. closer than before, the guns on shore opening. 

Again the CMllicothe was rendered ineffectual by the striking of 
a port portslide with a solid 68-pound shot, breaking through, though 
not passing through, and the springing out of plates and depression of 
others so as to confine the covers of the starboard forward port. 
There was no alternative but for her to retire and repair, both ports 
being effectually closed. The side slides will give place to cotton 
bales and be used in front, smiths from other vessels and from 
amongst the troops giving aid. As it is all cold iron Avork, it will 
require a day. 

The guns on shore are serviceable, but constrained for want of 
a better supply of ammunition. 

I can not give the strength of this battery, but have picked up at 
least six different kinds of projectiles, only two of which could have 
come from the same gun. 

Returned them two of their 68 solid shot to-day with interest. 
Our firing is very good, but for good effect must strike the guns 
themselves, of which we seldom see more than the muzzles. 

Another reason for sending one of the force to you is to insure the 
transmission of the intelligence I wish to convey, that you may know 
just what provisions and coal we have, and our need for supplies of 
ammunition for the ChilUcoihe and De Kalb, 30-pounder Parrotts 
of the Forest Rose and this vessel, and, say, 200 13-mch mortar shells 
with 2,400 pounds mortar powder and primers; more would be 
desirable, but we could not stow it. I sent in a former letter — Cap- 
tain Walker's ordnance requisition; the Chillicothe's is for a fml 
supply of shells and shrapnel, powder, and primers. She still has 
her original small quantity of solid shot. 

We have rations for thirteen days and about 21,000 bushels of coal 
in bunkers and barges. The Lioness, being kept ready for immediate 
use, burns heavily; the CMllicothe and De Kalb almost as ready, 
probably are within 100 bushels per day, and the others from no coal 
(using rails) to 50 or 60. 

Foraging adds but little to our supplies. 

Sent the Forest Rose a run back as far as possible and to return by 
night. Yesterday she brought us a day's rations of beef. 

We are in want of ensigns and mates. The De Kalb is very defi- 
cient, one officer having been arrested for drunkenness on duty, in 
action ; another wounded, it is feared mortally ; another sick. I have 
not been able to ascertain exactly how many we need, there has been 
so much going on, and communication not being convenient, but 5 
ensigns and 8 mates could be used in filling vacancies; scarcely a 
vessel whose officers are not more or less afflicted with one complaint 
or another incident to the situation. 

Captain Foster has just handed in his requisition for ordnance. It 
is much less than he requires, but more than he can stow properly. 

He will write to you concerning his turret and its weakness. 
EespectfuUy, yours, _ Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant-G om/mander. 

Acting Eear- Admiral Davto D. Porter,_ 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 279 

Report of Brigadier-General Ross, V. S. Army, regarding operations before Fort 

Pemberton (Greenwood). 

In Front of Greenwood, Miss., March 13, 1863. 

General, : My fleet of transports is now Ij^ing in the Tallahatchie, 
about 5 miles from Greenwood on a direct line and about 12 by the 
Tallahatchie and Yazoo rivers. 

We arrived here on the morning of the 11th inst., and have been 
prevented from advancing any farther by a strong fortification, 
extending from the Tallahatchie to the Yazoo River, across a neck of 
land some 2J miles below. 

On the morning of the 11th I went on board of the gunboat Ghilli- 
cotJie, in company with Commander Smith and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wilson, for the purpose of making a reconnoissance, in which we 
exchanged several shots, two 64:-pounder shot of the enemy striking 
the Chillicothe, but doing her no damage. 

I sent Colonel Slack, of the Forty-seventh, and Colonel Bringhurst, 
of the Forty-sixth Indiana Volunteers, out on a reconnoissance by 
land. We soon met the outposts of the enemy, when a brisk skirmish 
followed, in which 2 of our men were wounded. The loss of the 
enemy not known. We drove them back into their fortifications, 
which you will observe by enclosed plats, are very difficult of access, 
being entirely surrounded by water. 

• In the afternoon the OhilUcothe again made an advance on the 
works of the enemy, and after remaining in action about thirty 
minutes received a shot in one of her portnoles, which killed 4 and 
wounded 12 of the crew. 

On the 12th we were engaged in repairing the damage to the OhilU- 
cothe and making preparations for the erection of land battery. 

This morning we had in position on land two 30-pounder Parrott 
guns and one 12-pounder howitzer, with which we opened on the 
enemy at 11 a. m. At 11.20 the gunboats Ghillicothe and De KaXb 
and the mortar boat also opened fire. All were hotly engaged until 
about 1 p. m., when the Ghillicothe withdrew for the purpose of 
filling shell and cutting fuzes. 

Up to that time she had been struck about twenty times without 
inflicting any serious damage. Firing was continued by the others 
until sundown with but little effect. There has been an immense 
amount of fighting done during the day, and but 3 or 4 slightly 
wounded on our side. We have no means of knowing the extent of 
the enemy's damage. If no greater than our own, I may truly say 
nobody is hurt by to-day's operations. 

We go at them again in the morning, and shall continue fighting at 
them until we get possession. When the work is completed will for- 
ward detailed report. I enclose for information plat of fortifications 
and surrounding country by Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

L. F. Ross, 
Brigadier-GeneraH, GommandiTig Division. 

Major-General B. M. Prentiss, 

G om/manding District of Eastern, Arkansas. 



280 KavAl forces on westeen waters. 

Report of Lientenant-Colonel Wilson, IT. S. Army, regarding operations before 
Port Pemberton (Greenwood). 

Dr. Citktiss' Plantation, 
Near Greenwood, Miss., March 13, 1863 — 9 p. m. 

General : The land and naval forces constituting the Yazoo expedi- 
tion, after many provoking delays, arrived at this point on the morn- 
ing of the 11th, and after a reconnoissance of the fort and a slight 
engagement between the GhilUcothe and one of its heavy guns the 
troops were landed. 

The Chillicothe on the afternoon of the 11th, from a position near 
the one indicated on the enclosed sketch,* opened her batteries upon 
the enemy, but in a very short time received a rifle shot in her left 
port, killing and wounding 14 of her crew. 

On the night of the 11th a cotton-bale battery was erected at the 
point marked, about 700 yards from the large gun, with a view to dis- 
mounting it if possible. Having no siege guns, a naval 30-pounder 
battery was placed in it. 

On the 12th, the naval forces not being ready to attack, nothing 
was done, but on that night (last) another 30-pounder was added to 
the battery, and this morning at 10 it and the Chillicothe, Baron De 
Kalb, and the mortar boat began the attack, but to-night we are not 
able to perceive any advantage gained. 

Last night the enemy erected heavy traverses against our Parrott 
battery, so that it could do him no serious damage to-day. 

The rebel position is a strong one by virtue of the difficulties of ap- 
proach, though it is defended by only two guns of any weight, one a 
powerful rifle, 6.4-inch bore. General Tilghman is in command. 
General Loring was there, but recently relieved. How many troops 
he has we can not ascertain. 

The Chillicothe has not stood the work well; that, too, at 1,100 
yards. What may be the result at close range must depend entirely 
upon chance. I understand Commander Smith intends to go close 
up to-morrow, though I don't think he or his commanders are very 
sanguine. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. H. Wilson. 
Major-General U. S., Grant, 

CoTwmanding Department of the Tennessee. 



Report of lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, transmitting report of 
medical survey, and asking to be relieved from duty. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Tallahatchie River, March 17, 1863. 
Dear Sir : My health has failed under the influences of this climate 
until I am compelled to report myself as no longer fit for duty. I 
have struggled against this result, and hoped, with the skill of our 
physician, to avoid it. 

The opposition which we have met here has delayed my speaking of 
it, but it would not be right to keep it from you any longer. I ask for 

* Not found. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 281 

a change, confident that remaining here will but confirm the disease 
and seriously affect its future treatment. 

This has been my condition since in January, and has been long 
since pronounced by the surgeon as chronic, his efforts for weeks 
having been to keep me up for this work. 

I have thus far attended personally to all movements, expenditures, 
and general condition, duties which entail late and early hours. I 
do not think I can continue to do so. 

It is with disappointment and regret that it should have come to 
this, that I enclose the surgeon's report and await your attention to it. 

Much that is unpleasant about this necessity would be relieved if I 
could see you. A turn down the Mississippi would have little effect 
after what I have gone through, and if I am to leave this, I could do 
so after that with a pleasanter remembrance of it. 

This steamer needs repairs in hull and boilers, besides tightening, 
and stanchioning all guards and decks, and although she can go on 
without this being done now, it could be wisely attended to now. 
Yours, etc., 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant-C ommander. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. Near Vicksburg. 



Beport of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the inefficiency of 

the IT. S. S. Chillicothe. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Flagship Black Hawk, March 26, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose a report * from Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Foster, of the Chillicothe, and one f from Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Smith. The Yazoo Pass expedition does not seem to be doing 
much beyond exchanging shots with the batteries. The Chillicothe, 
from all accounts, has proved herself unfit to engage a battery, the 
bolts confining the iron to the ship having been found very destruc- 
tive to those on board. The Chillicothe has suffered a good deal in 
killed and wounded, as will appear by the report of her commander. 

I consider Mr. Hartt to blame for not attending to the details of 
these vessels, which I find very defective. I have less hesitation in 
saying this much from the knowledge of the past that Mr. Hartt 
has not attended properly to anything out here; that the vessels he 
fitted were fitted in a very indifferent manner, and required extensive 
alterations; that some mortar boats he built came to me in a leaky 
condition, and he did not conform to my instructions in any par- 
ticular except in the model. As a private indiAndual, I would not 
employ him on anything, and I sincerely believe he is not doing the 
Government full justice. 

Lieutenant-Commander Smith, who commanded the Yazoo Pass 
expedition, was taken sick soon after entering the Tallahatchie and 
after operations were commenced and was sent back in, I fear, a 
dying condition. I depended a good deal on his energy in carrying 

* See p. 270. t See p. 273. 



282 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

out my orders for the success of the expedition. Unless the fort is 
taken before this General Grant has ordered the troops to return. 
They have only retarded our movements so far, there being no 
chance of landing them at the place where the rebels have blockaded 
the river. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, GoTwmanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, transmitting report of lieu- 
tenant-Commander Foster, V. S. Navy, since assuming command of expedition, 
march 18, 1863. 

Mississippi Squadron, 
Yazoo River, April 13, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to enclose you a report of the Yazoo Pass 
expedition from Lieutenant-Commander Foster, who took command 
after Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith was obliged to give up 
from extreme illness. 

The Department will observe that the GhiUicothe has proved her- 
self entirely unfit for a fighting vessel as she now is ; her backing of 
pine wood, 12 inches thick, being found inadequate to stand shot. 

The Baron De Kali, supposed to be an inferior vessel, received no 
damage of any consequence. 

The Department can form their opinion of the importance of the 
expedition from the report of Lieutenant- Commander Foster. Fort 
Pemberton was fairly whipped and silenced by the De Kalb and 
ChMlicothe; no attempt was made by the troops to assault or take 
possession. At one time the enemy had not a charge of powder in 
the fort, and the shells of our vessels were passing through seven 
bales of cotton, which must have made the place untenable. 

There were difficulties in the way of an assault, but whether they 
were sufficient to stop the troops when the fort was silenced I am 
unable to say. 

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GmEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. S. Chillicothe, ApnL 13, 1863. 

Sir : On the 18th [of] March, in consequence of the ill health of 
Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, I fell into the command of 
the Yazoo Pass expedition, and have to make the following report: 

The orders which were turned over to me by Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Smith were positive, and urged the necessity of pushing on ; 
urging him by no means to delay, as the success of the expedition 
depended entirely upon the rapidity of the movement. 



NAVAl. FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 283 

Had these instructions been carried out I have no doubt that the 
expedition would have been successful, and that we would have 
reached Yazoo City in half the time that we were in making Fort 
Pemberton ; and as there was no opposition at that time of sufficient 
force to check us, we would have had complete control of the river 
with all their steamers at our mercy. 

Success here, and the controlling power of the Coldwater, Talla- 
hatchie, Yalobusha, and Yazoo rivers, would, in my opinion, have 
opened a sure road to Vicksburg, as it is by these rivers that they 
receive most of their supplies. 

The first attack made on Fort Pemberton was on the 11th March, 
on a reconnoissance about 11 a. m., when five or six shots were ex- 
changed, doing little or no damage. On the afternoon of the same 
day the ChilUcothe again went down and opened fire on the fort. 
During the action the ChUlicothe had 4 men killed and 15 wounded. 
After having a whole gun's crew disabled the ChUlicothe withdrew. 

The ChilUcothe is a perfect failure as a fighting vessel, and will 
have to be repaired before going into action again. 

On the 13th the ChUlicothe and Baron De Kdib got underway at 
11.30 a. m., and conunenced the attack on Fort Pemberton at 780 
yards. 

The ChUlicothe remained in action one hour and thirty-eight min- 
utes. During this action she received 44 shots, and after expending 
nearly all her ammunition of 5-second and 10-second shells, retired by 
order of the commanding officer. On the retiring of the ChUlicothe 
the fort ceased firing, although the De Kcclh remamed and kept firing 
slowly during the remainder of the day. 

Deserters and prisoners captured reported that their guns were 
silenced, and that the fort was taken, had our forces advanced, as 
they were entirely without ammunition. 

On the 18th we retired, believing the fort too strong for the forces 
there engaged and being short of ammunition. 

The day after leaving Fort Pemberton, the ChUlicothe, De Kalh, 
light-drafts, etc., arrived before the fort again, and, at the sugges- 
tion of General Quinby, the ChUlicothe took her old position before 
the fort, firing three shots for the purpose of drawing the enemy's 
fire. Failing in this, she withdrew. We, along with those on shore, 
were under the impression that the enemy blew up a torpedo Just 
forward the ChUlicothe''s bow. 

We remained twelve days awaiting for the army to do something, 
and when General Quinby was ordered to withdraw his forces we 
brought up the rear. 

We captured 5 prisoners, three of whom I paroled at Helena; the 
remaining 2 I shall send to you. 

On our return to the fort we remained twelve days, and during the 
whole of that time nothing was done by General Quinby toward 
the reduction of the fort. On meeting General Quinby I told him 
that it was impossible to take the fort without heavy siege guns ; he 
said that he had a number of heavy 24-pounders, and would procure 
others without delay, and expressed his entire confidence as to the 
capture of Fort Pemberton. 

I then, at his earnest and written request (a copy of which I have 
sent you), returned with him, and remained until the army was 



284 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

ordered to withdraw. The cotton captured and destroyed is about 
4,000 to 5,000 bales. 

The Yazoo Pass, Coldwater, and Tallahatchie, at the present, are 
in good condition, and no difficulty is experienced in their navigation. 

The enemy burned two large steamers, the 35th Parallel (supposed 
to have on board 2,500 bales of cotton) and the Magnolia, cargo 
reported to be cotton. In addition to these they sunk the Star of the 
West near the fort. The enemy lost, by their own acknowledgment, 
12 men in killed and wounded. 

The gunboats, had they pushed on even after the delay at Helena, 
would have reached Fort Pemberton before a spade was put in the 
ground for its erection. 

In conclusion, let me again say had the expedition been carried out 
as it was originally planned, and had not the army detained us by 
the slowness of their movements, the expedition would have been a 
complete success. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James P. Fostee, 

Lieutenant-C om/maruier. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Lieutenant-Commander Foster, V. S. Navy, advising a retreat from 
Fort Pemberton (Qreenwood). 

Mississippi Squadron, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 18, 1863. 
Sir : After consultation with Generals Ross, Fisk, Solyman [J. C. 
Sullivan ?], and Captain Walker, of the Baron De K(dh, and others, it 
has been deemed advisable to retreat to Helena, Ark., as the strength 
of Fort Greenwood is such that it is impossible, with the naval forces 
alone, to conquer it, and it being impossible for the army forces to 
combine in the attack in consequence of water, etc., and as we are in 
imminent danger of being outflanked and cut off by rebel forces com- 
ing down to the mouth of the Coldwater. 

The Ghillicothe and the Baron De KcUh are both short of ammuni- 
tion and provisions. The Ghillicothe is badly damaged from the fire 
of the enemy. 

Lieutenant-Commander Smith, U. S. Navy, has this day been con- 
demned by a medical survey and recommended to be sent North im- 
mediately, as his health is such that longer delay would endanger his 
life. 

I will write you in detail at the very first opportunity. 
I await your orders at Helena, Ark. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James P. Foster, 

Lieutenant- C om/mander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Yazoo River, Miss. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEBN WATERS. 285 

Report of Acting Assistant Surgeon Wilson, JJ. S. Navy, of the V. S. S. Battler, 
regarding casualties on that vessel. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Tallahatchie River, March 19, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report the following killed and wounded 
aboard this vessel : 

Killed. — Jeremiah Harrington, seaman; ball passing through ex- 
ternal carotid artery. 

Wounded. — Acting Ensign George S. "West; ball entered left side 
between ninth and tenth ribs, passing around anterior to the bowels, 
lodging below right nipple ; patient will recover. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. H. Wilson, 
Acting Assistant Surgeon Steamer Rattler. 
Walter E. H. Fentress, 

Acting Master Com/manding U. S. S. Rattler. 



Letter from Brigadier-General Quinby, IT. S. Army, to Iiieutenant-Commander 
Foster, TT. S. Navy, urging a return to his former position above Fort Pember- 
ton (Greenwood). 

Steamer Prima Donna, March 21, 1863. 
Sir : In view of the depressing effect which a virtual abandonment 
of the Yazoo expedition would have upon our Army and Navy, and 
our country, I most earnestly request you to return with your fleet, 
notwithstanding its disabled condition, to your former position above 
Fort Greenwood. 

I ask this in the hope that by land operations we may accomplish 
the reduction of the fort, and in the belief that the mere moral effect 
of the presence of the gunboats will go far to insure our success. 
I am, very respectfully, etc., 

I. F. Quinby. 
Lieut. Commander J. P. Foster, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Gunboat Fleet, Yazoo Expedition. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Smith, IT. S. Navy, after withdrawal from com- 
mand of expedition on account of illness. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Helena, Ark., March 22, 1863. 

Dear Sir : After my last to you of the 16th instant, I was obliged 
to devolve the duty of conducting our naval force in the Tallahatchie 
upon the next naval officer, Lieutenant-Commander J. P. Foster. 

A medical board assembled by his order for my survey, reported 
the necessity of my immediately returning to a more congenial 
climate. Since then I have been in bed or on my back undergoing 
the misery of this long-continued disease. I suppose Captain Foster 
has made the necessary reports to you concerning this change. 

Acting Master W. E. H. Fentress will give the details of our pas- 
sage to the Mississippi, whicli has not been without incident, I 



286 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 

recommend Mr. Fentress to your notice for the command of this 
vessel. Acting Ensign John Bath would do well as an executive 
officer. 

In the engagements below, the ChilUcothe and De Kalb, under 
their respective commanding officers, and which were the only ves- 
sels that could be taken into action, were handled with a coolness 
and skill which I believe would have elicited your admiration. The 
land battery did good service; the guns were brought from vessels, 
and could not otherwise have been brought to bear upon the enemy. 

I very much regret this interruption in our service together. My 
address will be Trenton, N. J., where I hope to hear from you. 
Yours, etc., 

Watson Smith, 
Lieutenant- Gommander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Acting Master Fentress, TT. S. Navy, resardintr the passage from the 
Tallahatchie Birer to Helena, Ark. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Helena, March 22, 1863. 

SiH : I have the honor to report the arrival of the Rattler at this 
place from the Tallahatchie River. On the I7th instant I was ordered 
to take command of this vessel and proceed to Helena, when, after 
coaling, I was to follow the orders of Lieutenant-Commander Watson 
Smith. On my passage up the Tallahatchie I was several times 
attacked by the guerrillas, but was never surprised by them. On the 
19th instant, at 5 p. m., we were fired upon suddenly by a large party. 
AVe were, however, at quarters and returned the fire almost simul- 
taneously, killing 2 of the enemy. I regret to say that Acting Ensign 
George S. West is very badly wounded, a ball entering his left side 
and passing to the opposite side. Jerh. Harrington, seaman, was shot 
dead instantly by a shot through the throat. I have lost 3 of my crew 
by sickness; Mr. D. Welch, acting master's mate, died on the 18th 
instant, and 2 seamen on the 20th instant. 

With the exception of the loss of the starboard smoke pipe I have 
no accidents to report, and but for my small crew could be ready for 
any service immediately. I have cut my port pipe in the middle, and 
now have two very nice smoke pipes. 

On my arrival at Cairo I am ordered to report to Captain A. M. 
Pennock. 

Hoping that my conduct has met with your approval, I have the 
honor, sir, to be your most obedient servant, 

Walter E. H. Fentress, 
Acting Master, Commanding U. S. S. Rattler. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 287 

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Foster, V. S. Navy, oommandln^ TT. S. 8. 
ChlUicothe, regarding arrival of reinforcements under Brlgadier-Oeneral 
Qulnby, IT. S. Army. 

U. S. Gunboat CHni.icx)THE, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 22, 1863. 

Sir: When I last wrote you a retrograde movement was unani- 
mously agreed upon, it being hazardous to remain longer. This 
movement was postponed, but on the morning of the 19th instant was 
reagreed upon, and we started for Helena in the perfect belief that 
there was no hope of reducing Fort Greenwood (or Pemberton) 
without a strong reinforcement of heavy ironclads. 

Since our departure (to-day) we have met on the Tallahatchie 
Eiver General Quinby and his command en route for Fort Green- 
wood. General Quinby states to me that other lar^ land forces are 
on their way also to join in the attack on Fort Greenwood 
[Pemberton], and that his forces and armament will be such that, 
with the gunboats of the Mississippi squadron, comprising the Yazoo 
Pass expedition, failure is impossible in his opinion. I send you a 
copy of his letter of requests, and while I feel the responsibility with- 
out consulting you — it being impossible — I still fear and hope that in 
complying with General Quinby's request that I shall meet your 
hearty approval, notwithstanding the disabled condition of the 
ChUlicothe and the shortness of ammunition and provisions. The 
latter General Quinby promises to furnish for the present. It is 
proper for me to say that General Boss, with whom the gunboats 
have heretofore been cooperating, and who during the whole ex- 
pedition has been indefatigable in his exertions to render it successful, 
had it been possible with the forces before engaged, remains quiet, 
but thinks we can take the fort if reinforced by gunboats. From my 
knowledge of General Boss I have to say that I believe him to be as 
sincere as I know him to be magnanimous and brave. Colonel Wilson 
joins in the renewal of the Yazoo Pass expedition, and from his 
known engineering abilities and his well-established patriotism, I can 
but accord to his opinion great weight. 

I hope that the expedition will redound to our cause, and yet I fer- 
vently hope to dispatch to you that the gunboats of the Yazoo Pass 
expedition, in conjunction with the army, have added other laurels 
to our flag. 

After we pass Fort Greenwood [Pemberton], if not before, I think 
it will be absolutely necessary to our perfect success to have at least 
two more heavy ironclads. Two months' provisions are required now 
for what gunboats are here of all classes. 

I regret to say that I have just heard pretty reliably that the 
Rattler, en route for Helena and in command of Acting Master 
Fentress, late executive officer of the Rattler, was attacked in the 
Tallahatchie Eiver, and during the action lost 10 men killed and 
several wounded. I also regret to say that Lieutenant-Commander 
Smith was said to be dying. 

The wounded of the ChUlicothe in the actions of the 11th, 13th, 
and 16th, that have been retained here are doing well. I, however, 
sent the worst cases to the fleet surgeon, except the wounded soldiers 
doing duty as marines. These latter I sent to the army hospital boat. 



288 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

I will remain off Fort Greenwood [Pemberton] ten days, and await 
your answer to former dispatches. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas p. Foster, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Gormnanding Mississippi Squadron. _ 



Letter from Brigadier-General Fisk, TJ. S. Army, to Brigadier-General Ross, IT. S. 

Army, regarding the readiness of steamers Citizen and Lelianon for transport 

duty as ordered. 

Lebakon No. 2, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 25, 1863. 

General: In obedience to orders from General Quinby, com- 
municated to me through your headquarters, the steamers Citizen and 
Lebanon have been placed in readiness to get underway for Helena 
to-morrow morning at daylight, and the detail of guards for each 
steamer ordered on board. 

Will you allow me, general, to suggest that it is hardly prudent 
to separate this amount of transportation from my brigade at present. 
I have just returned to my quarters from an interview with Acting 
Commodore Foster and Captain Walke, senior officers of the naval 
department of this expedition. I am assured by both of them that 
unless they receive orders from Admiral Porter, directing them to 
remain here and wait reinforcements of additional ironclads and am- 
munition, they will weigh anchor for the Mississippi River, via Moon 
Lake, on the 1st proximo, and quite probably before that date, and 
they have no expectation of receiving orders to remain. In the event 
of their departure, I suppose the army will follow. The transports 
leaving here to-morrow morning can not make the round trip before 
the 6th of April under the most favorable circumstances, and some 
of them will, without any doubt, put themselves in condition not to 
return. My command now crowd the transports assigned me, and 
the sickness in my brigade is fearfully increasing. It would simply 
be murdering my men to crowd them, as it would be necessary to 
do should we be ordered away before the return of the boats, and 
then is it probable that other transports will be sent into this expe- 
dition empty to take the place of these which are expected to return 
with other troops? It seems to me that every foot of transporta- 
tion now here should be retained until our situation is better known, 
or at least until our naval officers receive orders, or decide to remain 
bere without orders. 

Nearly 200 new-made [graves] at Helena contain the bodies of 
men of my command who were murdered outright by crowding 
them into dirty, rotten transports, as closely as slaves in the " middle 
passage." It was a crime against humanity and heaven, the pack- 
ing of our soldiers on the White River expedition. You will, there- 
fore, excuse me, general, if I earnestly protest against any probable 
repetition of such an outrage upon the gallant men who confidently 
believe that I will do all that I can to insure their comfort and 
safety without prejudice to the good cause for which they will cheer- 
fully fight, 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 289 

The company from the Twenty-ninth Iowa, on the Luella, lost all 
their arms and clothing by the sinking of that staunch vessel, and one 
of my best officers. Lieutenant [Lucius B.] Nash, will doubtless die 
from injuries received thereby. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Clinton B. Fisk. 
Brigadier-General Ross, 

G om/manding Division. 

[Endorsements.] 

Headquarters Thirteenth Division, 

Greenwood, Miss., March 25, 1863. 
Respectfully forwarded, with the request that it may receive the 
careful consideration of the general commanding. There is much 
force and pertinence in the suggestions. It could scarcely fail to 
result disastrously should we be left without gunboats and trans- 
ports, as seems not improbable. 

L. F. Ross, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding. 



Headquarters Yazoo Expedition, 
Tallahatchie River, Miss., March 25, 1863. 
The within protest is respectfully referred to the major-general 
commanding the Department of the Tennessee. I am informed that 
Brigadier-General Fisk was opposed to this expedition from the 
beginning, and it is not probable, to say the least, that he discouraged 
the determination of Lieutenant-Commander Foster, in the inter- 
view to which he refers, to withdraw his gunboat fleet on or before 
the 1st proximo. 

I. F. QuiNBT. 



Beport of Brigadier-General Qninby, V. S. Army, regardinir the difficulties of his 
position on the expected withdrawal of the naval forces. 

Headquarters Yazoo Expedition, 
Tallahatchie River, March 25, 1863 — 11 p. m. 
General: This expedition reached the position formerly held by 
the command under Brigadier-General Ross, about 2 miles above 
Fort Pemberton, on the afternoon of the 23a instant. At 3 p. m., 
the same day, I induced Lieutenant-Commander Foster to move down 
with the Ghillicothe and De Kalb to draw the fire of the fort. Only 
three shots were fired from the Ghillicothe and none from the De 
KaXb. The guns of the fort made no response. General Ross and 
myself, during the firing, were on the right bank of the river, 700 
yards from the works, and could distinctly see the guns, but the 
gunners kept under cover, evidently reserving their fire for a nearer 
approach of the gunboats. It was raining hard at the time, and 
continued to do so until noon yesterday, when it cleared up. I 
deemed it best not to have the troops disembark until to-day. In the 
711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 19 



290 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBES. 

meantime I have thoroughly examined both banks of the river to the 
fort on the west and several miles below it on the east bank. At the 

{)resent stage of the water it is impracticable to reach the fort by 
and or the Yazoo River below it on the west bank, but from the 
position I hold on the east bank we can easily get to the Tallahatchie 
below the fort and also to the Yalobusha. Both banks of the Talla- 
hatchie, about 3 miles below the fort, are several feet above the water, 
and by means of a pontoon bridge a force could be thrown in the 
rear of the fort and beyond the reach of its guns. 

By crossing the Yalobusha just above its mouth and following 
down the Yazoo until we get below the fort we could cut off the 
supplies of the garrison, and compel it to come out to fight or sur- 
render. Either of these places will require a pontoon bridge 250 
feet long. 

Lieutenant Foster, commanding gunboat fleet, declares positively 
that unless he receives orders to the contrary he will start for the 
Mississippi River, via Moon Lake, with his whole fleet on or before 
the 1st proximo. Should he act on this determination, the land 
forces would be left here in a very precarious position, with nearly 
200 miles of unguarded water communications between them and the 
Mississippi. 

I shall do my best to induce him to leave behind the five light-draft 
gunboats now in the Tallahatchie, but I scarcely hope to change his 
determination. Six of our transports are under orders to leave for 
Helena at daylight to-morrow morning to bring the rest of my divi- 
sion, but since I have learned of the decision of Lieutenant Foster I 
do not know that it would be prudent to send them up. It is one of 
the great evils of our service that the land and naval forces are left 
in a great measure independent of each other. The best concerted 
plans are liable to fail from this cause. 

In the hope that you will soon be here, I remain, general, very 
respectfully, your obedient servant, 

I. F. QuiNBY, 

Brigadier-General, Commanding. 
Major-General J. B. McPheeson, 

Commanding Seventeenth Army Corps. 



letter from Uajor-General McFherson, V. S. Army, to Brigadier-General ftuinby, 
V. S. Army, regarding orders for withdrawal of army forces from Yazoo Pass. 

Lake Providence, La., March SI, 1863. 

General: Your dispatch was received yesterday and a copy of it 
forwarded to Major-General Grant. 

Since your dispatch was written Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson has 
been down to see the general and returned to the Yazoo, I presume, 
with orders for you. As I did not see Colonel Wilson, I do not know 
what the orders were. 

Below is an extract from a letter received from General Grant this 
morning, from which I infer the Yazoo expedition is given up : 

Have Quinby's two divisions come down yet? They should be got down as 
soon as possible. 

General John B. Smith's division came down yesterday, and has been assigned 
to General Sherman's army corps. You will, therefore, general, bring your 
two divisions to this place as soon as possible. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 291 

With regard to everything you have done in connection with the expedition, 
it meets with my full approbation. I only regret that circumstances beyond 
your control have prevented the expedition from being as successful as we 
hoped. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. B. McPhekson. 
Brigadier-General I. F. Quinby^ 
Commanding Yazoo Expedition. 



Order of Xieutenant-Commander Foster, TT. S. Navy, to the commanding officer of 
TJ. S. S. Petrel (Duchess) for withdrawal from Yazoo Pass. 

U. S. Gunboat Chillicothb, 

Yazoo Pass, Miss., April 10, 1863. 
Sir : As soon as you have sufficient coal on board you Avill proceed 
without delay to the mouth of Yazoo Kiver and report to Rear- 
Admirail D. D. Porter. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. p. Foster, 
Lieutenunt-Goirwnander, Commanding Gunboats Yazoo Expedition. 

Commanding OmcER U. S. S. Petrel. 



Order of Lieutenant-Commander Poster, IT. S. Navy, to the commanding oficer of 
TT. S. ram Sick Pulton, for withdrawal from Yazoo Pass. 

U. S. Gunboat CHiii-icoTHE, 

Yazoo Pass, Miss., April 10, 1863. 
Sir : As soon as you have sufficient coal on board you will proceed 
with mortar in tow without delay to mouth of Yazoo River and 
report to Admiral D. D. Porter. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jas. p. Foster, 
Lieutenant-Commando, Com/mavding Crunboais Yazoo Expedition. 

Commanding OrncER Ram Fulton. 



[Telegram.] 

Yazoo Riveb, April 12, 1863. 
The Yazoo Pass expedition has returned safely to this place. 

D. D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commamding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles. 



Report of Brigadier-General Ross, V. S. Army, suggesting causes of failure of 

the expedition. 

Helena, Ark., April 18, 1863. 
Colonel: In compliance with the request of the major-general com- 
manding the department, I have the honor to submit the following 



292 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

suggestions in regard to the causes of the failure of the Yazoo expedi- 
tion to accomplish the object originally contemplated : 

The forces under my command consisted of nine regiments of infan- 
try and one light field battery. We embarked upon thirteen trans- 
ports at Helena, Ark., February 24, and moved into the pass in the 
rear of the fleet of gunboats. Our transports, though perhaps the 
best that could be procured, were very poor and frequently delayed us 
by breakage and derangement of machinery. 

The gunboats had three barges loaded with coal, which they towed 
or floated with them. These were very difficult to manage, the chan- 
nel was so extremely narrow and tortuous, often impeding our move- 
ments very greatly. It was impossible, from the character of the 
stream, to move except by daylight. With the utmost expedition that 
could be used, it was not until the evening of March 1 that the light- 
draft gunboats and transports entered the Coldwater. By this time 
a number of our transports were more or less crippled, and it seemed 
to me quite evident that it was of the utmost importance that a part 
of the expedition should advance more rapidly than the coal barges 
and the partially disabled transports could be moved. 

We were entering the enemy's country through a route with which 
he was familiar, and he was advised daily by a line of couriers con- 
necting with his telegraph lines of our progress. The point at which 
we were aiming — the confluence of the Yalobusha and Tallahatchie 
rivers — if gained, opened to us the Yazoo Valley, the richest in the 
Southwest, containing immense supplies of all descriptions. 

The enemy was, by means of the Yazoo River, in easy communica- 
tion with this point and could speedily concentrate any desired force 
to oppose our progress. Reports began to reach us of the enemy's 
determination to make a stand at Greenwood, but if even a single 
gunboat could reach the point before the rebels had erected fortifica- 
tions and mounted heavy guns they could very easily be prevented 
from effecting a lodgment. 

The wide strips of overflowed country on each side between the 
river and the hills rendered the movement of boats comparatively 
safe, as there were very few points above Greenwood that could be 
reached by infantry and artillery, and if the enemy came in force 
he must come by the river. 

The ironclads, not being subject to the impediments that constantly 
retarded the light-drafts and transports, moved down the stream 
with great facility, and, if allowed to proceed without waiting for 
the rest of the fleet, could have reached Greenwood probably in two 
days after leaving the pass. Besides the delay necessarily attending 
this movement, there were many that I deemed quite unnecessary. 
Instead of moving in the morning at dawn, as could and should have 
been done, it was frequently delayed until 7 or 7:30 o'clock. On 
several occasions the gunboat immediately in my advance stopped and 
lay to an hour for dinner, and Avhen in motion it seemed that they 
moved very slowly, as I had no difficulty in keeping up with my 
transports. In consulting with Lieutenant-Commander Watson 
Smith, I urged the necessity of greater rapidity of movement, ad- 
vised leaving the coal barges in the rear, with sufficient guard to pro- 
tect them, and, with the ironclads and such light transports and light 
gunboats as could keep up with them, to push forward with the 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 293 

utmost expedition and gain the mouth of the Tallahatchie and hold 
it until the rest of the fleet could join them. I was ably seconded by 
Lieutenant- Colonel "Wilson. Lieutenant-Commanders Foster and 
Walker, commanding the ironclads, also concurred in these views 
and were very desirous to be permitted to push forward. 

They entered the Coldwater on the morning of February 27, and 
had they moved directly on would have reached the point now known 
as Fort Pemberton before a single gun was mounted, thus giving us 
control of the Yalobusha and the "iazoo as far as Yazoo City; but 
the plan was rejected, and it was not until the 11th of March that we 
reached the mouth of the Tallahatchie. 

By this time the rebels had concentrated there about 6,000 men 
and had formidable works completed. Possibly we still might have 
succeeded had not the Ghillicothe, through fault of construction, 
proved unable to sustain the fire of the enemy's heavy guns. Infan- 
try being precluded by the situation of the fort and extent of the 
overflow from effecting anything by direct attack, we were compelled 
to rely on the gunboats to silence the enemy's battery. Had this been 
done, our infantry forces could have soon cleared the river of ob- 
structions and a single gunboat, once past the fort, would have secured 
us not only the position, but the entire garrison; but, failing in this, 
nothing could be effected. 

I have deemed it unnecessary to encumber this communication with 
details. Having made full reports, with plats accompanyingj from 
time to time during the progress of the expedition, it is but ]ust to 
say that, while I am satisfied Lieutenant-Commander Smith might, 
by more energy and rapidity of movement, have made the expedition 
successful, the error was one of judgment only; that he was, al- 
though in very feeble health, after arriving in front of the fort, inde- 
fatigable in his labors, and exhibited during the engagement the 
utmost coolness and gallantry. 

I have not alluded to the period during which Brigadier-General 
Quinby commanded the expedition, for, in my opinion, its fate was 
decided, and a withdrawal inevitable, as soon as it appeared that the 
gunboat could not silence the enemy's work. 

The officers and soldiers of my command performed the many 
arduous duties required of them with a vigilance and alacrity deserv- 
ing of the highest praise, and although we were scouting and re- 
connoitering constantly, and made repeated captures of rebel soldiers 
singly and m squads, I did not have a man captured by them during 
the entire expedition. 

Upon a full retrospect, with my present knowledge of the facts, I 
can discover nothing that the infantry force could have done, with 
the means at hand, more than they did to insure success. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

L. F. Koss, 
Brigadier-General, GommarMing. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John A. Eawlins, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



294 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Richmond, January £9, 1863. 

(Received 30th.) 
Has anything or can anything be done to obstruct the navigation 
from Yazoo Pass down? 

jErFERSON Davis. 
Lieutenant-General Pembeeton. 



[Telegram.] 

Yazoo City, February 9, 1863. 

(Via Vaughan's Station.) 
The enemy have cut the Yazoo Pass levee; contemplate, perhaps, 
assailing us down the Yazoo. 

If we had two heavy guns from Mobile to send by way of Grenada 
and Yalobusha River to its mouth, we might there control the navi- 
gation, as the gunboats could attack only two abreast. Overflow 
would prevent enemy's attack on flank. Our pass obstructions will 
only delay the enemy. 

Isaac N. Bkown, 
0. S. Volunteers [^Navy'] . 
Lieutenant-Genefal Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, February 9, 1683. 
There is no probability of getting heavy guns from Mobile. Nor 
do I think the movement probable. If they should attempt it, we 
must depend on light artillery and rifles. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Captain I, N". Brown, Yazoo City, 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, Miss., February 12.^ 1863. 
General [T. C] Tupper has received the following dispatch, and 
forwards it to this office : 

Three Federal gunboats and two transports made their appearance in Moon 
Lake Sunday morning (8th instant), landed some infantry and cavalry. One 
gunboat started down the Yazoo Pass. The blockade is thought to be in- 
effectual. The Mississippi River is not rising. 

W. O. Maxwell, Oaptain, Commanding. 

J. R. Waddy, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton, 

Vicksburff, Miss. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 295 

[Telegram.] 

Yazoo City, February 17, 1863. 
By dispatch from Lieutenant [F. E.] Shepperd, C. S. Navy, of the 
14th, from Tallahatchie, the enemy had driven off our parties from 
the pass, and were coming through. I am trying to get boats ready 
to meet them. We shall need another regiment and a battery here, 
besides men to man these boats. Colonel Waul and command go on 
up to-day. A courier goes through with letters to Vicksburg. 

Isaac N. Brown, 

Commander. 
Lieutenant-General J. C. Pembeeton. 



Letter from Commander Brown, C. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Oeneral Femberton, 
C. S. Army, regarding the operations of the enemy at the pass, and prepara- 
tions for repelling them. 

Yazoo City, February 17, 1863. 
General : I have to-day received from Lieutenant Shepperd, C. S. 
Navy, who has been for some time engaged in obstructing the Yazoo 
Pass, a dispatch, dated Tallahatchie River, February 14, via Grenada, 
February 16, of which the following is a copy : 

The enemy have driven us off from the works on the pass, and are coming 
through. Hasty obstructions with fortifications may save Tazoo City. I have 
done my best; worked under their noses, till their pickets came in 100 yards 
of me. 

I am fitting out the Mary Keene and Star of the West, and shall 
need men to man them ; unfortunately I have no boat just now to send 
for these men without interfering with the fitting out of the Keene. 
General [Colonel T. N. ] Waul has advised you of his intended move- 
ments. I regret that we have so little time to make preparations ; so 
little, in fact, that I can not be answerable for what may happen ; in 
other words, I can give no assurance that we shall be able to stop the 
enemy, as we can not tell with what amount or description of force 
he is coming through. We will do all we can, 
I am, respectfully, 

Isaac N. Brown, 
Commander C. S. Navy. 
Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton, 

Vicksburg, 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, February 17, 1863. 
Have 200 men, good and true, who will volunteer to man gunboats 
at Yazoo City, sent forward immediately, with proper complement of 
officers, to report to Captain I. N. Brown. Has the field battery or- 
dered, gone forward yet? Send all the troops and ordnance ordered 
up Yazoo with all dispatch. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Major-General Stevenson, 

Vicksburg, 



296 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

VicKSBUKG, February 18, 1863. 
Captain Brown reports that the enemy were coming through Yazoo 
Pass on the 14th. Our working party, under Lieutenant Shepperd, 
C. S. Navy, has been driven off. 

C. L. Stevenson. 

Lieutenant-General J. C. Pembekton. 



Eeport of Major-Qeneral Loring, C. S. Army, regarding measures for repulsing 
the enemy in the Tallahatchie and Yazoo rivers. 

Camp Pembeeton, 
Yazoo River, February 21, 1863. 

General: Upon my arrival here to-day I find that Major [M.] 
Meriwether had, in accordance with my instructions, acted promptly 
in his selection of a place where we may [be] enabled to construct 
suitable works for the defense of this river. * * * 

The river here will also be obstructed with rafts, if it can be done 
before the enemy approach. This is highly probable, as there is not 
the least apparent prospect of their speedy descent, and no present 
indication of a further rise in the river. If, however, the obstruction 
by rafts can not be completed in time, I shall use the C. S. S. Star 
of the West, as stated in my last dispatch, and if necessary sink her 
athwart the channel. 

I would remove the two pieces sent to you to Yazoo City, but do 
not think it best to do so unless others could be sent there. That 
position, naturally strong, should be kept in condition of defense in 
the event we should be compelled to abandon the works up the river. 

I have given orders that those boats now being used for transporta- 
tion of supplies on the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha rivers for 
Grenada, and on the Yazoo for Vicksburg, shall not be interfered 
with, and to this end the rafts which I have spoken of will not be 
placed in position to obstruct the steamers until the enemy's approach 
renders it absolutely necessary to do so. Those boats not in use for 
this purpose are now being encircled with cotton bales, under the 
direction of Captain [I. N.] Brown, who will command them, and 
assist our works by boarding the enemy if he should attempt a descent 
of the river.* * * 

Will go up the Tallahatchie to-morrow in the direction of the 
Coldwater, with the view of finding some other suitable points for the 
erection of works or obstruction of the steamers, proceeding up the 
Coldwater toward the Yazoo Pass. My progress up the latter, how- 
ever, will depend entirely upon the information I may be enabled to 
obtain respecting the strength of the enemy. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. W. LORING. 

Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 

Commanding, etc. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTBBN WATEHS. 297 

Report of Scout Voorheis, C. S. Army, regarding: the entrance of the enemy into 

the Coldwater Eiver. 

Mouth of Yazoo Pass, February 22, 1863. 
Dear Sir : To-day the Federals were working on the last blockade 
in Yazoo Pass, and finished clearing it out in the afternoon. About 
4 o'clock they entered Coldwater. One gunboat and three transports 
are at the mouth of the pass. They have a force of about 3,000 
infantry and cavalry (300 cavalry) camped within 3 miles above the 
mouth of the pass. The obstructions placed in Coldwater below the 
pass have been washed ofP by the high water. 

Very respectfully, Voorheis. 

Captain Thomas Henderson. 

P. S. — The water is very high, and I was compelled to go to the 
pass in a skiff. 



[Telegram.] 

Grenada, February 23, 1863. 
The Federals have succeeded in getting through the pass into Cold- 
water River. One of their gunboats passed into Coldwater and then 
went back up the pass to-day. 

Sam. Henderson, 
Captain of Scouts. 
General Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, Miss., February 23, 1863. 
The enemy reported through the pass with gunboats and three 
transports; reported 3,000 strong — evidently too large. The loca- 
tion of the batteries unfortunately on wrong side of river. Let me 
know with what artillery and what troops you occupy that point; 
also, how many cotton boats can operate with Tilghman's brigade 
and those on the river. I suppose you have sufficient force. 

J. C. Pemberton 
Major-General Loring, 

Yazoo City via Vaughn^s Station. 



[Telegram.] 

Camp Pemberton, March 2, 1863. 
The bearer of flag of truce to enemy at [Yazoo] Pass on the 26th, 
reports : Saw six stem-wheel and one side- wheel gunboats near where 
pass empties into Coldwater. No gunboat had yet been in Cold- 
water, and tug had passed into Coldwater and returned; intention 
to bring gunboats through evident. About 7,000 troops on pass. 
Large number transports in Moon Lake. Enemy's gunboats have 
24-pounder in bow, with iron plating to protect. 

W. W. LORING. 

Lieutenant-General Pembeeton. 



298 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Shtjfordsville, Miss., March 2, 1863. 

(Via Grenada, Miss., 9th.) 
The Federals left General Alcorn's farm this morning down the 
pass with 13 transports and 5 gunboats. The transports are small. 
I do not think they will average more than 400 or 500 men each. 

Ed. E. Porter, 
Captain, Gonvmartding Partisan Rangers. 

Major-General Loring, 

Fort Perriberton. 

Forward to General Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Chattanooga, March 2, 1863. 
The newspapers say that the enemy is at work in the Yazoo Pass. 
Can he make any serious attempt by that route? Is not Coldwater 
obstructed ? 

J. E. Johnston. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 

Jackson, Miss. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 4-, 1863. 
Enemy has cut his way through obstructions in Yazoo Pass. Cold- 
water is also obstructed. Gunboat has been a few miles into Cold- 
water. Our defenses command mouth of Tallahatchie and Yalo- 
busha. I do not think he can effect anything very serious. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
General Joseph E. Johnston, 

Chattanooga. 



[Telegram.] 

War Department, 
Richmond, March 9, 1863. 
The Navy Department has received a dispatch that the enemy had 
passed their boats into the headwaters of the Yazoo. What are the 
facts and where are the boats? 

J. A. Seddon. 
General Pemberton, 

Jackson, Miss, 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 299 

[Telegram.] 

Camp Pemberton, 
Tuesday, March 10, 1863. 
The enemy in great force are very near our works. It is raining 
hard, making the weather unfavorable to us. I have but two boats 
ready. 

Isaac N. Brown, 
Commander, G. S. Navy. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 

Vickshurg, Miss. 



letter from Commander Brown, C. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 
C. S. Army, regarding expected attack of the enemy upon fort Pemberton. 

Camp Pemberton, 
Tallahatchie River, March 10, 1863. 

(Eeceived 12th.) 

General: I have to send the little steamer Saint Mary''s to Yazoo 
City, and probably to Snyder's Mill, and General Loring does not 
send dispatches from the tact, I believe, of the steamer Sharp''s hav- 
ing been ordered down, and which may in fact get ahead of the Saint 
Mary^s. 

The enemy in great force are near our works and will attack per- 
haps early to-morrow. 

It has been raining hard for two days here, which made it very 
unfavorable for us. 

I think from what I can learn that twenty-five or more transports 
and six or more gunboats will be within 5 miles of us to-night. I 
have but two boats — the Keane and Magenta. I went up the river 
two days ago on the Parallel (steamer) to get cotton to finish the 
Magenta. When up 70 miles, I found myself near the enemy, and 
shifted to the Saint Maryh, to remain and make observations, send- 
ing the steamer Parallel ahead. The latter, from the extreme nar- 
rowness of the stream^ ran into the woods and disabled herself, so 
that, to save falling mto the hands of the enemy, I ordered her 
burned, which was done as the enemy came in ?ight. 

I have never been well pleased with our position here, but hope 
that we may not have to regret taking it up, rather than concentrat- 
ing our whole force at Yazoo City. 

I beg pardon for trespassing so far on General Loring's department 
as to speak to you of military matters about which I presume he 
gives you much more full information than I could do. I have done 
my utmost against most incomprehensible difficulties to fit out the 
cotton-clad fleet. The cotton was not on the banks of the river, and 
the state of the country from overflow prevented hauling it. Besides, I 
could not get the proper boats from the Tallahatchie for reasons 
already made known in my late letter to you. 
I am, very respectfully, 

Isaac N. Brown, 
Commander, G. S. Navy. 

Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton. 



300 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

I Telegram.] 

Headquarteks, 
Fort Pemherton, March 11, 1863. 
A perfectly reliable spy, who succeeded in escaping and returning 
to-day, gives the following information : 

Two ironclads (one of them a ram) and seven other gunboats, including one 
mortar boat, and twenty-seven transports filled with men (of the number could 
not form correct idea), comprise what he saw of this fleet, commanded by 
Generals Walker and Slack and Commodore Hull. Their avowed intention is to 
pass Yazoo City, with the view to operate in the rear of Vicksburg. Seemed 
to be fully apprised of our strength in Yazoo City. 

W. W. LOBINQ. 

Lloyd Tilghman. 
Lieutenant-General Pembeeton. 



[Telegram.] 

HJEADQUARTEES, 

Fort Pemierton, March 11, 1863—7.15 p. m. 
From all the information we can gather, the enemy's strength is 
five gunboats and about 5,000 men, indicating the advance of a large 
force. 

W. W. LORING. 

General J. C. Pembeeton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 11, 1863. 
Have already started two Vlll-inch naval guns and a 32-pounder 
banded rifle to Big Black, to go down by Gharm; they belong to the 
Navy. You can send the two 32-pounder rifles mentioned on my 
last visit to Vicksburg. 

J. C. Pembeeton. 
Major-General Stevenson, 

Vichsburg. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 12, 1863. 
[J. C] Moore's brigade ordered to Yazoo City. All the heavy guns 
that can be spared sent forward, also the ammunition. The steamer 
May, presumed to be cotton-clad, should not be sent down ; and with 
her and the Magenta any flank movement can be prevented. 

J. C. Pembeeton. 
Captain I. N. Beown, 

Greenwood, Miss., via Grenada. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 301 

[Telegram.] 

VicKSBURG, Blarch 12, 1863. 
Shall the Yazoo be obstructed above or below Yazoo City ? If by 
a raft, shall it be placed at once, shutting off communication ? 

C. L. Stevenson. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 13, 1863. 
General Stevenson reports last night most of transports and ap- 
parently many troops have gone up river, but can not ascertain how 
far. Close observation opposite entrance shows dredging boats have 
only advanced one-fifth length of canal. Country overflowed to that 
distance. No progress yesterday. If canal is successful at all, must 
be very slow process. General Loring reports, 12 o'clock last night, 
no attack on Fort Pemberton on Tallahatchie yesterday. On 11th 
one ironclad attacked in the morning and one in afternoon. Both 
repulsed. One boat damaged; part of her inner works, with piece 
of shell sticking in it, floated against raft opposite fort. Nothing 
important from Port Hudson yesterday. 



jErrERSON Davis, 

President. 



J. C. Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Pemberton, March 13, 1863 — 7.50 p. m. 

Just as I sent off my last dispatch to you enemy opened upon us again with 
one gunboat's guns and land battery and Xlll-inch mortar. Kept it up with 
great spirit until after sunset. Ammunition for heavy guns arrived just now. 

W. W. LORINO. 

Lloyd Tilghman. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters, 
Fort Perriberton, March H, 1863 — 8 f. m. 
Enemy remained quiet until 3 p. m., when they opened from 
their land batteries, which was briskly returned by us. Lasted but 
few minutes. Evidently to try strength of guns. 

W. W. LoRING, 

Major-GeneroU, Gorwmanding. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton. 



302 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Headquarters, 
Fort Pemberton, March 16, 1863—9 f. m. 
The enemy, with one ironclad covered with cotton and sides pro- 
tected by cotton on raft, opened upon us at 12.30 o'clock to-day. 
The ironclad retired in about forty-five minutes. The land battery 
kept up the fire until sunset. No loss on our side. We are unable 
to prevent land batteries from increasing, because we are fearful of 
not receiving more ammunition in time. Have ordered another raft 
constructed on Yazoo, opposite here, and works thrown up on other 
side river. If I can have one week will effect it. 

W. W. LORING, 

Major-General, Gonmvanding. 
Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Pemberton, March 20, 1863 — 5 p. m. 
I started a fully clad cotton boat down to-night, keeping one here 
in case of accident. Enemy in full run, as fast as steam can carry 
him, and my men after him. This place capable of very strong 
defense; should be made perfect, and I have given orders to have it 
so. The engineer officer ordered by you has not yet reported, as the 
enemy is steaming away from here as fast as he can. I will, if you 
wish it, go to the Sunflower and stop him. 

W. W. Loring, 
Major-General, Commanding. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 20, 1863. 
If the Mobile is not being used, she had better be sent down to 
defend the Yazoo from Deer Creek and Sunflower. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Major-General Loring, 

Through General George, Grenada. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 20, 1863. 
The Star of the West has been sunk as obstruction at Fort Pem- 
berton. I know nothing of the Mobile by name. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Major-General Stevenson. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 303 

[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 21, 1863. 
The enemy have abandoned operations against Fort Pemberton 
and have retreated up the Tallahatchie. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
General Joseph E. Johnston, 

Tullahoma, Term. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 21, 1863. 
Where is the gunboat Mobile? Why can't she be sent down? No 
necessity for gunboats now at Fort Pemberton. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Major-General Loeing, 

Through General George, Grenada. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Pemberton, March 23, 1863—^.30 p. m. 
The enemy in force with their gunboats have again made their 
appearance, opening fire at 2.15 and immediately ceasing fire. 

W. W. Loking, 
Major- General, Commanding. 
General J. C. Pemberton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, March 23, 1863 — 9 p. m. 
General Loring reports enemy returning with reinforcements of 
men and gunboats to attack Fort Pemberton. It is necessary that 
(he heavy guns should go up, unless you have positive information 
that the enemy's gunboats are making their way down Deer Creek 
or Sunflower. If a boat is ready, let the two Parrott gims go at once. 
The columbiad can follow. Have boats and your entire command 
ready to move on summons from General Loring. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Brigadier-General Moore, 

Yazoo City. 



[Telegram.] 

Fort Pemberton, April 2, 1863. 

(Keceived April 3 — 10 a. m.) 
The enemy are sending their boats to the [Yazoo] Pass for rein- 
forcements. They are receiving heavy guns. Can any heavy guns be 
sent here? 

W. W. Loking, 
Major-General, Cormnanding. 
General J. C. Pemberton. 



304 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Telegram.] 

Jackson, April 7, 1863. 
Letter of 31st just received. Will direct Generals Loring and 
Stevenson to turn over cotton boats to your command. They should 
operate below Yazoo City. 



Captain I. N. Brown, C. S. Navy. 

Yazoo City. 



J. C. Pembeeton. 



[Telegram.] 

Jackson, April 9, 1863. 
Move down river, say to the mouth of Sunflower, with your cotton- 
clad boats, to operate as circumstances may require. 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Captain I. N. Brown, 

Yazoo City. 



[Telegram.] 

Grenada, April 12, 1863. 
Lieutenant [J. S.] Carman reports, 10th instant, 6 p. m. : 
Yazoo Pass expedition abandoned. Thirty-eight boats, with last 
of troops, passed through Moon Lake and into Mississippi Kiver. 
Eoss's division gone to Helena. Quinby's said to be going to Green- 
ville into quarters. No boats passed up since last report. 

Sam Henderson, 

Captain, etc. 
Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 

Jackson. 



Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Lieu- 
tenant Sanford, U. S. Navy, regarding the fitting of the tl. S. S. 
Lafayette. 

February 6, 1863. 
Sir: In answer to your letter of January 25, I beg leave to say: It 
was intended for the Lafayette to carry two Xl-inch guns forward, 
two 100-pounder rifles aft, and two IX-inch guns on broadside. The 
others I will transfer (when I get that ship) to one of the ironclads. 
Fit her according to the above. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear -Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Lieutenant J. P. Sanford, U. S. Navy, 

Ordnance Officer, Cairo, III. 



KAVAL FOECRS ON WESTERN WATERS. 305 

Loss of the U. S. S. Glide hy fire at Cairo, III., Fehruary 7, 1863. 

[TpleBram.] 

Cairo, III., Fehruary 7, 1863. 
The light-draft gunboat Glide was totally consumed by fire this 
morning at half past 5 o'clock. Expect to recover "guns and 
machinery. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain,. 
Hon. Gideon Welles. 



Eeport of Acting Ensign Dahlgren, TJ. S. Navy, late commanding IT. S. S. Glide. 

Naval Depot, Cairo, February 7, 1863. 
Sir: It is with deep mortification that I am obliged to report to 
you the loss of the late U. S. S. Glide, hj fire, about 5 a. m. this 
morning. Every exertion was made to extinguish the fire by officers 
and men of both ship and station, but the intense cold, high wind, 
and light, dry material of the ship set at defiance every exertion. 
Nothing was saved except that which we all stood in. 
It is a difficult mattei: to ascertain the origin of the conflagration 
as yet. 

Too much credit can not be given to Captains Pennock and Wood- 
worth, and Mr. E. A. Turner (executive officer of ship), and the 
officer commanding the tug Dahlia for their efforts and skill in extri- 
cating the burning ship from the midst of the other vessels. 

The wreck is ashore on the Kentucky shore, and her guns, plating, 
and machinery may be saved. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. B. Dahlgren, 

Acting Ensign. 
Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, transmitting reports. 

No. 113.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 15, 1863. 

Sir: I enclose herewith reports of Captain A. M. Pennock and 
Acting Lieutenant Selim E. Woodworth, in relation to the burning 
of the Glide, and also enclose general orders, showing that I omitted 
no precaution against fire previous to my leaving Cairo. I have 
ordered an investigation of the matter. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 ^20 



306 NAVAL FORCES ON "WESTERN WATERS. 

[Enclosures.! 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 7, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report to you that at abont 5 : 30 o'clock 
this morning the gunboat Glide was reported to me to be on fire. 
On my arrival at the place where she was moored (between the in- 
spection boat and the General Price, at the stern of the wharf boat) , 
I found that she was on fire in the fore hold. Every exertion was 
made by her commander, officers, and crew, and those attached to 
the Eastfort and to this station, to extinguish the fire, but finding 
that their efforts were of no avail, and that the fire was gaining, and 
fearing that it would be communicated to the Abraham and General 
Price, I directed that a bowline be veered away until her bow was 
clear of the stern of the Price, and when it was cast off a tug canted 
her and towed her out into the strength of the current. After burn- 
ing some time she grounded about 2 miles below, on the Kentucky 
shore. I think that her guns and machinery will be saved. It is re- 
ported that two contrabands were lost. The cause of the fire is not 
known, but I shall have the whole matter thoroughly investigated, 
the result of which will be reported to you. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — Captain Woodworth's report will be forwarded to you as 
soon as possible. The officers and crew have lost everything they 
possessed. 

Cairo, February 7, 1863. 

Sir: I have to report to you the loss of the U. S. S. Glide, late 
under my command, by fire. 

Although having assumed charge of the General Price, I still re- 
tained my quarters on board the Glide, she lying alongside. 

Mr. Dahlgren had taken charge of her outfits and equipments as 
executive officer in command. 

About 5 : 15 this morning I was aroused by the ringing of the fire 
bell on the naval depot wharf boat, but not seeing any light or smoke 
when I looked out, supposed the alarm to proceed from fire in town. 
I dressed myself with all haste, and, proceeding to the forward part 
"of the boat to call the officers and crew, discovered smoke proceed- 
ing from fire scuttle and forward hatches, they having been forced 
open by Mr. Dahlgren, who was already engaged with the officers 
and crew of the Glide in drawing and passmg water and making 
every exertion to extinguish the fire. I at once started with some 
contrabands to drown the magazines, but they were not fitted with 
bilge cocks, and could only introduce water into them through the 
hatches with buckets. 

Captain Pennock was on hand with a strong force of officers and 
laborers, and made every exertion, with such facilities as were at 
hand, to extinguish the fire, but the extreme cold weather, leaving 
everything frozen, but little was effected by the use of buckets. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 307 

The Glide was moored astern of and to the wharf boat, outside of 
the boat Abraham, with the General Price outside of her. 

Having made every preparation to drop the Glide clear of the pier 
by running lines, etc., a tug was procured and made fast to the quarter 
of the steamer. Renewed exertions were now made to extinguish the 
fire by cutting through the deck with axes, but the light and inflam- 
mable material about the boilers was soon in a living flame. 

Upon consultation with Captain Pennock, it was deemed impossible 
to save the Glide, and at this time the flames were endangering the 
inspection boat and General Price, and leaving the wharf boat also 
in danger. Captain Pennock ordered cast off, and drop out of the 
pier, but not until the whole forward part of the vessel was in flames. 
The tug having her in charge succeeded in reaching the middle of the 
river, out of reach of the naval station, where she was cast off. She 
drifted ashore at Fort Holt, and burned to the water's edge. 

The magazines did not explode, but the fixed ammunition seemed to 
be fired slowly, as shell and shrapnel continued to burst in the air from 
time to time, for an hour after she grounded. 

To the efficient aid rendered by Captain Pennock, Captain Sanford, 
and Captain Phelps, and the officers and men under their command, 
may be attributed the safety of all the public property at the wharf 
boat. 

Acting Ensign Wright and the engineer of the tug Dahlia are 
deserving of much credit in holding on to the Glide until she was 
so far removed as not to endanger the lives or property at Cairo by 
the explosion of her magazines. They did not leave her until her 
fasts were burned off and the small arms were being discharged in 
every direction. 

The wreck of the Glide is now lying in 5 feet water, on the Ken- 
tucky shore. Her guns, engines, and boilers can be readily recovered ; 
also all the iron plates from her sides. 

The officers and crew of the Glide have lost all but their clothes in 
which they dressed. The crew has been transferred to the Mary 
Miller, which vessel will be dispatched as soon as ready. 

The late inclement and cold weather has interfered very much with 
work on the General Price, but the favorable change in the weather 
to-day will enable the carpenters to do something. I think it will 
require yet twenty days before the Price will be ready for sea. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully ^our obedient servant, 

Selim E. Wood worth, 
Acting Lieutenant, U. S. Navy, 
Late Gow/mandinff U. S. S. Glide. 

Rear- Admiral Poetek. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, V. S. Navy, transmitting copy of letter for- 
warded to the Secretary of the Navy. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III, Felruary 12, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a letter from 
me to the honorable Secretary of the Navy relative to the burning 
of the Glide and the continual liability of the wharf boat and store 



308 NAVAIi POECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

ships at this station to be consumed by fire, which I trust will meet 
with your approval. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Pokter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.] 

No. 15.] OrFicE Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 9, 1863. 

Sir : It was with regret that I had to report to you by telegram the 
total destruction by fire of the U. S. gunboat Glide. 

She was made fast to the stern of the U. S. Navy wharf boat,between 
the Abraham (provision boat) and the General Price, and as her 
engine was undergoing repairs there was no steam up. I kept her 
there until there was no hope of extinguishing the fire, when, to save 
the naval wharf boat (in which a large quantity of fixed ammuni- 
tion was from necessity stored) and the two vessels above named, all 
hands were ordered out of her, she was cast off and towed into the mid- 
dle of the stream. She drifted down about 2 miles below us, where 
she grounded. As her magazine had been drowned by her command- 
ing officer by throwing water upon the boxes of ammunition in it, 
it did not explode. I doubt not that we shall be able to recover her 
boilers, engine, and guns. 

The cause of the fire is not positively known. Lieutenant Com- 
manding Woodworth is under the impression that the contraband 
firemen built a fire in the ash pan and that it burned through the deck, 
igniting combustible matter below. Lieutenant Commanding Wood- 
worth, his officers and men, and the officers and men of the Eastport 
and this station, were untiring in their efforts to save the Glide. 

The wharf boat, with all its valuable stores; the Abraham, in which 
are stored all the provisions for the squadron ; and the gunboats along- 
side the wharf boat for repairs are constantly in danger from fire 
from steamers which are continually arriving day and night above 
and below us. Last night a steamer, not more than 100 yards above 
us, caught fire, and had it not been extinguished it would have 
drifted down upon us, in which case it is more than probable that aU 
the Government stores and property at this station would have been 
consumed. I may add that the naval wharf boat is now moored in 
the safest place that can be found for the purpose in Cairo. 

The ordnance officer informs me that he has several carloads of 
ordnance stores now on the railroad track in the cars, which he can 
not unload, not having a suitable place to store them. We can not 
store our ammunition on shore on account of the dampness and for 
fear of its being flooded by a rise of the river, and we are compelled 
to store the greater part of it in covered scows moored to the bank. 

It is impossible to hire a storehouse on shore. We are cramped in 
every way for want of room to do the necessary work for the fleet. 
I feel it my duty to inform the Department of these facts, as I con- 
sider the public property to be in constant peril. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 309 

I have written to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter on this subject, who 
will doubtless communicate with the Department. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TS. S. Navy, transmitting: report of a 
board of officers appointed to examine into the circumstances of the loss. 

U. S. Flagship Black Hawk, March I4, 1863. 
SiE : I have the honor to enclose a copy of an investigation in the 
case of the Glide, lately burned at Cairo. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Naval Station, 
Cairo, III., February 28, 1863. 

Sir: In conformity with your order of the 26th instant, we have 
examined into the circumstances attending the burning of the U. S. 
gunboat Glide, and have to report as follows. The absence of the 
officer of the deck and quartermaster on duty at the time of the 
accident has rendered our examination to some extent incomplete. 

The Glide had a crew of 8 white men and 30 negro contrabands. 
Of the 8 white men, 2 were on guard on the forecastle outside the 
casemate and 1 acting as quartermaster on the upper deck. The 
officer of the deck was a young and inexperienced master's mate; the 
time of burning, about 5 o'clock a. m. ; the vessel at the naval wharf 
boat. There was no fire in the furnace, as the machinery was being 
repaired. No evidence of a positive character is given as to the 
cause of the burning, but it appears very probable that it occurred 
from a fire made by the negroes upon the ash pan to warm themselves, 
the night being a cold one. Accidents from this cause are of fre- 
quent occurrence. The executive officer had gone around the vessel 
at 2 o'clock a. m., and states that all was right at that hour. The 
officer of the midwatch states that at 4 o'clock a. m. he examined the 
light, etc., below in accordance with a general order of the captain to 
do so every hour, and that then he thinks there was no fire on the ash 
pan ; is not entirely positive, as for a day or two previous he had seen 
fires there for the purpose of thawing out the boilers, connecting pipes, 
etc., and that in consequence its presence at that hour might have 
escaped his notice. It appears that the master's mate on watch dis- 
covered smoke some time before any alarm was given, but seems not 
to have known how to act or, indeed, to have realized the cause or 
probable danger. The smoke at length passing up between the chim- 



310 NAVAii poeces on westebn waters. 

neys and jackets reached the spar deck, when the quartermaster took 
alarm and sprang to the bell. The lookouts on the forecastle being 
outside with the ports closed were not reached by the smoke. It was 
stated, but not reliably, that the officer of the watch on discovering 
smoke went below, found the negroes with a fire in the ash pan, and 
had water brought and thrown upon it, believing that to be the source 
of the smoke in the vessel. The executive officer on hearing the alarm 
hurried below and found smoke issuing from the forehatch. An 
ax was used to force it open, when flames burst forth, coming from 
the hold under the ash pan. The crew at once used buckets of water 
to extinguish the fire, these buckets being the only resource when 
without steam. As soon as the alarm was sounded, the commandant 
of the station, with a force of workmen, came to the assistance of the 
vessel, as did also the crew of the Eastport, but all efforts were 
unavailing. The fire when discovered had spread so far in the hold 
of the vessel as to render it impossible to save her, although every 
effort was made. When all hopes of saving her had been lost, the 
vessel was towed into the stream toward the opposite shore, when she 
grounded near Fort Holt. The cause of the fire is undoubtedly 
traceable to the character of her crew, all but eight being contra- 
bands, sensitive to the cold and reckless of the consequences of build- 
ing a fire anywhere. There was a hope of escaping discovery, and 
they were able to kindle it by using a passage lamp hanging near. 
It is probable, had the officer of the watch been a person of more 
experience, the fire would have been discovered in time to extinguish 
it. Finally, we do not find any want of vigilance or the usual pre- 
caution against fire, the only reliable men being the eight seamen, 
and they could not keep the other guard and at the same time watch 
the lights and the negroes below. 

T. Pattison, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

S. L. Phelps, 

Lieutenant-G ommander. 

Wm. D. Faulkner, 
Acting Chief Engineer. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Comm,andant of Station, Cairo. 



Instructions from Acting Rear-Adm,iral Porter, U. S. Navy, to 
Acting Master Simonds, U. S. Navy, commMndant of navy yard, 
Memphis, Tenn. 

February 7, 1863. 

Sir: You will send me semimonthly returns of all the work done 
at the yard at Memphis. 

When vessels come to the yard you will have the necessary work 
done to them and dispatch them without delay. You will allow noth- 
ing of a private nature to be made in the yard. Make requisitions 
on Captain Pennock at Cairo for what is required to repair steamers. 
When officers are ordered to the yard, afford them accommodations 
in the commandant's house or other convenient buildings in the yard 
or belonging to it. 



NAVAL PoKCES ON wfiS^DEEiir Watebs. 3ii 

You will have the hospital cleaned out and put in order for our 
sick. 

Have all the cotton seed cleared out, and lock up the buildings. 
Permit no one to use the machinery, and permit no shops to be used 
except those now occupied by the army. 

Take an inventory of everything in the yard. See what arrange- 
ment you can make to be supplied with timber for repairs. It is not 
desirable to keep anything more on hand than is necessary for imme- 
diate use, for fear of a raid of the rebels. 

■You will approve all the requisitions made for stores or material, 
and report to me the general character of the officers and their atten- 
tion to duty. 

Mr. Apperly will have charge of the workshops and the manage- 
ment and employment of mechanics, confining himself to the number 
I have allowed. I have detailed a paymaster, who will go on duty 
soon at the yard, and he must try and make his arrangements to 
pay off the men monthly. You will let me know how many contra- 
bands and teams you may want, which you can obtain from the army, 
and employ. 

Make requisitions on the army for hay, and send me monthly re- 
turns of its expenditure. The contrabands will draw rations, which 
you can obtain from and receipt for to the army quartermaster. Let 
me know when the provisions in store are getting short. 

It is desirable to fill up the Sovereign and get her down here as 
soon as her guard is fixed. The other repairs will be made here. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

DAVn> D. PORTF.R, 

Acting Rear-Admired, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master G. B. Simonds, U. S. Navy, 

Commandant of Navy Yard, Memphis, Tenn. 



Report of Acting Master Brown, U. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. 
Forest Rose, regarding repairs to that vessel made at Memphis. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 

Helena, February 7, 1863. 

Sir : On the 4th instant, after having got the levee cut, and know- 
ing that we could not do anything for a few days at that, I received 
permission from the commanding officer to go to Memphis to repair 
my rudder and get some wheel buckets, of which I was in need and 
could not get here. I left here at noon and arrived on the evening of 
the 5th at Memphis. One of my pilots being sick, I could not run 
all night. 

I had to get nearly a new rudder made and one pair of braces, 
which we finished last night at 11 o'clock, and started at once for this 
place, where we arrived this morning at 6 o'clock and are now wait- 
ing for the general to go over and try the pass. There seems to be 
a great deal of trouble in the yard at Memphis, but as I was there 
only one day I can not give you the particulars. Mr. Rowe com- 

Elained that he had been arrested and confined on board the Sovereign 
ecause he would not give up his books and papers without being 



312 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEES. 

shown written authority for doing so. His wife was not allowed to 
see him, and his child at the time lying very sick he requested me to 
forward a document to you, which I have done. 

I am informed that the transport Glasgow, in coaling from a barge 
belonging to the Navy, took the coal all out of the middle of the 
barge, which caused her to break in two and sink. The watchman 
says he protested against their doing so, but they paid no attention 
to him. I have a number of sick on board, but General Gorman has 
given me a surgeon to remain on board while here. There are some 
fifteen of my crew whose time is out. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. "W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennoch, U. S. Navy, transmitting reports 
regarding an accident to the U. S. S. Eastport. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 7, 18G3. 
Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith the report of Lieutenant- 
Commander S. L. Phelps, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. gunboat 
Eastport, relative to an accident met with by that vessel on her way 
to Vicksburg to join the squadron. She arrived here day before yes- 
terday noon. Knowing your great desire to have her with you and 
the urgent necessity for her services, I telegraphed immediately to the 
honorable Secretary of the Navy, a copy of Avhich telegram I herewith 
enclose. 

She has, I fear, sustained serious damage, and the shock to her 
bottom must have been very severe to have broken the heavy timbers 
placed there for strengthening it. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Comviandant of Station. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississ-ippi Squadron. 

[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat Eastport, 

Cairo, February 5, 1863. 
SiR : I have to report that I left this place with this vessel on the 
2d instant to join your force at Vicksburg, having in convoy the 
General Lyon and New National. In the evening, struck upon a bar, 
breaking the timbers used in strengthening the bottom under the boiler^ 
to such an extent that it was dangerous to proceed farther. I accord- 
ingly brought to the bank, 150 miles below Cairo, and deeming it safe 
to do so, sent the two vessels in company to Memphis, with orders for 
Captain Bishop, commanding General Bragg, if possible, to convoy 
the boats to Vicksburg. I remained at the bank till morning, when 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 313 

the towboat Collier came up the river with empty barges in tow. I 
at once passed the shot, shell, and other heavy articles into the barges, 
and it being possible at any moment that the bottom of this vessel 
might give way, and thus sinking suddenly, carrying all down with her, 
I made fast to the Gollier^s tow and returned to this point, where 
I have just arrived. The timbers broken are ten in number, in a space 
of 32 feet long by 18 feet wide, and are 14 inches thick, 18 feet long, 
with a spring of 6 inches. There are two stirrups at each fend, with 
screws and nutSj by means of which the bottom had been forced to 
its proper position. It was believed by the ship builders and me- 
chanics at work upon her that the bottom was at least as strong in 
that part as anywhere else, and that no strain would or could break 
the timbers. Three were found to be broken after striking the 
ground, and the others were so much sprung as to break one by one in 
a short time after the accident. 

Notwithstanding the high stage of water, I do not attach much if 
any blame to the pilot. Besides the fact that touching upon bars is a 
constantly recurring event in river navigation, the engineer found it 
impossible to keep up any proper head of steam, not over 80 to 90 
pounds pressure, while we should have had 140 to 150 pounds, and 
the wind was high, which, with the swift eddies, rendered close steer- 
ing difficult. This inability to keep up steam was due to three causes, 
the chief one, probabl3\ being the poor character of our firemen. The 
boilers have but two flues, and consequently have not sufficient fire 
surface for the large cylinders in use, and the fire fronts are entirely 
too open. Men can not endure the heat thus created in the confined 
fire room while firing up, and the fires themselves at such times are 
effected by the too-open draft. 

I am of the opinion that it is essential the fronts of the boilers, if 
not the boilers themselves, should be replaced by others, and that the 
bottom under the boilers should be entirely reconstructed. I would 
also suggest the propriety of planking the entire bottom over the 
present planking. If proper boilers can be had ready-made, the 
vessel can be got ready for service in four weeks' time, otherwise in 
five to six weeks. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. L. Phelps, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, IJ. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



U. S. Gtjnboat Eastport, 

Cairo, February 6, 1863. 
Dear Sir: I have hardly the heart to write to you or to propose to 
do anything with this vessel. I have never altogether regained my 
spirits since that terrible prostration in October, although I am 
stronger and more fleshy now than usual, and this new misfortune 
overwhelms me. It seems to me as if bad luck had come, condensed 
into three or four months time. Bad weather and a scarcity of labor- 
ers detained us in getting the vessel ready at least tAvo weeks. When 
we came to launch her even they made a bad job of it ; let her stern 
go down first, so that she twisted the forward cradles to pieces, and. 



314 Naval forces on westeen waters. 

Hamilton reports, broke 120 of the trucks on which they ran. A 
common river boat would have been broken in the middle. The plan 
1 adopted for the strengthening [of] the bottom was not fully car- 
ried out, and to that fact I now trace my misfortunes. In addition to 
the heavy timbers sprung across the bottom, I intended to have 
a thwartship hog chain between each pair of the timbers, as traced 
in the enclosed plan. Hamilton, with all the mechanics of every 
class, insisted that the timbers would hold, so that the bottom must 
be stove in before they could break, and when in place they certainly 
looked as if nothing could break them, and as time could be saved I 
was overpersuaded to omit the thwartship chains. 

I am now satisfied that a new bottom must be put in under the 
boilers and the whole bottom planked additionally, and it would be 
well to fill the angle at the sides forward of wheels as I have done 
already aft, and by which her draft was reduced from 8 feet 4 inches 
to 7 feet 6 inches. 

The boilers are the old ones, are weak, and have but two flues, and, 
the engineers say, can not possibly make steam fast enough with the 
small fire surface. The cylinders are very large. This vessel, I am 
satisfied, can make a good speed, as great as the Lexington, with good 
boilers, etc. Were there a vessel near ready I should ask to have 
her temporarily while this is being altered, but there is none that 
will be ready before this one, and probably I can do better service in 
forcing ahead her work than in any other way. My pride is some- 
what touched with respect to the bottom of this vessel, and with your 
permission it shall be made to hold, even to jumping bars, as I used 
to do with the Gotiestoga. 

I congratulate you heartily upon the triumph you have already had. 
I am, yours, truly, 

S. L. Phelps. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., February 6, 186S. 
The Eastport arrived yesterday much injured, having struck upon 
a bar on the way to Vicksburg. The repairs to hull, with new boilers 
proposed by survey, will cost $20,000 to $25,000. Can be completed 
in five weeks. The services of the vessel are of the utmost importance, 
and dispatch in fitting her out is necessary. Shall I proceed with the 
work? Have written to Admiral Porter about it, but can not hear 
from him in less than eight days from date. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, February 7, 1863. 
Please ascertain if Eastport is to be repaired as proposed by 
Captain Pennock in telegram yesterday and telegraph to him. 

S. L. Phelps. 
Commodore Davis, 

Bureau of Navigation, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 315 

[Telegram.] 

Navy Department, February 7, 1863. 
Proceed with the proposed work on the Eastport, and have her 
completed without delay. 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Commanding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



Refort of Fleet Captain Pennoch, U. S. Navy, forwarding dispatches. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 
Cairo, III., February 7, 1863—8:30 p. m. 
Sir: Since writing my communication to you, relative to the 
Eastport, I have received from the honorable Secretary of the Navy 
an answer to mine to him, a copy of which I enclose herewith. 

I send these dispatches by the U. S. gunboat Duchess, which vessel 
will convoy the W. H. Brown and the Bayard, each with three barges 
of coal to the fleet. 

The Florence has just arrived from Cincinnati. 

I have the honor to be, very respectively, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

I send you a lot of lumber by the Bayard. Mr. Watson has been 
directed to fill all the requisitions for the fleet. A large number of 
anchors (those required by you) have been ordered before your last 
letter in regard to them was received, and are expected here in a day 
or two. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding general 

matters. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 7, 1863. 

Sir: I enclose herewith sundry telegrams received since my last 
communication for your information. I telegraphed to Commodore 
Hull relative to the mortar boats, knowing your earnest desire to have 
them with the squadron. As soon as they arrive here I shall equip 
them without delay and send them down. 

I have had the blanks for the " Ketums of Contrabands " printed, 
and have forwarded to every vessel in the squadron a year's supply. 
I also send a bundle of the blanks to you, and have retained about as 
many at this office. 

I have handed the forms for blanks, which you sent me under date 
of 26th ultimo, to Mr. Boggs with instruction to carry out your 
directions. 



316 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

I have made out a requisition for a printing press and equipments 
and sent it to Mr. Watson, with directions to furnish it at the earliest 
opportunity. 

Neither the Home nor the Rocket has been here since your orders 
in regard to them were received, but will be seized as directed as soon 
as they arrive. 

The Mary Miller has arrived, and am driving her ahead, to send 
lier down as soon as possible. I am on the lookout for side-wheel 
boats, and if they can be obtained without having to pay an ex- 
orbitant price for them, I will send Lieutenant Sanford to purchase 
them. 

We have now several carloads of ordnance stores here, which can 
not be unloaded for want of room to stow them. A large quantity 
of fixed ammunition is already on this boat from necessity. I con- 
sider that the Government property stored at this station is much 
exposed to the danger of fire. I have taken every possible precaution 
for its protection, but I would respectfully recommend that if a safer 
and more suitable place can be obtained for the purpose, the Depart- 
ment be moved to it. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear-Admiral D. D. Pobtee, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Blississippi SqiMdron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Phelps, U. S. Navy, transm,itting 
order from the Department for data regarding prizes. 

Unofficial.] U. S. Gunboat Eastport, 

Cairo, February 7, 1863. 

Sir : I enclose a copy of an order of the Navy Department in rela- 
tion to prizes. I have expected to join you or I should have sent the 
copy sooner. 

I have all the data in readiness for the report except the names of 
those entitled to share. These lists must necessarily be furnished by 
the captains of the vessels, and I respectfully request that you will 
issue an order to that effect. 

I have lists of those entitled to share who served on board the 
Conestoga, the General Bragg, and the Benton on the 18th August, 
1862. I have lists of the last named for the captures at Island No. 
10 and Memphis (April 7 and June 6, 1862), but I fear they are 
not very reliable. 

The lists required are, therefore, for the Benton (April 7 and June 
6, 1862) , Mound City, Louisville, Cairo, De Kcdh, Pittsburg, Cincin- 
nati, Carondelet, Tyler, and Lexington whenever they were present 
at captures. 

Everything has again to come out of this vessel, and she must go 
on the ways. I suppose the blow she received, 2,000 tons, moving 10 
miles an hour, and brought up all standing, would have started the 
bottom of almost anything. I can't divest myself of the prejudice 
belonging to our calling so as to shake off the idea of ill luck being 
the attendant of this vessel. If you permit the work to be done that 
is necessary, I do not yet doubt that she will be, saving the luck, the 



NAVAL POBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 317 

best vessel of the fleet. The river is a little choked with ice, but I 
hope to get to St. Louis, where I think four weeks will be time enough 
for the work. The battery is only being removed to the wharf boat, 
from which it can be taken on board in a short time. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. L. Phelps, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

CommMuding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — ^Mr. Chase has issued an order for the release of the New 
National, notwithstanding that she was condemned by the admiralty 
court. The United States marshal says that it is not legal, and hopes 
you will refuse to give her up, when the return will be made accord- 
ingly, and the issue will come up directly in Cabinet meeting between 
Mr. Chase and Mr. Welles. Your refusal to comply with the direc- 
tion of Mr. Chase should be in writing, the marshal says. While he 
is very desirous that the issue should be made, he could not give 
satisfactory reasons why a judge of the United States court should 
permit such interference in the decrees of his court, but he is very 
positive that Mr. Chase can not sustain his position. Evidently the 
court and all hands are bound to throw the odium of stopping Mr. 
Chase's proceedings upon you or some other naval officer. They are 
provoked, indignant, and very politic. As one of the captors of the 
New National, and the decree having been issued legally condemning 
her as a prize, unless you order otherwise, even if you feel constrained 
to admit Mr. Chase's release, I shall be forced to seize her as an 
interested party and contest Mr. Chase's authority in court. 

S. L. Phelps. 

[Enclosure.] 

Navy Department, December 6, 1862. 
Sir: You are hereby directed to ascertain what war vessels, mer- 
chant vessels, cargoes, merchandise, munitions of war, or other sup- 
plies of the rebels have been captured by the naval forces upon the 
Western rivers since the commencement of the present rebellion ; the 
circumstances attending the captures; the disposition made of such 
captures ; if sold, by whom ; the appraised value, where appraisal has 
been made; the names of the officers and men entitled to share in the 
captures, and such further information as you may deem advisable, 
and make a full report of the same to this Department. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GmEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Lieutenant-Commander S. L. Phelps, U. S. Navy. 



Letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of War, with 
a view to check extraordinary demands for supplies by the Army. 

Navy Department, February 7, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose a copy of a letter addressed to me 
by Eear-Admiral Foote, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment and 
Itiecruiting, and to invite your attention to the subject referred to. 



318 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 

This Department instructed its oiEcers not to permit the operations 
of the Army to be delayed or embarrassed when we could furnish 
supplies, but it was not anticipated that this prudential order would 
lead to a dependence upon us for coal supplies for the transports. 

We shall be under the necessity of checking such erroneous issues 
lest the naval service be crippled thereby. No estimates nor provi- 
sions have been made for such extraordinary demands. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding guns fur- 
nished to Lieutenant- Commander Fitch, U. S. Navy. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 7, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that I have furnished to 
Lieutenant-Commander Le Roy Fitch, at his request, one 32-pounder, 
of 33-hundredweight, for the Fairplay, and two 12-pounders for the 
other vessels, and shall send him two 24-pounder howitzers as soon 
as possible, as he informs me that his batteries need strengthening. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Paymaster Boggs, U. S. Navy, regarding coal and other 

stores. 

Office or Purchasing Paymaster, 

Western Flotilla Station, 
Cairo, III., Fehruary 7, 1863. 

Sir: I send to-day to the mouth of the Yazoo River, in tow of 
steamers Brown and Bayard, six barges, containing about 60,000 
bushels of coal. At the depot at this place there are over 400,000 
bushels and 300,000 bushels on the way down, somewhere between 
this and Louisville. It should be here in a day or two. In addition, 
I have engaged 300,000 bushels to be delivered this month. 

Since the 1st of October I have sent down the river to various ports 
512,000 bushels, 393,000 of which have gone forward since you left. 
This amount is exclusive of the 60,000 going to-day. 

I have four boats engaged in towing coal and hope to keep you 
abundantly supplied. 

In regard to provisions on hand here and at Memphis, I have no 
data on which to make a report, not keeping books of receipts and 
expenditure. 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 319 

The stores ordered to Memphis have been sent there. The inspec- 
tion boat is well fitted and I have recently purchased at Cincinnati 
two months' supply, which is now on the way. On Monday I shall 
leave for St. Louis or Cincinnati to fill some large requisitions just 
sent in for stores of every kind. 

Every requisition sent to me has been filled immediately, except 
in some cases where articles had to be procured from the East. I have 
labored hard to keep the squadron supplied as far as it depended 
upon me, and I shall not relax my exertions. 

Mr. Brown has been paid in full for the first boats altered by him 
and for coal furnished. No bill has been sent in for the last boats. 

I have not heard of any more boats having been purchased. 

The Treasury is still dilatory in supplying funds, and I have had 
to write to friends in Washington to urge more promptness in remit- 
ting drafts. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. Bbenton Boggs, 

Paymaster. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of the Chief of Bureau of Navigation to Acting Rear-Admiral 
Porter, U. S. Navy, regarding changes in signals. 

Bureau of Navigation, 

Navy Department, 
Washington, February 7, 1863. 
Sir: The signal book of the Harriet Lane probably fell into the 
hands of the enemy when that vessel was captured. 

In consequence of this event Eear- Admiral Farragut changed the 
signals by increasing their value by 1 — thus, is now 1, 1 is now 2, 
2 is now 3, etc., and 9 is nothing. 

This change is adopted by the Bureau and will hereafter be made 
in the squadron under your command. 

The use of signal number 7 will be suspended for the present. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. H. Davis, 
Chief of the Bureau. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, p". S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron, Cairo. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, giving informa-^ 
tion regarding VicJesburg and other po-ints on the Mississippi 
River. 

No. 96.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

February 7, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to forward you a chart of the approaches 
and defenses of Vicksburg as far as we can detect them. The num- 
ber of guns has not yet been ascertained, though we know of over 
50 of heavy caliber. This chart has been made by Messrs. Strausz 



320 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBKS. 

and Fendall, of the Coast Survey, and is the best and most accurate 
one constructed. 

The rebels at Vicksburg were very amiable in permitting the two 
above-mentioned gentlemen to prosecute their labors unmolested, 
having fired at them particularly only once, while they fired on the 
army surgeons constantly. On one occasion an officer from the rebel 
side came over in a boat, and, without landing, inquired what our 
party were about with that table (meaning the plane table). He 
was told to come on shore and see, which he declined doing. Still the 
rebels did not molest us, though only 750 yards from us. This en- 
abled the party to get the heights of hills, prominent buildings, shape 
of forts, and, in fact, everything but the guns, which are so com- 
pletely covered that it is impossible to make them out. 

On the niorning when the ram Queen of the West went by the bat- 
teries I had officers stationed all along to note the places where guns 
were fired from, and they were quite surprised to find them firing from 
spots where there were no indications whatever of any guns before. 
The shots came from banks, gulleys, from railroad depots, from 
clumps of bushes and from hilltops 200 feet high. A better system 
of defense was never devised. 

Vicksburg was by nature the strongest place on the river, but art 
has made it impregnable against floating batteries — not that the 
number of guns is formidable, but the rebels have placed them out 
of our reach, and can shift them from place to place in case we 
should happen to annoy them (the most we can do) in their earth- 
works. 

In a report I made the Department while attached to the Mortar 
Flotilla, I remarked that the Navy could silence the water batteries 
whenever it pleased, but that the taking of Vicksburg was an army 
affair altogether, and it would have to be taken by troops. At that 
time it mounted 20 guns all told, scattered along as they are now, 
and 10,000 men could have marched right into it without opposition. 

When Admiral Farragut's fleet first went there Vicksburg had 
mounted 5 guns, and 3,000 men' might have taken it with ease. Even 
as late as six months back no extra defenses were put on at Vicks- 
burg, or on the Yazoo, and our gunboats went 60 miles up that river 
(which they should never have left) without molestation. The long- 
talked-of expedition for the capture of Vicksburg and the various 
plans that were expressed by our treacherous press gave the rebels 
warning, and before I came into these waters Vicksburg was inac- 
cessible in front and unapproachable by the Yazoo on account of the 
strength and position of their batteries. The people in Vicksburg 
are the only ones who have as yet hit upon the method of defending 
themselves against our gunboats, viz, not erecting water batteries, 
and placing the guns some distance back from the water, where they 
can throw a plunging shot, which none of our ironclads could stand. 

I mention these facts to show the Department that there is no 
possible hope of any success against Vicksburg by a gunboat attack 
or without an investment in the rear of the city by a large army. We 
can, perhaps, destroy the city and public buildings, but that would 
bring us no nearer the desired point (the opening of the Mississippi) 
than we are now, and would likely put out the little spark of Union 
feeling still existing in Vicksburg. 



NAVAL, FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 321 

The attack of the army having failed at the enemy's weakest point 
for want of nerve in the leader of a brigade, the next thing to be done 
is to attack them at some unsuspected point. The canal is a failure 
and not even practicable as yet for taking through a coal barge, and 
the army (in daily danger of having it burst its frail embankments) 
have wisely retreated to higher ground, leaving the enemy still in 
wonder at their eccentric movements. In the meantime General 
Grant and myself have been studying maps and consulting about 
Avhat is the best course to pursue. I sent down the ram as a diversion, 
to cut off the enemy's supplies here and at Port Hudson. The result 
has met my most sanguine expectations. Over $200,000 worth of 
property was captured and destroyed, amongst it many supplies for 
the rebel army at Port Hudson. At present we command the Missis- 
sippi, and the first step toward the evacuation of the stronghold has 
been adopted. After that General Grant proposed to cut a canal into 
Lake Providence. This lake communicates with the Tensas Eiver, a 
deep stream, and the Tensas runs into the Washita [Ouachita], which 
empties into the Red River near the mouth of the latter. The canal 
is not yet finished, and what the result will be no one can foresee. 
Some think that the great rush of the Mississippi will clear away 
everything before it and the Tensas River become a fine navigable 
stream for the largest steamers. It is now capable of passing medium- 
sized steamers. At all. events, it will give us the command of Red 
Eiver and cut off all supplies from that quarter; the result no one 
can calculate. 

While General Grant was cutting his canal at Lake Providence I 
proposed cutting away the levee at a place called Delta, near Helena, 
into old Yazoo Pass, and General Grant sending a detachment of 
diggers I sent the Forest Rose up to enter the channel when it should 
cut out. This used to be the main way to Yazoo City and the rivers 
Tallahatchie and Yalobusha, before the Southern Railroad was built, 
and it was closed up to reclaim some millions of acres of land that 
laid useless. It leads into the Tallahatchie River, and through it we 
command the heart of Mississippi and all the resources of the enemy 
aroimd Vicksburg. 

The levee was cut, and the water rushed in with such force, sweeping 
everything before it, that it at once cut a channel 80 yards wide, and 
at last accounts the water was " sweeping everything before it." It 
will take some days for the water to reach its level, having a fall of 
9 feet, and in the meantime I have fitted out a force of five light- 
drafts and the ironclad Chillicothe to go through and take the enesmy 
by surprise. The commander of the expedition, Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Watson Smith, has instructions to destroy all the means of 
transportation the enemy has, destroy all gunboats and rams, and 
break up the bridges over the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha. If this 
expedition is successful in getting through, General Grant will follow 
with his army and Vicksburg attacked in the rear in a manner not 
likely dreamed of. The troops at Vicksburg will be obliged to 
evacuate, as they have heretofore done other strongholds. That 
accomplished. Port Hudson must fall, and if I have the gunboats 
I could keep the river open. 

By looking over the map of Mississippi you will perceive the im- 
portance of this move, if successful. If it is not, it will overflow a 
large tract of country from which the rebels draw their supplies. 
711°— N w K— VOL 24—10 21 



322 NAVAL rOKCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 

I am trying to get coal to Colonel Ellet, that he may continue his 
attacks on the enemy below, and in the Ked Eiver, before they can 
wake up from their astonishment at his first appearance. 

I have been much disappointed at not having received before this 
time some more of the new ironclads. I expected on the 1st of Janu- 
ary the Lafayette, Tuscumhia, Choctaw, and Eastport. The Eastport 
started and broke down again. The Lafayette has been at Cairo 
some time, delayed, for what reason I don't know. The Tuscumhia 
drags along slowly, though promised three weeks ago, and the 
Choctaw will not be finished for some time to come. The other iron- 
clads building at St. Louis I hear nothing of, and don't count on them 
this war. The Indianola and Chillicothe have not been tried under 
fire, and some doubts are entertained of their capacity to bear battery. 
The details of these vessels are not creditable to the superintendents 
of the work, and many things have been slighted which a naval con- 
structor should not have overlooked. Though the vessels are better 
than I expected, they show a great want of attention on the part of 
those overlooking the work. With the exception of their batteries 
(Xl-inch guns), they are not so serviceable as the old Pook vessels. 

There is no vessel that I have yet seen to compare to the Benton, 
and I would recommend to the Government, if they intend to build 
any more vessels for this river, that they be constructed on the Benton 
plan, with more power, and such improvements as experience here 
may recommend. The Pook vessels do fairly when there is a little 
current, but they are fast wearing out. Those that were engaged in 
the last action are much shaken, and leak from stem to stern. I 
doubt if they will withstand another long fight. The Benton is as 
good as the day she was built, and except her being somewhat unman- 
ageable is a fine specimen of an ironclad. 

I have endeavored to give you, sir, a fair account of the situation 
here, that you may not expect too much from the present fleet. What 
it is possible to do will be done. My main object is to meet with no 
defeats, and I shall undertake nothing where there is no chance of 
success. 

A defeat of the Navy on this river would be considered a calamity, 
but the world will not blame us for waiting until we are perfectly 
prepared. 

So many of my men's time is out and the vessels being less than 
half manned, I applied to General Grant for a regiment of soldiers, 
which he has promised me, to be detailed for detached service. This 
will make us comfortable again. I hope it meets with the approval 
of the Department. It will take about a couple of weeks to break 
them in. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WBSTEHN WATEES. 323 

Report of Acting Master Brown, U. 8. Navy, corwmanding U. S. S. 
Forest Rose, regarding the capture of two men belonging to Mis- 
sissippi cavalry. 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Rose, 
Moon Lake, Fehruary 8, 1863. 
Sik: I this day captured and paroled in the Yazoo Pass, Jasper 
Walton and G. B. Purrington, privates in Captain Porter's company, 
Mississippi cavalry (known as the Feather-Bed Rangers), 
very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Gomm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 



SemimontMy report of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. 8. Navy, 
regarding the stations of the vessels of his command. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 8, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to make the following semimonthly report 
of the present position of the squadron : 

The Black Hawk, Benton, Louisville, Baron De Kalh, Mound City, 
Pittsiurg, Carondelet, and Indianola in the Yazoo River. 

The Judge Torren^e and Great 'Western, powder boats, at the 
mouth of Yazoo. 

Cincinnati and Marmora, guard vessels, off the channel leading to 
Yicksburg. 

Red Rover, hospital ship, at the mouth of the Yazoo. 

Blacksmith vessel Sampson and ram Switzerland in the Yazoo. 

The General Lyon and New National, dispatch boats, discharging 
stores in the Yazoo. 

The Rattler, Chillicothe, Signal, Romeo, and Forest Rose, under 
command of Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith, endeavoring to 
get through the Yazoo Pass, near Helena, into the rivers Tallahatchie 
and Yalobusha. 

The Linden is detailed to assist the army in cutting the canal into 
Lake Providence and Tensas River. 

The ram General Bragg is at the mouth of Arkansas River; the 
Conestoga at the mouth of White River, blockading and cruising up 
and down these rivers. 

The ram Lancaster is stationed at or near Napoleon, below Arkan- 
sas River. 

The ram Monarch is stationed at a place called Greenville, to keep 
down the guerrillas in that neighborhood. 

The Tyler is cruising up and down the river between the Arkansas 
and Columbia, all of which places, although now quiet, have proved 
troublesome to our transports. 

The Cricket is at Memphis guarding the navy yard and ready to 
convoy down the storeship Sovereign, which vessel is undergoing 
repairs at that place. 

The Juliet has just gone to Cairo to take up 200 contrabands who 
sought protection. 



324 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

The Lexington, Springfield, Silver Lake, Rohh, Fairplay, St. Clair, 
Brilliant, and General Pillow are up the Tennessee and Cumberland 
rivers, guarding army transports. The Little Rebel is doing guard- 
boat duty at Cairo. 

The New Era is guarding Island No. 10 and New Madrid. 

The Eastport has broken down again and returned to Cairo for 
repairs or to be laid up. 

The Lafayette is fittmg out at Cairo, and is expected here daily. 

The towboat Price is also fitting out at Cairo. 

The Curlew, Prairie Bird, and Petrel are at Cairo waiting for 
crews. 

The towboat Brown is bringing down coal. 

The ram Queen of the West is cruising between Port Hudson and 
Vicksburg ; also a small rebel steamer, the De Soto, captured by the 
army and turned over to the navy; she has been covered with iron 
and cotton bales. 

The rams Lioness and Homer are bringing down provisions and 
stores. 

The Glide is in Cairo undergoing repairs. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General Grant, U. S. Army, regarding men transferred for naval 
service. 

February 8, 1863. 
General : There were 250 men sent over yesterday ; we will only 
want 350 more altogether. Can you so arrange it that we can only 
have that number, with but 3 officers ? We have now 5 officers more 
with these men than we want, or can accommodate, which is the 
trouble. The major and adjutant brought their horses, which I am 
afraid they will have to part with if they stay with us. 

Hoping you will be able to make arrangements that will suit the 
occasion, 

I remain, respectfully, yours, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Headquarters Army of the Mississippi. 



General order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, regard- 
ing men when transferred from the army for duty on naval 
vessels. 

General Order, 1 U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

No. 34. J Flagship Black Hawk, Fehruary 8, 1863. 

The general commanding the army has furnished me with soldiers 
to fill vacancies. Great discretion will be required in the manage- 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEHN WATERS. 325 

ment of these men, who have hitherto led an irregular life and had 
but few examples of well-disciplined people before their eyes. The 
officers and men come under strict naval rules as long as they are on 
shipboard. 

The guns and accouterments will be taken from the men the mo- 
ment they repair on board of a vessel, and all small arms handed 
over to the gunner. 

The men will be immediately stationed at the great guns and 
drilled for one hour once a day ; at other times the commanders will 
tend to getting them cleaned up, having their hair cut, beards 
trimmed, etc. 

They will perform all the duties of marines on shipboard, and be 
excused from the duty of coaling and cleaning ship. 

Weekly reports will be made to me of their progress. 

Their own officers will drill them at small arms; the naval officers 
at great guns. 

The officers are enjoined to be strict with these men; treat them 
kindly, but let them feel that they must conform to naval laws. 

The rules and regulations will be read every Sunday for a month. 

David D. Portek, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commaifiding Mississippi Squadron. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
General Grant, V. S. Army, regarding soldiers who mutinied cni 
board the U. S. S. Benton. 

February 8, 1863. 
General: Company C mutinied this morning and refused duty. 
I put them all in irons and sent them to you, as I could not order a 
legal court on them. The example was salutary; the rest acquiesced 
immediately. I would recommend that the noncommissioned officers 
be broken, and that the others be set to digging ditches. I am sorry 
to have commenced so roughly, but " a bad beginning makes a good 
ending." 

I would not hesitate to keep the men I have sent you did I not 
think that they will feel the punishment of being dismissed the fleet 
when they see their comrades again and hear how comfortable they 
are. 

They are pretty drunk now and insensible to reason, and I thought 
the shortest way was to put them out of sight. Some one gave them a 
half barrel of whisky amongst their rations, with which they filled 
their canteens and regaled the crew of the Benton, who are somewhat 
in a like condition, but more tractable. 
I am, very respectfully, 

Davdj D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



326 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN WATERS. 

Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Self ridge, TJ. S. Navy, regarding the blockade of White 
River. 

Febkuaet 8, 1863. 

Sir: Your letter of February 6 has been received. At a proper 
time I will make arrangements with regard to Little Rock. You will 
conform to the instructions sent you in relation to guarding the 
mouths of Arkansas and White rivers. I was aware of the condition 
of the Lancaster when she left here, and sent her principally to be 
used to guard the coal barges at White River, if she could not steam. 

In appointing you to conduct the blockade of White River, I do 
not wish that you should make any change in any vessel of the squad- 
ron without my orders. I will attend to their wants when reported 
to me. If every officer were to make such changes as might seem 
proper to him I should have a difficult task to regulate the squadron. 

I hear there is no vessel at Napoleon. If we have any instructions 
you will see that one is required there. 

It is my intention to make the mouth of White River a coal depot, 
the barges to make port where the Sovereign laid under the island. 
One vessel must always be kept there to guard them, and none but 
our vessels allowed to take coal out of them under any circumstances. 
Orders have been sent to General Sherman in relation to using our 
coal at Helena. 

Other vessels will be sent you soon. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Gom,manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thomas O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Conestoga, Mouth of 'White River. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, on receiving complaint that 
boats were fired on- from below Napoleon, Ark. 

February 8, 1863. 

Sir: Constant complaints reach me of boats being fired on from 
below Napoleon. 

I expressly ordered that one vessel should be stationed there at all 
times, and one at White River, to take care of the coal barges. 

I am informed that the Bragg was up the Arkansas. Will you 
please inform me what orders you gave Lieutenant Bishop and for 
what purpose he went into the Arkansas River? 

I refer you to my orders of January 17, 20, and 28, 1863, and also 
to the orders to Lieutenant Bache, of January 20, passed to you, when 
he left for this place. 

It is unpleasant to be told by passers down that they have been 
fired on, when I know that nothing of the kind could happen if my 
orders were carried out. 

The mouth of White River will hereafter be our coal depot, and 
every care must be taken to prevent the army from using it. A vessel 



NAVAL POECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 32 Y 

must be near it at all times. For that purpose I sent up the Switzer- 
land. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdTniral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 
Commanding U. S. S. Conestoga, Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, V. S. Navy, regarding fire from the heavy ironclads. 

February 8, 1863. 
Sir : Please instruct the commanding officer of the heavy ironclads 
to fire only in the daytime while coming down the river. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

A. M. Pennock, U. S. Navy, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Ensign 
Wheelock, U. S. Navy, forbidding complication with revenue 
affairs. 

February 8, 1863. 
Sir: Your communication in answer to my inquiries about the 
Alhamibra has been received. Your explanation put matters in a 
different light from what was reported to me. 

I received your communication informing me that you were acting 
as one of a board of trade, but you omitted to mention that Captain 
Gwin approved of the appointment. 

I do not wish any of the officers of the squadron to attend to any- 
thing but their legitimate duties, nor do I wish them to mix them- 
selves up in any way with revenue affairs ; it always brings trouble. 

Find out and let me know how it was that our coal was taken by 
the army at Helena. By whose authority and what vessel took it. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Ensign E. W. Wheelock, U. S. Navy, 

In Charge of Mortars, Helena, Ark, 



Report of Lieutenant Bishop, U. S. Navy, commanding V. S. S. 
General Bragg, regarding injuries sustained hy that vessel in 
collision with steamer Emma. 

U. S. S. General Bragg, 
Island 75, Fehruary 9, 1863. 
Sir: I respectfully report that last evening about 10 o'clock I 
heard a steamer blowing her whistle repeatedly as if in distress. Got 



328 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

underway and went down the river to a short distance below Bolivar, 
where I found the Emma aground near the Arkansas shore. When 
approaching within hailing distance, she backed off the bar and into 
us, striking the after-cargo port, smashing it and tearing through 
about 6 feet of top sides. I think I can make the necessary repairs 
here. 

The Emma was very slightly damaged, having some of her stern 
nosing torn off and some two or three fenders broken. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Joshua Bishop, 
Lieutenant, Commanding. 
Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Hoel, U. S. Navy, commanding tl. S. S. Pittsburg, 
regarding station. 

February 9, 1863. 
Sir : Get underway and relieve the Cincinnati at the station below. 
The Marmora will anchor in the eddy just above you and pick up 
all boats with persons in them attempting to pass down the river. 
Inform Lieutenant Bache that I want his vessel here. 
EespectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Wm. R. Hoel, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Pittsburg, Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennoch, TJ. S. Navy, to send certain vessels down without regard 
to requests from army officers. 

February 9, 1863. 
Sir : You will please send down without delay the Curlew, Petrel, 
and Prairie Bird. I have not a light-draft vessel here; these boats 
must come here no matter what the conditions of things are up river. 
I consider the force there now sufficient to convoy any amount of 
stores. You will direct all commanders who leave Cairo to proceed 
to their destination without paying any attention to the requests of 
army officers for gunboats. 

The great difficulty I have to contend with is to get officers to divest 
themselves of the idea that they are under army orders, and I can 
only stop it by arresting some one. 

• Very respectfully, David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 329 

Order of Acting Rear-Admirol Porter, U. S. Navy, to commmiders 
of naval vessels for the seizure of cotton in transports between 
Vicksburg and Helena. 

February 9, 1863. 
The commander of any naval vessel will seize any cotton that is 
in any transport between Vicksburg and Helena. They will also 
take any cotton they see on the bank between these two points and 
make a return of it to me, stating all the particulars connected with 
it. The commanding officer at White River will examine any boat 
he may suspect of having cotton on board, and, if there is no proper 
military permit, he will take out what he finds and hold it until fur- 
ther instructions from me. 

David D. Porter, 
ActiTig Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, requesting a 
copy of the confiscation act. 

No. 99.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, Felruary 9, 1863. 

Sir: I would be much obliged if you will send me a copy of the 
confiscation act, that I may act in accordance therewith. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admired, Commumding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Fleet Captain 
Pennock, U. S. Navy, forbidding the passage of civilians on the 
transports. 

February 9, 1863. 
Sir : You will please not give any one not connected with the Army 
or Navy a passage on any of our transports. 
Reporters of newspapers and artists are particularly objected to. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Order of Fleet Captain Permock, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Bowen, N. S. Navy, regarding the shipping of recruits. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 9, 1863. 
Sir : I have received your communication of the 6th instant. 
You will continue to ship men as fast as possible, but you will 
not ship them for any particular vessel, such arrangements being 
unauthorized. 



330 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

If Dr. Leaman is suiRciently recovered to do the duty, you will 
request him to examine recruits ; otherwise you will engage a surgeon 
for that purpose. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Gommandant of Station. 

Acting Master A. S. Bowen, U. S. Navy, 

U. S. Naval Rendezvous, Cincinnati Ohio. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennoch, V. S. Navy, regarding the arrival 
of steamer White Cloud, and transmitting papers relating to the 
seizure of the steamer Chippewa Valley, Fehruary 9, 1863. 

No. 24.] 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February U, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you that since my communication 
No. 22 was written the steamer White Cloud has arrived at this 
station and has been delivered to the United States marshal for the 
southern district of Illinois, together with everything on board. 
In addition to the rebel mail and contraband articles already found 
on board, the marshal informs me that he found a box of rebel uni- 
form buttons on breaking out her hold. 

The steamboat Chippewa Volley was seized as a prize by the 
U. S. gunboat Forest Rose below Helena, Ark., for being engaged 
in contraband trade and giving aid and comfort to the enemy. I 
transmit herewith a copy of a letter to me from Acting Master 
Brown, commanding Forest Rose, and a copy of the letter to him 
from the Helena Board of Trade, showing the reasons in part for 
her seizure. I have delivered her also to the United States marshal 
for said district, with everything on board. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennook, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station,. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat Forest Eose, 

Helena, Ark., Felmary 13, 1863. 
Sir : On the 9th instant I came across the steamer Chippewa Val- 
ley, of St. Louis, Captain Yore, at Island No. 63, lying tied up to the 
bank, taking on board cotton. I ran alongside and ordered the cap- 
tain on board with his papers. Instead of the captain coming, a Mr. 
Mark, the charterer of the boat, came on board and told me the boat 
had no clearance or permit to go below Helena, and all the papers 
he could show was a permit from the collector of customs at Cin- 
cinnati to purchase cotton in the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Arkansas, and Tennessee, and restricting him to all the coastwise 
regulations. I sent on board and found several half barrels of whisky, 



NAVAL FOEOES ON WESTERN WATERS. 331 

some brandy, wine, and champagne. Having no permits or clearance, 
I sent an officer on board and ordered him to proceed to Helena and 
await my arrival. 

She had on board a paroled soldier from the Eighty-third Indiana 
Regiment, who stated that he had got on board at Grant's Landing, 
and that at that place she had landed 1 barrel salt, 1 barrel flour, 2 
bolts calico, and at another place she had landed 2 jugs of whisky. 
She having no permits or clearance of any kind I considered her a 
lawful prize, and have placed an officer in charge, and ordered him 
to report to you at Cairo. 

Enclosed is a letter furnished me by the board of trade on my 
arrival at this place, showing that she had warning not to go below 
Helena. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, Commanding. 
Fleet Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Naval Depot, Cairo, III. 

[Subenclosure.] 

Port or Helena, Ark., February 11, 1863. 
Sir: The steamer Chippewa Valley, now under arrest by your 
authority, was not only acting in violation of the orders of the naval 
and military authorities in landing below Helena to take in cotton 
without the protection of a gunboat and without a clearance from 
the board of trade at this port, but she was acting in violation of an 
express prohibition from the board of trade, served by myself in 
writing upon the captain and clerk of the boat at this port previous 
to her leaving here on said trip, which notice was as follows: 

Office Board of Trade, 
Helena, Ark., Fehruary 3, 1863. 
To the Captain and Clerk of the Steamer Chippewa Valley: 

By the rules of the Treasury Department, only boats in the Government 
service can go below Helena without a clearance, and all boats are forbidden 
to trade or deliver goods without a regular permit. 

Until the special agent of the Treasury Department at Memphis obtains an 
authority from the head of the Department at Washington and confers it 
upon us, we are required to give you this notice not to go below Helena to 
trade or procure cotton, under penalty of seizure of boat and cargo on your 
return. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

J. G. FORMAN, 

W. B. Pierce, 
Helena Board of Trade. 

P. S. — We expect in a few days that authority will come from the Treasury 
Department to grant you the privilege which you require. 

J. G. F. 

The captain of the Chippewa Valley informs me that Mr. J. Mark, 
the purchaser of the 112 bales of cotton, or more, which you found 
on board of her, was informed by him of this notice from the board 
of trade, and he (Mr. Mark) learned the fact at this office, with Mr. 
Ullman, that no clearance could be granted until the necessary 
authority arrived here, accompanied by our advice to wait; which 



332 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WAOTEES. 

advice Mr. UUman very wisely followed, while Mr. Mark went know- 
ingly forward in his transaction. 

With great respect, your obedient servant, 

J. G. FORMAN, 

Member Helena Board of Trade. 
Captain Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Commianding the Forest Rose, 



Seizures, including the steamer Bowena, made hy the U. S. S. New 
Era, in tlie suppression of illegal traffic, February 9, 13, 1863. 

Report of rieet Captain Pennock, V. S. Navy, transmitting reports of the com- 
manding and executive officers. 

OrriCE Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 16, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith two copies of communi- 
cations to me from Acting Master F. "W. Flanner, commanding U. S. 
gunboat New Era, dated February 9 and 14, respectively ; a copy of 
a communication from Acting Ensign Hanford, the executive officer 
of the New Era, dated February 13, 1863 ; and a copy of a telegram 
from myself to the honorable Secretary of the Navy, dated February 
15, all of which relate to the capture of a considerable amount of prop- 
erty as being contraband of war. 

These papers, with the exception of the telegram, are perhaps 
sufficiently explicit. The United States marshal for the southern 
district of Illinois came here on the 13th instant, and I have handed 
over all the property brought here to him, for which I have taken his 
receipt. I have made no report of the captured property to the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, believing that the facts in regard thereto should be 
first made known to you. 

In regard to the telegram, the money mentioned therein was seized 
last night by Acting Ensign Hanford, on board the steamer Ford. I 
have detained it (having previously sealed it in the presence of the 
owner) until I shall receive the determination of the honorable Secre- 
tary of the Navy. 

There appears to be some doubt as to the extent of an officer's power 
to make seizures. By the fifth clause of your General Order No. 2 
all vessels are ordered to be detained which are found landing at any 
point below Cairo " except at places specified in collectors' permits," 
etc. By the regulations relative to trade in the Mississippi Valley of 
the Treasury Department, no permits shall be granted (except to cer- 
tain specified points) to any point unless for strictly family supplies. 
This was the case of the Rowena. She had on board a large quantity 
of articles, much more than would seem to come under the head of 
family supplies, and a permit to land them from the collector at St. 
Louis. Under General Order No. 2 she would not be subject to 
seizure, but still appears to be violating the revenue laws. I would 
respectfully refer the matter to you for your determination. 

I have dispatched Captain Woodworth to St. Louis with the rebel 
mail captured on the White Cloud, with instructions to make Imown 
the contents to Major-Generai Curtis, commanding at that place. I 



NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 333 



also directed him to bring the mail back to this station on his return, 
as I did not have sufficient time to open all the letters. I enclose a 
copy of one* to the rebel General Price, which I thought was im- 
portant to be made known to the proper authorities. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Acting Eear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — ^The marshal thinks that the seizure of the Rowena is legal. 
I have made out all the papers necessary to the district attorney, to 
enable him to take proper steps in regard to the property already 
turned over to the marslial by me. 

[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat New Era, 
Oif Island No. 10, February 9, 1863. 

Sir: I herewith most respectfully submit to your consideration 
some important facts in relation to the loose manner in which mat- 
ters are carried on at this place, more particularly to the frequent 
crossing and recrossing of citizens to and from the Missouri shore 
to the Tennessee shore. 

I have thus far endeavored to do my duty in helping on our cause, 
and have to some extent stopped it, but so long as the present com- 
mander of the island is permitted to allow it, it will be so to a great 
extent unless further and more stringent orders are issued. 

In the first place he has been here so long — ever since the island was 
taken by our forces — and has become so intimately acquainted with 
the enemy (I call them), and suffers the whole bend (and no one 
knows to what extent) to come and go at their pleasure, and that this 
has been a perfect ferry for the whole Southern Army to get their 
information I have not the least doubt. 

I have undoubted information and evidence, corroborated by their 
actions, that this is all wrong, and should be put a stop to at once. 

If necessary, I can produce the evidence of a dozen good men of 
these facts, who have been here for the last feAV days — officers in the 
Army — and one of whom sent a report of it to his senior officer, 
Colonel Hill, at Cairo, who no doubt has forwarded them to his 
commander at Columbus, Ky. 

One instance, in which a sergeant of a company under the com- 
mander of a post brought three men, one of whom, he stated, was 
undoubtedly [in] a rebel officer's uniform while here (although he 
had taken the oath), and he thought should be retained and sent 
up the river. The commander of the island gave him a pass to 
return, and he did so. As far as concurring with me, he does not, and 
rather endeavors to annoy me by passing persons to the Tennessee 
shore more frequently, under one pretense or another. 

I have taken control of the skiffs, of which there are four, and 
shall retain them and only allow such as I deem proper to pass. Of 
the presence of rebels in the bend and at Tiptonyille every day there 
is no doubt, according to the information I receive from day to day. 

* See p. 418. 



334 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEBN WATEKS. 

Last night I brought to the steamer Tycoon and boarded her, and 
while looking through her found two trunks belonging to a lady, 
named Mrs. Johnson, formerly a Miss Ward, of Louisville, Ky. ; and 
on examining one of them, I did not like the looks of the bottom, so I 
had the paper on the bottom of the trunk cut with a knife and found 
it had a false bottom ; forced it open and found a very nice piece of 
gray uniform cloth and everything to match it, gold lace, etc. I then 
instituted a thorough search, but could find nothing more. After 
conferring with Captain Wilson, of the U. S. gunboat Duchess, we 
concluded to take possession of the goods and allow her to proceed, 
he. Captain Wilson, saying he would have her taken care of at 
Memphis. 

I am endeavoring to carry out your orders per Mr. Hanford to 
the letter. 

I am sorry to have to write of the state of my ship's crew ; so many 
on the sick list. On account of the steam escaping from boilers, I 
was compelled to take down the bunks on the sides, by their being 
so damp. If I could possibly have a barrel or two of lime and a 
few more hammocks, it would conduce to the comfort and health 
of the crew ; also a small 6-pound howitzer for my quarter-deck. 

I should like very much to know more particularly to what extent 
I should go in searching boats, and what is necessary to condemn 
them and send them to Cairo. I have found in several instances 
passengers with goods or merchandise in trunks and valises, not on 
any manifest, with permits from above Cairo, where I think they 
should report, as the law requires. One or two with large amounts 
of gold, to all of which I have drawn the attention of the Govern- 
ment aid, who was on board. That any amount of contraband arti- 
cles go down on almost every boat, I am satisfied of, and this is an 
excellent point to catch them, more particularly through boats from 
above Cairo. 

I am, your most obedient servant, 

F. W. Flan NEK, 
Acting First Master, Commanding U. S. Gunboat New Era. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



U. S. Gunboat New Eka, 
Oif Island No. 10, February H, 1863. 
Sir: I send you, per Mr. Hanford, a rebel mail found secreted 
on board steamer White Cloud, bound for Memphis and Helena; 
also a lot of revolvers found upon a passenger without a permit, and 
other merchandise for Hale's Point, and a lot of drugs, etc., for 
Tiptonville, among which you will find a number of articles contra- 
band of war, belonging to a man whom Mr. Hanford has already 
delivered up river to you. He will explain everything to you. All 
of which is respectfully submitted. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

F. W. Flannee, 
Acting Master, Corrwnanding New Era. 
A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 335 

U. S. Gunboat New Era, February 13, 1863. 

Sir : I hereby transmit to you a statement in regard to the capture 
of the steamer Rowena, bound from St. Louis to Memphis, hav- 
ing contraband goods on board. As she was proceeding down the 
river I brought her alongside and commenced to overhaul her. I 
first opened two large trunks and found them to contain dry goods, 
saddles, etc. Although accompanied with a permit, being contraband 
of war, I seized the steamer. I found these goods were to be landed 
at Hale's Point, a place not occupied by United States forces and 
infested with rebels. I next found 21 packages of merchandise on 
boardj which contained goods contraband of war, in the shape of 
medicines, etc. These were to be landed at Tiptonville and at a point 
not occupied by United States forces. It is my intention to keep 
within bounds of the laWj and I sincerely hope my movements in 
regard to these matters will always meet your speedy approval. I 
also brought to this place one prisoner having in his possession 200 
ounces quinine, captured on board. I have consulted with Captain 
Woodward, and he says I have acted perfectly right in seizing the 
Rowena. 

Very respectfully, Wm. C. Hanford, 

Executive Oficer. 

A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

[Endorsement.] 

Mr. Hanford doubtless refers to Acting Lieutenant Woodworth, 
whom he calls " Captain Woodward." 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III,., February 15, 1863. 
Acting Ensign Hanford, of gunboat New Era, being about to take 
passage on a steamboat alongside of wharf for his vessel below, 
received information that a package of Southern funds [was] locked 
up in safe of steamboat. It was in possession of S. C. Eogers, of 
firm of W. E. Childs & Co., brokers, Nashville, Tenn., and amounted 
to $47,064, $11,000 of which was in Confederate notes, and balance in 
Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, and Tennessee notes. 

Mr. Hanford seized it as contraband of war. The owner says he 
intends to exchange it at Memphis. 

I respectfully refer the whole matter to you. Is it a legal seizure ? 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary Navy. 



Additional report of executive officer of the V. S. S- New Era. 

Cairo, III., February 18, 1863. 
Sir : I hereby transmit to you a statement in regard to the capture 
of the packet steamer Rowena, bound from St. Louis to Memphis. 



336 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTBEN WATEES. 

On the 13th, as she was down to Island No. 10, I received orders 
from Captain F. "W. Flanner to overhaul her, which I did, and found 
on board of her one box of quinine and several other boxes of drugs, 
I believe seven altogether. She was to land these drugs at Tipton- 
ville, a place where she was not allowed to land, and besides she had 
no permit for said box of quinine. By orders of Captain Flanner I 
put the gunner in charge of her, together with the second assistant 
engineer, the pilot, and paymaster, to take her to Memphis and deliver 
her Government stores and army paymasters, together with $4,000,000 
of money belonging to the army paymasters. On her arrival at 
Memphis, and on her way down, the officers in charge found 18 cases 
on board marked dry goods, and permitted as such, but on examination 
they proved to be rebel uniform pants, 2,900 pairs of which they at 
once seized. On her arrival at Memphis, as near as I can under- 
stand, there was an order from St. Louis to seize the boat and these 
cases of goods, but on account of previous capture by the gunboat 
New Era, the officer in charge would not deliver her up. It is not on 
account of gain that the boat was held on to by the officers of the gun- 
boat New Era, but it is the pride that we take in making the capture 
of these boats and seizing contraband goods. The manifest of the 
boat, together with her permits, were very foolishly given up to the 
commanding officer of the U. S. gunboat Cricket, then lying at Mem- 
phis. I have possession of the safe, money, and papers belonging to 
the boat, and shall hold them in charge, subject to your order. By 
orders of Captain Flanner I brought the vessel to this port, and she 
now awaits your orders. I have the acting captain's clerk and mate 
on board, prisoners at large. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. C. Hanfokd, 

Executive Officer. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and G ommarhdant Station of Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Cairo, III., March 4, 1863. 
I have taken the Rowena into the service of the United States, and 
she can not be given up to you. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

J. A. SCUDDEE, 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Repoi't of First Assistant Engineer Whittaker, U. S. Navy, trans- 
mitting order to suspend work on svimarine firing apparatus. 

St. Louis, Mo., February 10, 1863. 
Sir: I would respectfully enclose a copy of an order this day 
received from Commodore Hull, in relation to the submarine battery 
for the Ozark. 



NAVAL FOKCBS ON WESTERN WATEES. 337 

I would respectfully report that a large portion of the work is 
already completed and ready for the ship. The outer section of the 
conductor pipe which joins the side of the ship has not been finished. 
Therefore this will admit of its being made to fit any vessel that 
may be designated, without additional expense or alteration in the 
parts already complete. 

I shall fiinish the work (omitting the outer section mentioned) 
unless otherwise ordered, and hope soon to receive orders to apply 
it to one of the ironclad vessels building here, in which a fairer 
trial of the experiment could be had than in the Osark. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James W. Whittakeb, 
First Assistant Engineer, U. S. Navy. 

Rear-Admiral D. D. Portee, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.] 

St. Louis, Mo., February 10, 1863. 
Sir : The Bureau of Construction having ordered the apparatus for 
testing your method of submarine firing not to be put on board 
the Ozark, you will suspend all work on it so far as it relates to 
that vessel. 

Very respectfully, J. B. Hull, 

Commodore, Superintending. 

First Assistant Engineer J. W. Whittakee, 

St. Louis. 



Report of Lieutenant-G omTnander Smith, U. S. Navy, regarding the 
disabling of the V. S. ram Dick Fulton. 

U. S. S. Rattler, 
Head of Choctaw Island [Island 789'], 

February 10, 1862 [1863?]. 

Sir: Firing and steam whistling caused me to turn downstream 
two hours ago. 

I found the ram Dick Fulton disabled by guerrillas — 1 killed, 
1 wounded, and engines disabled. The F. F. Wilson, on her way 
up, had met the ram and has now taken the Fulton and barges to 
the bank. 

Having been detained myself by fogs and thick nights, I shall 
turn the Wilson from her destination and give her charge of the ram 
and coal barges. 

She will leave the ram with the Monarch at Greenville, as the 
barges are as much as she should have to tow ; that is, if the Monarch 
is still there. I was in time to give the guerrillas four or five shots. 
They were mounted, and made for the back country. The place was 
Cypress Bend, just above this, on the Arkansas side. Ram was 
struck 15 times. 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 22 



338 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

I believe the New National is coming. I will order her to take 
the disabled vessel to Greenville instead of the ^t^ilson. I hope this 
arrangement will meet your views. I write in haste. 

The rebel force seemed large. They had two or three guns that 
sounded like rifles. 

Respectfully, yours, Watson Smith, 

Lieutenant- Commander. 
Admiral D. D. Poktee. 

Laier. — The New National has arrived and will leave at daylight 
with the disabled vessel for Greenville. If the Monarch is not there 
she will continue on to the Yazoo. 

It was almost night when I reached this place, and as I would soon 
have been obliged to anchor, determined to remain here, protect this 
party to-night, and take in coal, a saving of time at Helena. 
Yours, etc., 

Watson Smith. 

I think the ram's pipes can be repaired below. The shot holes look 
as if made by 12-pounder smoothbores. 



Report of Lieutenant-G ormnander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, regarding 
his action in refusing licenses for the shipment of cotton. 

U. S. S. CONESTOGA, 

Off White River, February 10, 1863. 

Sir : Since I ordered the return of the trading steamer Evansville 
to Helena the**e has been a Mr. Lacy, of Memphis, here with a license 
from Mr. Yeatman and an old permit from yourself, dated Cairo, 
December 2, 1862. 

His object was to purchase and ship from this point a large amount 
of cotton. 

In the absence of specific instructions, and believing that it is not 
your wish that speculators, many of whom have but the cloak of 
loyalty, and none of whom would shoulder a musket for their country, 
should reap the enormous profits of a trade opened by those who have 
exposed themselves to dangers and hardships, I have steadily refused 
any permission to ship cotton from this part of the river. 

I have given all these individuals to understand that I shall recog- 
nize no licenses or papers of any kind unless accompanied with your 
written permit. 

I shall be pleased to know if my course in this matter is approved of. 

The rebels, I learned to-day, have stationed a force of about three 
regiments on the Arkansas, about 2 miles above the Cut-off. Their 
camp is some distance back from the river bank. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfridgr, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 
Acting Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commuinding Mississippi Squadron. 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 339 

Permit of Brigadier-General Gorman, V. S. Arm/y, for the steamer 

Evansville. 

Headquarters District East Arkansas, 

Helena, February 10, 1863. 
The steamer Evansville has permission to proceed to the fleet at 
Vicksburg, and has permission to land at intermediate points under 
the protection of the navy as a gunboat only. 

W. A. Gorman, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, regarding 
affairs off White River. 

U. S. S. Conestoga, 
Off White River, February 10, 1863. 
Sir : The boilers of the Conestoga being entirely unprotected from 
shot, I have built up around them an excellent barricade of a single 
tier of cotton bales. To do this I have taken cotton from the neigh- 
boring plantations to the amount of 30 bales. I find I have three or 
four more than I require. Shall I forward it to Cairo ? 

In obedience to General Order 32, 1 have to state before the receipt 
of that order cotton to the amount of 3,442 pounds, and a large bell, 
weight 830 pounds, were forwarded to Cairo as a prize of the Cones- 
toga. I am unaware what disposition has been made of it. 

There is a sawmill on the Arkansas between the Cut-off and the 
Mississippi with some 8,000 feet of lumber and a very good sta- 
tionary engine. 

Its owner, a Northern man, I have given permission with his family 
to go North. 

I should move the lumber and engine to this point were I not uncer- 
tain that it would be satisfactory to you. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieu tenant- Commander, 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Cow/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Commander Prichett, U. S. Navy, regarding supplies for the sick 
and wounded. 

February 10, 1863. 

Sir : Proceed up the river and procure for the use of the squadron 
40 head of cattle, plenty of forage for them, 100 bushels of com, some 
corn meal, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and eggs, or whatever may 
conduce to the comfort of the sick and wounded. 



340 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Take the Champion with you to bring down the cattle. See that 
they have plenty of water while on board. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Jas. M. Prichett, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Tyler. 



[Telegram.] 

St. Louis, Mo., February 10, 1868. 
We require a truck carriage for the 100-pounder on the Choctaw 
instead of the pivot carriage that has been sent here. 

The turret of this vessel is arranged with a turntable on the center ; 
the gun recoils on the table when it is revolved to the port it is desir- 
able to fire from. 

O. C. Badger, 
Lieutenant- Commander, U. S. Navy. 

Captain John A. Dahujren, 

Chief Bureau Ordnance, Navy Department, Washington. 



Traffic in cotton, etc., under army autlwrity in which the U. S. S. 
Forest Rose was reported to have cooperated, and seizure of 
steamers Rose Harribleton and Evansville, February 11, 12, and 
Curlew, February 28, 1863. 

Report of lieutenant-Commander Smith, V. S. Navy. 

U. S. S. Kattler, February 11, 1863. 

Sir: At sunset this evening I stopped at Carson's landing to in- 
quire the business of a merchant steamer apparently interested in a 
number of bales of cotton on shore. 

She proved to be the light-draft stern-wheel steamer Rose Hamhle- 
ton, in the stream collecting cotton with a lighter under permission 
from R. Hough, superintendent "Western Department, to collect in 
Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, and Louisiana, in the 
lines of the United States Army, and a permit from General Gorman 
to load and land under protection of gunboats only. 

As she was not landing cargo, I was not authorized to arrest her, 
your General Order No. 2 being the only one I have on the subject; 
but it does not seem to me that she was operating within the lines of 
our army, and she was certainly far from the protection of any 
gunboats until I came up. 

The proceeding seemed a very loose one, and one by which the 
enemy might get possession of a good, light boat. 

I also learned that the Forest Rose was connected with the enter- 
prise, having convoyed the Rose Hambleton down to a point below 
this, afterwards returning up river. 

February 12. — ^This morning found the Forest Rose, under the 
orders of General Gorman, with the stern-wheel steamer Evansville 
at Islands Nos. 67 and 68 after cotton. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 341 

Ordered the Forest Rose to follow and report to me at Helena, 
and to offer the Evansville convoy to that place. 

I have just met the Brown, Captain French, with coal. He says the 
vessel upon which the Cricket is waiting at Memphis may not be 
ready for a month, so I suppose I won't see the Cricket. Hope to 
have the Linden,. 

Being much in need of a few hospital cots, and the Brown having 
some, I have taken and receipted for five of them, trusting that you 
will approve my doing so. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Watson Smith, 
Lieut. Commander, First Division Light-Draft Steamers. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Poktee, 

Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Lieutenant-Commander Selfridge, V. S. Navy, regarding seizure of 
steamers Rose Hambleton and Evansville. 

U. S. S. CONESTOGA, 

Off White River, February 13, 1863. 
Sik: I seized yesterday at Carson's Landing the steamers Rose 
Hambleton and Evansvitte. 

The latter is owned by Compton, the person I gave permission to 
visit you some days ago. 

The Rose Hambleton was employed to tow the mortar boat at 
Island 68, and is found in the cotton business. 

I forward the only papers found on board, and shall keep them 
here until I hear from you. 

That I may fully carry out your wishes in this matter, without 
annoying you by referring these violations constantly, I respectfully 
request such instructions as may cover the whole matter of trading 
and buying produce along these river banks. 

The Rose HanMeton is full of cotton. The Evansville has about 53 
bales aboard. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant- C ommander. 
Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Wavy, to Major-General Grant, 
v. S. Army, transmitting copy of letter sent to Brigadier-General Gorman, 
ir. S. Army. 

February 14, 1863. 
General : I enclose you a letter I wrote to General Gorman. I find 
that' one of my officers whom I sent on the Yazoo expedition was 
assisting a relation of General Gorman (I am told his son) to buy 
cotton (on a permit from him) which of right belongs to the Gov- 
ernment, 



342 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

I placed the officer under arrest, and shall have him tried by court- 
martial. 

Can not we stop this cotton mania ? 

I have given all the naval vessels in the river strict orders to permit 
no trade in the rebel territory, but to seize all rebel cotton for the 
Government. 

I am, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Letter from Major-General Grant, TS. S. Army, to Acting Sear-Aamiral Porter, 
TI. S. Navy, regarding orders for seizure of the vessels. 

Before Vicksbtjrg, February 15, 1863. 

Representations coming in to me, as they have, reflecting on General 
Gorman's administration of affairs at Helena, I sent an officer there 
last week to supersede him in the command ; also a new quartermaster 
and provost-marshal. 

The steamers referred to in your note were reported to me, and 
directions immediately sent to Memphis to have them seized. Trade 
has not been opened below Helena by military authority, not even to 
purchase and ship cotton. I have thought of doing so as low down as 
Napoleon, but have been waiting to see if the Government would not 
take all the cotton and sell it in the loyal States. If it is regarded of 
prime necessity that the greatest amount should be secured, then ap- 
point Government agents to purchase for the Government, giving 
the citizens to understand that all the cotton they bring in would be 
paid for at a fixed price, say 20 cents per pound. 

No military commander has a right to direct or order a naval vessel 
on any duty, much less to give aid in private speculation. 

U. S. Grant. 

Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, transmitting copy of letter 
sent to Brigadler-Seneral Gorman, TS. S. Army. 

U. S. Flagship Black Hawk, 
Yazoo River, Miss., February 15, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose a copy of a communication I sent 
to Brigadier-General Gorman, at Helena, showing the Department 
the position I have taken in this matter. 

Every means possible is taken to avoid the law, and the temptation 
to amass fortunes is so great that some military commanders even 
lose sight entirely of the high position they hold. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



NAVAIi FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 343 

[Enclosiu-e.l 

February 15, 1863. 

General : Two vessels have lately come down to White Eiver with 
permits from you to purchase cotton and for the purpose of trading, 
and an order calling on the gunboats to aid such vessels while so 
trading. 

The regulations of the Treasury Department, Article I, provide 
that no goods, wares, or merchandise, whatever may be the ostensible 
destination thereof, shall be transported to any place under the con- 
trol of insurgents without a permit of a duly authorized officer of 
the Treasury. 

Art. IV: All applicants for permits to transport or trade under 
these permits shall state the character and value of the merchandise 
to be transported, the consignor and destination thereof, and the num- 
ber and description of packages, etc. 

Art. VI : No permits shall be granted to ship goods, wares, or mer- 
chandise to States or parts of States heretofore declared to be in a 
state of insurrection, and occupied by the military forces of the 
United States, except to persons residing or having business therein, 
and whose loyalty is undoubted, etc., and no permit shall be granted 
to ship merchandise from any such State or parts of State in violation 
of any order restricting shipments therefrom, made for military pur- 
poses, etc. 

Art. XI : No vessel, boat, or other vehicle used for transportation 
from the Eastern cities, or elsewhere in the loyal States, shall carry 
goods, stores, or merchandise into any place, section, or State re- 
stricted as aforesaid without the permit of the duly authorized officer 
of the customs, etc. And no vessel, boat, or vehicle used for trans- 
portation shall put off any goods, etc., at any place other than there 
named in the permit, etc. 

Art. XV: All vessels, boats, or vehicles vised for transportation 
violating any of the above regulations, and all goods, wares, or mer- 
chandise shipped or transported in violation thereof, will be forfeited 
to the United States. 

XIX: United States vessels clearing from domestic ports to any 
of the ports opened by the President's proclamation will apply to the 
custom-house officers of the proper ports in the usual manner, etc. 

My orders from the Navy Department are as follows (printed in- 
structions in Treasury circular) : 

Commanders of naval vessels will render such aid as may be necessary to 
carry out the provisions of such regulations, and enforcing ojjservance thereof, 
to the extent directed by the Secretary of the Treasury, as far as can be possi- 
bly done without danger to the operations or safety of their respective com- 
mands. In cases of the violation of the conditions of any clearance or permit 
granted under said Treasury regulations and in cases of unlawful traffic the 
guilty parties will be arrested and the facts promptly reported. 

Under these orders, restrictions, and conditions I have directed 
all naval commanders to seize vessels and merchandise where said 
orders, restrictions, and conditions are not complied with, and they 
are furthermore directed not to recognize any permits, coming from 
any source whatever but that required by the regulations of the 
Treasury Department, nor in any State or section not proclaimed 
open to trade by the general commanding-in-chief of the section or 
district where the Army may be operating. 



344 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

One of the steamers that was trading with your permit, under the 
charge of a person named Gorman, should have been seized for 
violation of law, and I have ordered the arrest of Acting Master 
George W. Brown, the naval officer (volunteer) who commanded the 
Forest Rose, and was sent most particularly on the Yazoo expedition. 
I have directed the commanders of all naval vessels to search for 
contraband of war in all steamers coming down the river; to seize 
all cotton on vessels this side of Helena; and not to leave their sta- 
tions or obey any orders without directions from me for so doing. 

I have found it necessary to pursue this course in consequence of 
improper and unauthorized interference with the vessels of my 
squadron, which I am always ready to send anywhere on public 
service, on proper representations or application from any military 
commander. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron^ 
Brigadier-General W. A. Gorman, 

Helena, Ark. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TS. S. Navy, to Iiieutenant-Commander 
Selfridge, IT. S. Navy, for the detention of the steamers Rose Hambleton and 
Evansville. 

February 15, 1863. 
Sir: Detain the Evansville and Rose Hamhleton as prizes, take 
an inventory of their cotton, and take it out of them ; also all other 
merchandise. 

Do not permit them to leave without further orders from me, and 
so treat all vessels with military permits, unless said permits are from 
General Grant. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Lieu tenant- Commander Thos. O. Seufridge, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. 8. S. Conestoga. 
P. S. — By looking over your letter again, I see that one of the 
vessels is full of cotton. Leave the cotton on board, but guard it 
well; make the boats tie up under the island, with fires out and an 
officer on board. 

p. D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral. 



Explanatory report of Acting Master Brown, IT. S. Navy, ]ate commanding 

IT. S. S. Forest Hose. 



U. S. Gunboat Juliet, 
Tazoo River, Fehruary 20, 1S63. 



Sir: In obedience to your order, I Avill endeavor to explain any 
apparent disobedience of your orders by me. First, respecting the 
order to tow the mortar down from Island 68 on my late trip from 



NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 345 

Memphis. The first order reads : '' Secure them so that they can 
not be destroyed, and when you return bring all you can with you. 
Fill up with coal at Memphis and return to me without delay. Give 
convoy to any of our vessels coming down from Memphis." 

The order which you wrote and gave me afterwards says : " The 
coal barges are at Australia Landing. If they have coal in them, fill 
up out of them as you go up, and also do the same coming down. 
See the mortar well secured on the island side." This being the last 
received, I considered it the one to go by, which I carried out, as I 
understood it, by towing the mortar under the point of Island 67 and 
anchored her with the anchor belonging to the Forest Rose, she 
having none belonging to her. The order to convoy any of our ves- 
sels coming down from Memphis I thought I was obeying by con- 
voying the Magnolia, as she was coming directly here. I did not wait 
for her at any place ; she waited for me at Memphis and at Helena, 
where I filled up with coal. I showed my orders to Captain Selfridge 
at Memphis. He told me that he should likely be at Helena when I 
came down, and if he wanted me to take a coal barge down he would 
give me my orders there. By that he, like myself, did not understand 
that I was to tow the mortar. As regards the last orders, I under- 
stood them to place me under the orders of General Gorman, as he 
was the commanding oiBcer at Helena. I showed him my orders from 
you. He told me that he had also received a letter from you, stating 
that you would send him a gunboat to remain there for such duty as 
he might require, and that he needed one to carry out General Grant's 
late order, and supposed that this was the one. I told him I under- 
stood that I was sent to work at the pass. This was on Sunday, the 
1st. On Saturday morning, the 7th, we left Helena to enter the pass. 
General Gorman promised us a small side-wheel steamer to go in 
ahead of us. We started in company. General Gorman in the Carl. 
He said he would go to Friar's Point, for he had some spies there 
that had reported a steamboat in the lake, and he wanted to find out 
about it. Also he was going to send the Henderson down after some 
wood, and said that he would be back with the Carl by the time we 
could examine the cut and be ready to go in. 

After examining the pass as far as we could, I resolved to try it. 
but was told by Mr. Morton and my pilot that they thought it im- 
practicable to go in with the Rose. At about 11 :30 a. m., seeing 
nothing of the Carl, we started and went into the lake, and found the 
entrance of the Yazoo Pass, but could not enter it with the Forest 
Rose. After waiting some time for the Carl, I manned my cutter, 
proceeded down the pass some 2 miles, and returned ; got underway 
and steamed out into the river, and then saw the Carl just leaving 
Friar's Point. We met her and returned, but it was too late to do 
anything that night. The general said he would return to Helena, 
and send a few hundred men down in the Carl, and have them there 
by 9 o'clock the next morning. We waited until 1 p. m. for the Carl 
and the men. Two boats with troops came (the Evansville and 
Matty Cook), but saw nothing of the Carl, which was the only boat 
that could go into the pass until some obstructions were cleared. At 
1 : 30 p. m. I manned and armed my cutter and proceeded down the 
pass, as I stated in my report to you. On our return, about 5 o'clock, 
we found that General Gorman had just arrived. I was ordered to 
return to Helena that night and bring down some troops. In the 



346 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

morning we took down 250 and landed them, and went to towing out 
some trees that were in the head of the pass. In the afternoon, at 
the request of General Washburn, commanding the forces at the 
pass, I started down the river to procure some contrabands to work in 
the pass. 

At Island 63 I fell in with the steamer Chippewa Valley, as previ- 
ously reported to you. I also met the Rose Hamhleton with an order 
from Mr. Wheelock to look after mortar boat No. 7 and tow her to 
White Eiver and to report to the commanding officer there. She had 
also a permit from General Gorman to land and trade under the pro- 
tection of a gunboat. I told him he could land when I landed, but 
that I should not wait for him. I went a little below Carson's Land- 
ing, and then returned up the river, giving the captain of the Rose 
Hambleton an order to return (enclosed is a copy). I arrived at 
Helena, turned the contrabands over to General Gorman (5 in all), 
and filled up with coal, and reported that I was ready to go into the 
pass. He informed me that he had received a letter from you, and 
that you had written him that you had sent him a gunboat to be em- 
jjloyed upon such duty as he might see fit to employ her on, and that 
I was not to go into the pass, but remain on the river to assist him in 
carrying out General Grant's order. He then told me that he wanted 
me to go down as far as White River and give the Evansville what 
assistance I could, and also to pick up all the able-bodied contrabands 
I could find along the river — to spend two or three days at it. I left 
that evening and ran as far as Island 68, where I found the Evans- 
ville. We came to and waited until daylight. About 7 o'clock I 
started to go down the river to Laconia Landing, when the Rattler, 
Lieutenant Commanding Smith, came up and made signals for me 
to come on board. I went on board and explained the nature of my 
business and what I was doing. He ordered me to report to him at 
Helena, and to inform General Gorman that in the future I should 
not be under his orders ; also to return and inform the captain of the 
Evansville that I could not give him any more assistance, and advise 
him to return with me to Helena, but not to allow him to detain me 
at all. I went back, but did not come up with him until he got to 
Laconia. As soon as I was in sight he landed, and when I got to him 
he had some cotton rolled out ready to take on board. I told the cap- 
tain my orders. He asked me if he could not take on board what he 
had down, and if I would not give him permission to do so. I looked 
over my general orders and saw nothing that would prevent my doing 
so, and I gave him a note allowing him to take it on board, and left 
him and proceeded up the river and reported to Captain Smith at 
Island 56. Previous to my leaving Helena, General Gorman informed 
me that the owner of this vessel (Evansville) was a Colonel Compton, 
and showed me a letter from General Curtis, requesting him to give 
him all the assistance he could without interfering with the interests 
of the Government. He also showed me an order from the Secretary 
of the Navy, respecting trade in the newly opened ports, and told me 
that you had promised him a gunboat to remain under his order, and 
that I was not to go in the expedition into the pass, and ordered me 
on the duty above mentioned. I regret to say that I acted on a verbal 
order, which I can assure you I shall never do again, if reinstated. I 
have no knowledge of General Gorman or his son being concerned in 
the cotton, only the rumors that I have heard. Had 1 not met with 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 347 

Captain Smith I should have reported the whole in writing to you. 
I arrived at Helena on the lith. On the 15th I was ordered to 
Memphis, and on my return was ordered to report to you as under 
arrest. Captain Smith told me that it was for giving vessels permis- 
sion to trade, against your order. I have given you, sir, a plain and 
true statement of the facts as they have occurred. In my reports I 
have given all that has been left out here. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson 
and Mr. Morton, special pilot, I think, will testify that I have done 
all I could to forward the work at Yazoo Pass. 
Hoping this will receive your early attention. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. W. Brown, 
Acting Master, U. 8. Navy. 
Acting Bear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding 3fississippi Squadron. 

[Enclosure.! 

U. S. S. Forest Rose, 
BeulaK Landing, Miss., February 10, 1863. 
Sir: You will not proceed down the river any farther in search 
of the mortar boat, as it is evident that it has been removed, and I 
have not time to go any farther; therefore work your way back to 
Helena, being careful not to violate any permits you may have from 
the commanding officer. 

Respectfully, etc. Geo. W. Brown, 

Coinmanding. 
Captain of Steamer Rose Hambleton. 



Keport of Fleet Captain Pennock, V. S. Navy, transmittinir papers relative to 

the seizure. 

Office of Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III, March 2, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith certain copies relative 
to the seizure of the steamers Evansville, Rose Hambleton, and Cur- 
lew. I have telegraphed the arrival of these steamers to the United 
States marshal and district attorney for the southern district of Illi- 
nois, and shall turn them over with everything on board as soon as 
possible. 

I had the honor to telegraph to the Department last night the fact 
of the seizure of the Curlew and the discovery of and capture from 
several persons of a considerable amount of Confederate States and 
Southern money. The money has been sealed up by me in the orig- 
inal packages in which it was received. It amounts to about $246 
in Confederates States notes, $918 in New Orleans money, and the 
balance, about $323, in Tennessee, Georgia^ and South Carolina 
money and shinplasters. I have retained this money until the cir- 
cumstances in relation thereto can be fully investigated. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Cowinuindant of Station. 
Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



348 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

[Enclosures.] 

U. S. Gunboat Conestoga, 
Mississippi River, February 19, 1863. 
Sir: I send up the steamers Evansville and Rose Hambleton, con- 
demned by Admiral Porter for illegal trading in the enemy's country. 
I have directed the officer in charge to report to you and to turn 
the steamers over to the custody of the United States marshal. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thomas O. Selfridge, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Com,manding Naval Station, Cairo, III. 



U. S. Gunboat Conestoga, 
Mississippi River, February 19, 1863. 
Sir: I send up by order of Admiral Porter the steamers Evans- 
ville and Rose Hamhleton, seized on the evening of February 12 at 
Carson's Landing, Miss., for illegal trading and trafficking in the 
enemy's country without proper licenses and in violation of naval 
and military regulations. 

All the official papers found on board are in possession of the 
admiral. 

They were captured by the gunboat Duchess, acting under my 
orders. 

The Conestoga and Duchess are entitled to share in the proceeds 
of the prize. 

Witnesses besides the officers of the captured steamers, the officers 
of the Duchess and Acting Master French, of the U. S. S. Brown. 
I have directed the officers in charge to deliver over the steamers to 
you. The officers and crew of the captured steamers will probably 
endeavor to escape unless forcibly detained. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thomas O. Selfridge, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
U. S. District Marshal, Cairo, III. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Brown, gunboat Forest Rose, is a 
witness. 

I enclose manifest of cargo of Rose Hamlleton and Evansville. 

Thomas O. Selfridge, 
LAeutenant- Commander. 



IJ. S. Gunboat Conestoga, 
Off White River, February 21, 1863. 
Sir: I enclose an extract of the letter from Admiral Porter in 
relation to the prize steamers. 

I forward you by the Evansville 84 bales of cotton belonging to 
the Conestoga, taken upon an order from the admiral to seize all the 
cotton I can. 



NAVAL FOSCES ON WESTERN WATEKS. 349 

This is entirely independent of the Evansville's cargo proper, 
and put on board of her only for transportation. 

Will you please have this lot taken off and stored before delivering 
the vessels to the marshal. 

Are you in want of any male contrabands ? 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thomas O. SELrKiooE, 
Lieutenant- Commander. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Uommanding Naval Station^ Cairo, III. 

[Subenclosure.] 

Extract of letter dated Fehruary IT, 1863, from Admiral Porter to Lieutenant- 
Commander Selfridge. 

When possible, send up the two steamers (with a prize crew) to 
Cairo, with a full statement of facts and extract from the log. 
They are condemned on the ground of trading in the enemy's country 
without license. Captain Pennock will turn them over to the mar- 
shal. Send me a list of persons on board your vessel at the time of 
capture, and take all steps required by law for the condemnation 
of the vessels. The captains and mates to go up in the vessels. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 

Acting Bear-Admiral. 



U. S. Gunboat New Era, 
Island No. 10, February ^8, 1863. 
Sir: I send you up the steamer Curlew, with Mr. Marsh, first 
assistant engineer, as prize master. 

I overhauled the steamer this morning, and on examination I 
found a large quantity of goods not permitted in any way, and to 
be landed at Fulton Bend. Besides these goods I also seized a large 
quantity of money, which I also send you. 

I am confident that when her hold is examined you will find a large 
quantity of goods also. 

It would be advisable (I most respectfully suggest) to immediately 
put a guard on board, as the passengers and crew are not over loyal. 
I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. C. Hanford, 
Commanding New Era. 
A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain, and Com/mandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



[Telegram.] 

Caiho, III., March 1, 1863 — 11 p. m. 
Steamer Curlew, bound down river, just arrived. Was seized by 
gunboat New Era at Island No. 10 for having goods without permit 
on board to be landed at Fulton Bend, below Fort Pillow, where 
guerrillas attempted to capture steamer Belle Memphis. Fifteen 
hundred and eighty-seven dollars and fifteen cents in counterfeit 
money and Southern funds also seized. So many goods, arms, drugs, 



350 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

etc., are landed at present between this point and Memphis at places 
not occupied by United States forces that I would respectfully sug- 
gest that no boats be permitted to go below except on Government 
service. General Grant has already prohibited trade below Memphis. 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 



fc> 



Report of Lieutenant - C ommander Selfridge, U. S. Navy, denying 
unfounded reports regarding his command off White River. 

U. S. S. CONESTOGA, 

Off White River, Felruary 11, 1863. 

Sir : Your communications dated February 8, with Squadron Gen- 
eral Order (33) and general orders and circulars from the Navy 
Department, have been received. 

The General Bragg has never been up either the Arkansas or White 
rivers. 

Since I have been in command at this point no vessels have been 
fired upon at or near Napoleon, nor anywhere in this vicinity, except 
the Ike Hammitt, on Sunday last, near Napoleon. It was a small 
volley, and inflicted no injury. Had there been others I must have 
known it, as I require all transports to report to me. 

Your orders bearing date January 17 and 20 direct me to cruise 
under Ioav steam between the Arkansas and White rivers. 

Upon the receipt of the order dated January 28 the General Bragg 
was dispatched to Napoleon. She has been lying ever since at the 
head of Ozark Island, 2 miles below the town. 

The ram Lancaster brought only verbal instructions to report to me. 
Her commander led me to suppose that you were ignorant of her 
condition. 

It has been my constant endeavor to carry out your instructions to 
the letter. 

It is a source of regret that unfounded reports should have caused 
you to feel dissatisfied with my course. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. O. Selfrtdge, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

The night signal for an enemy between myself and the Bragg is a 
gun and rocket, which I have found to answer the purpose. 
Respectfully, etc., 

Thos. O. Selfridge, 

Lieutenant-Commander. 



Confidential letter from. Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to 
Fleet Captain Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, regarding various matters. 

Confidential.] 

February 11, 1863. 
Sir : As circumstances occur I have to change the quantity of coal 
required here and find it impossible to hit upon any particular quan- 



NAVAL. FOBCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 351 

tity. It is likely that we shall want a large amount, and I want a 
stack of 160,000 bushels sent to the Yazoo Kiver, besides the monthly 
allowance already required, viz, 70,000 bushels here, 40,000 at White 
Eiver, and 20,000 at Memphis. You will also have the Abraham 
filled up with three months' provisions and stores for the squadron, 
or as much as she can carry, and keep her ready at all times with her 
machinery in order and in condition to move at a moment's notice to 
such point as I may designate. Circumstances may occur when it 
will be necessary to move the wharf boat, and you will arrange for 
the most expeditious plan to do so. There is a plan on foot which it 
is necessary to look out for ; it extends to the army here, or at least to 
those officers who compose McClernand's staff. 

Jake Thompson, the old Secretary of the Interior, came over under 
a flag of truce, with a flimsy excuse, when in fact he wanted to com- 
municate with McClernand. 

I would not let him, but sent for General Grant instead, and so 
checkmated him. You will see from what I have written the im- 
portance of carrying out my order to the letter, for much depends on 
my being in such a position with the squadron that I can not be 
hampered, and can be in a condition to move where I please. I am 
sending coal down past the batteries at Vicksburg at night for the 
ram Queen of the West and her consort, the De Soto, a prize. I 
expect to do a great deal of damage below. Already the ram Qv^en 
of the West has destroyed over $200,000 worth of rebel property and 
four fine steamers. 

Very respectfully, David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, 
Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo. 



Instructions of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Self ridge, U. S. Navy, regarding cotton. 

February 11, 1863. 
Sir: No trading or purchasing cotton will be allowed below 
Helena. If vessels come with permits, turn them back with an offi- 
cer on board, who will proceed with them as far as Helena to see that 
they do not trade ; the officer will then return to his vessel. 

If vessels have cotton on board in forbidden localities, take it out ; 
if the vessels have no permits, and are not army transports, keep 
them at White Eiver until you hear from me. State in your report 
all the circumstances. 

Take aU the cotton you can hear of in your vicinity, when you can 
do so with safety ; it is all rebel property. Keep an accurate account 
of it, all the names of the persons and their relations to our Govern- 
ment. Hold the cotton subject to my order. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S. S. Conestoga off White River. 



352 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Report of Captain Sutherland, commanding U. S. ram Monarch, 
regarding affairs in the vicinity of Greenville, Miss. 

U. S. Ram Monakch, 
Off Greenville, February 11, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report that I have not been able to arrest 
the men indicated in your order to Captain Prichett ; I do not think 
they are in this part of the country. 

Early on the morning of the 9th instant I moved over to Green- 
ville and surprised a party of mounted rebels ; they left precipitately 
without firing. I succeeded, however, in dismounting several of 
them before they got away. 

I took a party of my men and searched the town. I ascertained 
that they were regularly quartered there. They had a quantity of 
provender for their horses, which they placed (for protection) near 
a hospital ; the hospital contained ten or twelve sick soldiers. 

The enemy were quartered in a church, and have for a long time 
occupied a building near the water's edge for a lookout. 

It is my opinion that the enemy do not intend to fire upon us from 
that town, but to avail themselves of its comforts and conveniences 
to quarter there and watch the movement of our vessels. I would 
have considered it within the scope of my orders to have burned the 
town had not the hospital been m the way. I await your instruc- 
tions relative to Greenville. 

The General Lyon circulated a report here, of an expedition going 
through Yazoo Pass down Sunflower into Yazoo Eiver. This morn- 
ing two regiments of the enemy were seen 10 miles back of here, 
moving north. This comes from too many sources to be doubted. 

Two of Adams' companies are encamped 8 miles back of here on 
Deer Creek. We encounter their pickets every day, but they are 
very cowardly. I have penetrated the country here 3 miles back, 
destroyed a ferryboat across a bayou, in which they crossed their 
pickets to this side, also a barge, which was captured from one of 
our vessels. 

The water is not sufficiently high to inundate the country by cut- 
ting the levees. 

The ram Fulton, with coal in tow, was fired into at the foot of 
Cypress Bend. 

I will move to that point at midnight and get back here to-morrow. 
I think I have sufficient force to land, scour the country, and cap- 
ture the enemy's artillery. I also have a plan for surprising the two 
Adams companies, which I will lay before you as soon as I have time. 

I hope I do not transcend your instructions by going to Cypress 
Bend. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. W. Sutherland, 
Captain, Commanding Monarch. 

Eear-Admiral D. D. Porter. 



General Order No. 35. 

February 11, 1863. 
No vessel belonging to this squadron will leave the station assigned 
them without a written order from me. 



NAVAL POECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 353 

Military officers must make requisition on me for vessels when 
they are wanted, and officers commanding must decline acceding to 
any order or request to leave a station where I have placed them. 

No person not connected with the Army or Navy, and on public 
service, will be taken on board any vessel in this squadron excepting 
refugees in distress. 

[Davh) D. Porter], 
Acting Rear-Adndrcd, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding the seizure 
of the steamer Home. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February m, 1863. 
Sir: The steamer Home arrived here a few days since. I have 
had her seized in accordance with your order of the 26th ultimo. 
The United States marshal will be here to-morrow, when the whole 
matter, together with other property captured as prize, will be placed 
in his hands. The Rocket has not yet arrived. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Convmandant of Station. 

Acting Rear- Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-AdmiroU Porter, U. S. Navy, to Acting Master 
Simonds, U. S. Navy, to hasten the completion of steamer Sov- 
ereign. 

February 12, 1863. 
Sir: It is very important that the Sovereign should return here 
filled with provisions as soon as possible. 

You will get her guards repaired as soon as possible, and send her 
down under convoy of the Cricket. While you are repairing her 
guards, do any other work required, but the moment she can raise 
steam and turn her wheels, send her down. I can make all other 
repairs here. 

You will send Mr. Rowe by the first opportunity, under guard, to 
Captain A. M. Pennock, at Cairo, to be kept in confinement there until 
further orders. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Com/manding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Master G[ustavus] B. Simonds, U. S. Navy, 

Commandant of Navy Yard, Mem,phis, Tenn. 

711°— N w E— VOL 24—10 23 



354 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATBES. 

Order of Acting Rear-AdmiroU Porter, U. 8. Navy, for guard ships, 
regarding lights to ie shown by vessels running the blockade of 
Vicksburg. 

February 12, 1863. 
For the Guard Ship off the Gamp: 

Whenever any of our vessels that have run the blockade at Vicks- 
burg and are coming up, the guard vessel will know them by their 
two red lights or three perpendicular lights, or burning a Coston 
signal or blue light. 

Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, C om/ma'nding .Mississippi Squadron. 

One guard ship will pass this to the other. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V . S. Navy, to Treasury 
Agent Yeatman, regarding the restriction of trade. 

February 12, 1863. 
Sir : Captain Self ridge, of the Conestoga, informs me that the 
Evansville came below as far as White Kiver to trade. We are carry- 
ing on important military operations, and you will please notify 
vessels that they can not trade below Helena. Any permits granted 
for trading purposes will not be recognized. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Thos. H. Yeatman, Esq., 

Special Agent Treasury, Memphis, Terun. 



Report of Acting Lieutenant Woodworth, TJ. S. Navy, acknowledging 
Ids assignment to the U. S. S. Lexington, regarding work on the 
U. S. S. General Price, and recovery of armament of the TJ. S- S. 
Glide. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 12, 1863. 

Sir : Your letter of January 28, 1862, tendering me the command 
of gunboat Lexington, came to hand by gunboat Juliet. For your 
kind offer I am extremely obliged. 

The Price will be ready in ten days to start for Vicksburg. Cap- 
tain Pennock is using every exertion to dispatch her, and on Monday, 
the 15th, we will commence loading her with such articles as you have 
required to her full capacity. I am aiming her with three 9-inch 
guns on Marsilly carriages aft, and one 9-inch on pivot for- 
ward, there being no lOO-pounder rifles here. Also two 14-pounder 
howitzers, fieldpieces, on boiler deck. Part of her officers have al- 
ready been ordered to her, and believe some men can be shipped for 
her in Cairo, 



NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTERN WATl?.S. 355 

The joiners and painters will finish their work this week, and the 
deck will be ready to receive her guns by Wednesday next. 

Since the burning of the Glide, Mr. Dahlgren and myself have been 
engaged in recovering from the wreck the most valuable portion of 
her armament. We have got all her guns, which are in good order, 
except one. The carriages are destroyed, but the mountings are re- 
covered and can be refitted here. We have also saved her anchor and 
chains, all the iron plates from her casemates and sides, and many 
other articles of value that can be again employed. Her boilers, 
engines, doctor, capstan, and wheel, complete, are saved, and can 
be used again, with but slight repairs. AH the canister and most 
of her shrapnel and shell are recovered, but slightly damaged by 
water. 

Captain Pennock has doubtless informed [you] of the victory over 
the enemy by the gunboat fleet in the Cumberland Kiver, in saving 
Fort Donelson. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Selim E. Woodwoeth, 
Acting Lieutenant, U. S. Navy. 

Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

G om/manding Mississipjn Squadron. 



Report of Fleet Captain Permoch, V. S. Navy, regarding the prepara- 
tion of the V. S. S. Lafayette. 

Office Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., Felruary 12, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to report to you that on the arrival of Captain 
Walke, TJ. S. Navy, from Island No. 10, to take command of the U. S. 
gunboat Lafayette, I delivered to him a copy of your communication 
to me of the 5th ultimo, in accordance with your order contained 
therein; that I had her provisioned immediately on receipt of your 
letter, and that her ordnance stores have been put on board and her 
crew detailed and ready for transfer on board the receiving ship 
Clara Dolsen at any time that Captain Walke may be ready to re- 
ceive them. I have also ordered all her officers on board, with an ad- 
ditional number of acting master's mates. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain, and Conrniandarvt of Station. 
Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

P. S. — I am informed that the iron plates necessary to complete 
the Lafayette have been on the way here for some time ; that the vessel 
on which they were shipped grounded, and that the quartermaster 
has sent a light-draft boat to bring the iron to Cairo. 

I have also given Captain Walke a copy of your letter to me of the 
2d instant, 



356 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTBEN WATEES. 

Order of Gaftcdn Walke, U. S. Navy, to Pilot McBride, to report on 
board the U. S. S. Lafayette. 

U. S. S. Lafayette, 
Cairo, III., February 13, 1863. 
Sir : You will report to me for duty on board of this vessel until 
further orders. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. Walke, 
Captain, V. S. Navy. 
Pilot Samuel McBride, 

U. S. S. Eastport. 



Letter from. Acting Rear-AdmiraZ Porter, U. 8. Navy, to Major- 
General Grant, V. S. Army, regarding the preparation of mortars 
for attach. 

Februaet 13, 1863. 
General : I am preparing the mortars and will open on the town 
and thereabouts as soon as 1 can get them in position. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Gommanding Army of the Mississippi. 



Order of Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Captain Suther- • 
land, commanding JJ. S. ram Monarch, regarding the securing of 
cotton. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir: You will obtain all the cotton you can find in rebeldom and 
report to me in each case the number of bales, the names of the per- 
sons claiming ownership, and the time and circumstances under which 
it was taken. Also report to me the number of bales you now have on 
board. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-AdmAral, Comma'nding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain E. W. Sutherland, 

Commianding U. S. Ram, Monarch. 



Report of Fleet Captain PerwvocJc, V. S. Navy, regarding Confederate 
oncers captured by the TJ. S. ram Queen of the West. 

No. 19.] Oetice Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., February 13, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a communica- 
tion to me from Acting Rear-Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 
commanding Mississippi Squadron, relative to four rebel captains 



NAVAL FORCES OIT WESTERN WATERS. 357 

brought here in the U. S. S. General Lyon, and whom I have turned 
over to the military authorities as directed therein. Their names are 
J. S. Johnson, W. G. Kolfe, F. Scott, and H. C. Smith. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Convmandant of Station. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, 'Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, Fehruary 9, 1863. 
Sir: I send by the General Lyon four rebel captains, and will 
send four more by the New Nation/il. 

These officers were captured by the ram Queen of the West. They 
will be turned over to the military authorities, and you will report 
them to the Secretary of the Navy. 
Very respectfully, 

D. D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, ComTnanding Mississippi Squadron. 
Commander A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo. 



Order of Acting Rear-AdmArcH Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Lieutenant- 
Corrvmander Selfridge, TJ. S. Navy, regarding captured cotton. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir : All the cotton you may capture you will send up to Cairo, to 
Captain Pennock, with a list of persons who owned it, the number of 
bales, the time captured, and a copy to be sent to me. I will designate 
the vessels that will take it up to Cairo. \. 

Send me a list of the amount you have taken altogether, up to this 
time, with the names of the owners, etc. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Thos. O. Selfridge, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Consstoga. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TJ. S. Navy, to Acting Volun- 
teer Lieutenant Scott, TJ. S. Navy, to explain absence from his 
station. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir : When the Tyler, sent to relieve the Signal at Greenville, the 
station assigned her in my orders to you of the 26th January, arrived 
there, your vessel was not found there. 

You will be pleased to give an explanation of your conduct in this 
matter. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, C owjrrhanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Acting Volunteer Lieutenant John Scott, U. S. Navy. 



358 NAVAL FOKCES ON WESTEBN WATEES. 

Letter from Acting Rear-AdTmral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Major- 
GeneroU Grant, U. 8. Army, forwarding escaped prisoner. 

February 13, 1863. 
General : The bearer, B. D. Hurley, a prisoner taken by the rebels 
at Corinth, and who has escaped from Jackson jail, wants to join his 
company, the Hatchee Scouts. 

He may be able to give you valuable information. 
I am, general, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admirdl, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

CoTnmanding Department of Tennessee. 



Report of Fleet Captain Pennock, TJ. S. Navy, transmitting report 
regarding the seizure of steamer White Cloud, February 13, 1863. 

No. 21.] OiTicE Mississippi Squadron, 

Cairo, III., Felnary 19, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith several copies relative to 
the capture of a rebel mail and goods contraband of war on the steam- 
boat White Cloud, and the consequent seizure of that vessel. The 
mail was brought here on the morning of the 15th instant by Acting 
Ensign Hanford, and I immediately, after a cursory examination 
into its contents, ordered Acting Lieutenant Woodworth to proceed 
with it to St. Louis for the purpose of enabling Major-General Curtis 
to gain important information therein contained. I had not sufficient 
time to take copies of any letters except one, a copy of which I here- 
with enclose; also a copy of Lieutenant Woodworth's report on his 
return from St. Louis this morning. 

The White Cloud has not yet arrived at this station, and I have 
therefore not yet taken possession of her. She has on board a prize 
officer from the gunboat New Era. 

I have tele^aphed to the marshal and district attorney that I am 
hourly expecting her arrival. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Pennock, 
Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

Cairo, III., February H, 1863. 
Sir: On the afternoon of the 13th instant, as the steamer White 
Cloud was going down the river we thought it advisable to overhaul 
her, and found on board a lady's satchel underneath the cabin between 
two washtubs, containing a rebel mail. Also found on board two 
trunks with contraband goods and revolvers; found the owners and 
brought them here and turned them over to the United States mar- 
shal. Seized the steamer; but on account of her having Government 



NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 359 

stores on board, gave her in charge of one of our officers and allowed 
her to proceed to Memphis, and on her return will be brought to this 
port for adjudication. I also seized the owner of one barrel of 
whisky that was to be landed at Island No. 35. 

On my way down in the John D. Perry I found in one of the pas- 
senger's trunks a false top containing arms and quinine. I found the 
owner and took him prisoner. On searching his person I found $2,041 
in gold on his person, which I seized. I also found another trunk 
containing contraband goods, which I seized also. By order of Cap- 
tain Flanner I have brought the prisoners, together with the goods, 
and turned them all over to Captam Woodworth. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. C. Hanford, 
Executive Officer. 
Captain A. M. Pennock, 

Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station, Cairo, III. 



Attacks upon Federal vessels Tiear Greenville, Miss., and correspond- 
ence regarding proposed retaliatory measures, February 13 to 
April 7, 1863. 

Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Wayy, to Hajor-General Orant, 
11. S. Army, regarding the need of a force at Qreenville. 

February 13, 1863. 
General : I have reliable information that two regiments of rebels 
(about 800 men) have been sent up the Sunflower with artillery to 
annoy vessels passing Greenville and that neighborhood. Would it 
not be a good plan to try and clean out that country ? Three or four 
hundred cavalry, with some light fieldpieces, would do it. They think 
we will not molest them. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davh) D. Porter, 
Acting Rear- Admiral, Gomrrumding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Gommuinding Army of tJve Mississippi. 
There is also a battery at Cypress Bend, which can be taken by 200 
men. I have a gunboat near there. 



Letter from Uajor-General McClernand, TT. S. Army, to Acting Bear-Admiral Por- 
ter, V. S. Navy, proposing to send an armed force to Greenville. 

Headquarters Thirteenth Army Corps, 
Gamp before Vicksburg, February 13, 1863. 
Admiral: Your note of this date to Major-General Grant, in his 
absence, was referred to these headquarters. 

To meet the threatened attack upon our transports by the forces 
you refer to, I have ordered General A. J. Smith to send a brigade to 
Greenville, and all his available cavaliy, and to capture or disperse 
the enemy on either bank of the river. 



360 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 

Your cooperation, with such number of gunboats as you niay deem 
necessary, is respectfully invited. The expedition will sail by to- 
morrow afternoon with seven days' rations. 

I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant, 

John A. McCueknand. 
Rear- Admiral Davto D. Pokter, 

Gom/rrvanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, to Captain Sutherland, com- 
manding IT. S. ram Monarch, to proceed to Cypress Bend when feasible. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir: Your communication of the [11th] instant has been received. 
I approve of your going to Cypress Bend ; visit it whenever you can 
leave Greenville, and if possible get those fieldpieces that are firing 
on our vessels. If you catch any of the party who fire on unarmed 
vessels hang them to the nearest tree. 

Very respectfully, David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain E. W. Sutherland, 

Gorrvmanding Monarch. 

p. s. — Obtain cotton wherever you can, to have your boilers and 
steam pipe perfectly protected from shot. 



Order of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TI. S. Navy, to Captain Sutherland, com- 
manding v. S. ram Monarch. 

February 13, 1863. 
Sir : You will convoy the Wilson safely past Cypress Bend. 
Very respectfully, David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear- Admiral, Gommanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Captain E. "W. Sutherland, 

Gom/manding Monarch. 



Letter from Captain Sutherland, commanding XT. S. ram Monarch, to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ferguson, C. S. Army, requesting an interview. 

Mississippi Eiver Eam Fleet, 
Off Greenville, February l\., 1863. 
Sir : I desire an interview with you on business connected with the 
service. If you will do me the honor to meet me, I will indicate the 
court-house m Greenville as a proper place, where I will be with a 
flag of truce to-morrow (Sunday, 15th) at 2 p. m.* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Edwin W. Sutherland, 

Captain, U. S. Navy, 
Gommanding First Division, Ram Flotilla. 

Officer Commanding C. S. Forces near Greenville. 

* See also A. W. K.,'vol. XXIV, pt. 3, pp. 626, 637, 650. 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEBN WATEBS. 361 

Keport of Captain Sutherland, commanding ram Honarch, regarding petitions 
received from the women of Greenville for protection. 

Mississippi Eiver Kam Fleet, 
OH Greewville, February 16, 1863. 

Sir : I have the honor to report that on Saturday, 14th, I received 
a visit from the women of Greenville, praying me not to destroy 
their town without giving them notice to leave. I answered that 
when the rebels fired on us from that town it would be their note of 
warning. I was then informed that a rebel officer desired to see me. 
I consented and appointed to meet him the next day at Greenville. 

At the time indicated the rebel, attended by some twenty officers 
and men, arrived. He introduced himself as Colonel Ferguson, com- 
manding Confederate forces this side Yazoo Eiver. He is a graduate 
of West Point, has been on the staflf of Beauregard, is dignified and 
polite, and presented me with the following bill of indictment : That 
I had frightened women and children, that I had fired on unarmed 
citizens, and that I had fired into a house where there was a sick 
Methodist minister (very low with smallpox) , and nobody with him 
but an old widow (Mrs. Blanton) , and he himself had seen where 
the shell went through the house, fell on the floor, but did not ex- 
plode ; and added as I had failed to give good and valid reasons for 
it, I was booked for doom. 

I replied that I had never knowingly fired on unarmed people or 
into houses occupied by women, and if such was the case, it was 
accidental. 

In reference to the measures you intended to adopt toward those 
men who fire on unarmed vessels, he stated substantially that the 
time had come to run up the black flag, and if your orders were 
executed, reprisals would swiftly follow. That you could not afford 
to carry out your threats, as they had a great preponderance of pris- 
oners. He asked for a copy of your notice to forward to General 
Pemberton. 

He further said he would bum all the cotton he thought might 
fall into your hands, and that he would hang every negro that he 
could catch going to or coming off our boats. 

Colonel Ferguson was dressed in artillery uniform; most of his 
officers in the uniform of cavalry. 

I think his command proper is seven pieces of artillery and about 
230 effective cavalry, from all the information I can get from pris- 
oners, refugees, and contrabands. 

This force was formerly under the command of Colonel Starke. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. W. SlTTHEBLAND, 

Captain, Commanding Monarch. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Poeter. 



Report of Captain Sutherland, commanding IT. S. ram Konarch, regarding co- 
operation with Brigadier-General Burbridge, V. S. Army. 

Mississippi Eiver Eam Fleet, 

Monarch, February 20, 1863. 
Sir: I have the honor to report that on Monday, 16th, General 
Burbridge came on board and said he intended to land near Green- 



362 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

ville and ferret out the rebels on that side the river, and said you 
had directed me to cooperate with him. I immediately moved to a 
point a mile and a half above Greenville. I covered the debarkation 
of the troops (some 3,000 men). I then took a horse and accom- 
panied the general to Deer Creek, where he camped. I returned the 
same evening' to the vessel. On my way back I found the army so 
utterly demoralized that I sent a message to General Burbridge to 
fall back under cover of my guns. From the head of the column, 10 
miles out, all the way back to the boat, was one continuous line of 
stragglers, pillaging every house within 2 or 3 miles of the road. 
Arriving at my vessel I shelled the men away from the houses in 
reach of my guns. During the night messages were constantly com- 
ing to me from wronged and outraged women asking for protection. 
These messages were almost all addressed to " Captain, Gunboat 
Monarch, or any naval officer." I enclose two of them as a specimen. 

It is my conscientious belief that had 100 mounted rebels attacked 
the command of General Burbridge it would have been routed. The 
expedition, having arrested two men, returned next day. 

The following results were achieved : Taking jewelry from the per- 
sons of women and toys of little children, and making a rebel soldier 
of every man and boy this side of Yazoo River. I gave General Bur- 
bridge your orders relative to pillaging. He immediately arrested 
50 of his men, whom he says he will court-martial. I prevailed on 
the general to go with me to this point, where we arrived the 18th. 
Yesterday the cavalry moved out some 8 miles, when they were fired 
on by the rebel battery, three 6-pounders. The cavalry fell back, 
pursued by the enemy. General Burbridge moved up with infantry 
and artillery, and would have captured their guns had he not given 
them an idea of his strength by engaging with his whole force a few 
pickets. Major Montgomery and myself went forward to recon- 
noiter ; arrived at the ferry across a bayou in time to see the enemy 
moving off. After destroying the ferry our artillery came up and 
engaged them, but they soon got out of the way. We captured a 
lieutenant, who admits he was with the party who fired on the Ful- 
ton. General Burbridge will not let me have him. I got possession 
of a private, who said he had fired on the Fulton. I shot him dead on 
the spot, and will execute all others I can get hold of. The troops 
yesterday moved in good order. 
"Very respectfully, etc., 

E. W. Sutherland, 
Captain, Commanding Monarch. 

Rear- Admiral David D. Porter. 



Extract from report oi Brigadier-General Burbridge, TS. S. Army, regarding 
operations of his brigade. 

Headquarters First Brigade, 
Tenth Division, Thirteenth Army Corps, 

Toung^s Point, La., February 27, 1863. 
Lieutenant: I have the honor to submit the following report of 
the operations of my brigade against rebel forces at Greenville and 
other places: . 



NAVAIi FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 363 

This brigade embarked on transports on the morning of the 14th 
(February) instant and moved to Greenville. 

* * * il: * * * 

On the morning of the 18th I moved the fleet to Cypress Bend, 

where but a few days previous a transport had been fired into. 
* * ^ 

Hearing from three deserters who came in to us on the morning of 
the 20th uiat the enemy had gone beyond our reach, I returned to the 
transports and remained there that night, intending to drop down 
next morning to Perkins' Landing, 4 miles from Cypress Bend, where 
I had heard I could, by a road leading into the Bolivar and Vicksburg 
road, cut off the retreat of Colonel [S. W.] Ferguson's force and com- 
pel him to give battle or surrender ; but the weather was so inclement 
that I remained at Cypress Bend, while Captain Sutherland, of the 
steam ram Monarch, went up to Bolivar to hear of the location of the 
enemy. He reported that the whole force had left Bolivar the day 
previous and had returned to the vicinity of Greenville. 

To Captain Sutherland, of the steam ram Monarch, I am indebted 
for many acts of courtesy in his official capacity. His ram was with 
my transports from the time we reached Greenville until our return, 
and I was by that mea,ns able to leave the boats with no guard, and 
take all the well men with me in whatever expedition I needed them. 

I find that there are no road improvements in the country, and it 
is impossible for infantry to be effective against cavalry in such a 
country. Their information is always better than our own ; the citi- 
zens all sympathize with them. The only force which can capture 
any of those rebel forces that fire into our transports is cavalry, or 
mounted infantry, and light mountain howitzers. * * * 

I am, with much respect, etc., 

S. G. BURBEIDGB, 

Brigadier-General. 
Lieutenant Hough, 

Acting Assistant Adjustant-Generdl, 

Tenth Division, Thirteenth Arm/y Corps. 



Letter from lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, C. S. Army, to Captain Sutherland, 
Commanding TT. S. ram Honarch, requesting an interview under flag of truce. 

Headquarters C. S. Forces, 
Washington County, Miss., February 25, 1863. 
Sir: I desire to communicate with you, officially, in reference to 
the recent notice of Admiral Porter, communicated to me by you. 
Should you agree to honor me with an interview, I will meet you 
with a flag of truce at such proper time and place as you may desig- 
nate. 

S. W. Ferguson, 
Lieutenani-ColonM, 0. S. Forces. 
Captain E. W. Sutherland, TJ. S. NaT^y, 

Commanding Bam Monarch 



364 NAVAL, FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

Order of Lieutenant-General Pemberton, C. S. Army, to lieutenant-Colonel Fergu- 
son, C. S. Army, regarding retaliation. 

Hdqes. Dept. of Miss, and Eastern La., 

Jackson^ February 20, 1863. 

Sir : A few days since instructions were sent you in case you find 
that your position on the river could not be maintained, you should 
return. The same are now reiterated. Ileaveittoyour judgment to 
determine the advisability of remaining or returning, inasmuch as 
no further supporting force can be now sent you. Admiral Porter's 
notice, threatening to treat as highwaymen and assassins persons who 
may be found interrupting the navigation of the Mississippi River, 
and giving no quarter to any person found burning cotton or levying 
contribution on the inhabitants along the river, has been forwarded 
by General Stevenson to me. You are authorized to say to Captain 
Sutherland, or any other Federal oiEcers, that if his threat is carried 
out, retaliation in the fullest measure will be visited on the heads 
of such Federal officers and prisoners as I have, or may hereafter 
fall into my hands. I shall direct General Stevenson to notify Ad- 
miral Porter that any attempt to carry into effect this notice will 
be retaliated in the same manner upon such prisoners as I now have 
or may hereafter fall into my hands. 
I am, very, respectfully, 

J. C. Pemberton. 

Lieutenant-Colonel S. W. Ferguson. 



letter from Major-General Stevenson, C. S. Army, to Major-General Grant, IT. S. 
Army, regarding retaliation. 

HbQRS. Second District, Dept. of Miss, and East. La., 

Vicksburff, February ^^, 1863. 

General : I am instructed by lieutenant-general commanding this 
department to transmit to you the enclosed copy of a notice purport- 
ing to have been issued by Admiral David D. Porter, U. S. Navy. 
I request that you will inform me whether this document is authentic ; 
and if it be, whether the operations of any part of the forces under 
you are to be conducted in accordance with the principles announced 
by Admiral Porter or those of civilized warfare ? 

While the troops of this Confederacy whom I have the honor to 
command will actively repel the invasion of our territory by the 
forces of the United States, it is my desire that their operations shall 
be in according with the usages of war, of humanity, and of 
civilization. I shall deplore the necessity of any departure from 
them. Therefore I hope this notice of Admiral Porter is not au- 
thentic, or that it will be reconsidered, and that in no case will its 
threats be executed, because I am instructed to say, if they are, the 
fullest retafiation will be inflicted upon the Federal prisoners now 
in our hands, or whom we may capture, and no quarter will be given 
to any officer, soldier, or citizen of the United States taken in the 
act of burning houses, laying waste the plantations, or otherwise 
wantonly destroying the property of the citizens of this Confederacy ; 
and that all such persons suspected or having been guilty of such 



NAVAL FOECBS ON WESTERN WATEBS. 365 

acts will not, if taken, be treated as prisoners of war, but will be kept 
in close confinement. 

Relying upon your disposition to cooperate with me in averting the 
necessity for a resort to such measures, I am, general, respectfully, 
your obedient servant. 

C. L. Stevenson. 
Major-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding U. S. forces in front of Viclcsiurg. 

[Enclosure.] 
'Notice. 

Persons taken in the act of firing on unarmed vessels from the banks 
will be treated as highwaymen and assassins, and no quarter will be 
shown them. 

Persons strongly suspected of firing on unarmed vessels will not 
receive the usual treatment of prisoners of war, but will be kept in 
close confinement. 

If this savage and barbarous Confederate custom can not be put a 
stop to, we win try what virtue there is in hanging. 

All persons, no matter who they are, who are caught in the act of 
pillaging the houses of the inhabitants along the river, levying con- 
tribution, or burning cotton, will receive no quarter if caught in the 
act, or if it is proved upon them. 

David D. Poeteb, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Comm,anding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, C. S. Army, regarding proposed interview 
with Captain Sutherland. 

Near Greenville, Washington Countt, 

February 28, 1863. 
Major: Your favor of 23d instant has just come to hand. I have 
to report that I am here with a small party waiting to communicate, 
by flag of truce, with the ram Monarch, instructions of the 20th 
instant direct from Lieutenant-General Pemberton. My future move- 
ments will depend in great measure on the result of the desired in- 
terview. 

******* 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. W. Ferguson, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Com/manding. 
Major J. J. Reeve, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Letter from Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Uajor-Oeneral Stevenson, 
C. S. Army, regarding the unwarranted attacks upon Federal vessels. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 
Near Viohshurg, March 2, 1863. 
Sir: Major-General Grant, commanding this department, has 
handed me a communication from you, written by authority of Gen- 



366 NAVAL FORCES OK WESTERN WATERS. 

eral Pemberton, commanding Department of Mississippi and East 
Louisiana. I might very properly object to notice it, as all commu- 
nications relating to the Mississippi Squadron should be addressed to 
me as commander in chief of the naval department on the Missis- 
sippi Kiver. I decline, however, to stand on a point of etiquette. 

I enclose you a communication I wrote to one of my officers in rela- 
tion to the notice your general has taken exceptions to ; it will fully 
explain my views on this subject. 

No one is more desirous than myself that operations within the 
limits of my command should be conducted in accordance with the 
usages of war, of humanity, and of civilization, which sentiment I 
am pleased to see is expressed by yourself. I can see no easier way 
to arrive at the desired end than by putting a stop to the inhuman 
practice of firing on unarmed vessels and peaceful citizens. 

I am quite satisfied that it is not civilized for parties who are over- 
seer civilians one day (trading with our people) and soldiers the next, 
to be traveling around the country firing upon hospital vessels and 
river steamers. 

The hospital vessel of this squadron was attacked in sight of me, 
and a volley of musketry fired into the windows while she had on 
board, and being attended with all care, some of the wounded prison- 
ers taken at the Arkansas Post. 

A few days since a band of armed desperadoes jumped on the deck 
of the tug Hercules and killed in cold blood some of the unoffending 
crew. Men lurk in the woods without a flag or distinguishing mark 
and fire at any human being they may see on the deck of a steamer, 
without caring or knowing whether it is friend or foe they are about 
to murder, and this we are called upon to recognize as civilized war- 
fare. If, sir, you call this carrying on war in a civilized manner, we 
differ very widely in our opinions. 

If those who profess to be your followers make war on us after the 
manner of highwaymen, I see no reason whj' they should be treated 
with that courtesy and kindness which, I believe, I have the reputa- 
tion of extending to all prisoners captured in honorable warfare. I 
thinkj on due consideration, that you will find I have announced no 
principle not strictly in accordance with the usages of civilized war- 
fare. In this respect I endeavor to set an example of moderation that 
it would be well to follow. I have enjoined upon every person under 
my command to exact the strictest obedience to my order against 
pillaging or injuring the property of persons on the rivers ; and while 
doing all I can to avert the calamities of war, I intend to exact a 
strict compliance with the usages of war, of humanity, and of civili- 
zation. If persons claiming to be soldiers deviate from them, they 
can scarcely expect to be treated to any of the amenities of war, and 
their leaders should not claim for them more than they expect 
themselves. 

In this matter of firing on unarmed vessels, no good results have 
arisen; on the contrary it has led to a system of retaliation where, 
unfortunately, the guilty parties did not always suffer. It has led 
to perfect demoralization, and brought to the river banks a set of 
desperadoes, who plunder alike both friend and foe. 

The system can do no good toward ending this war, and is only 
destructive to those who had no hand in making it. 



NAVAL FOBOES ON WESTERN WATEES. 367 

If General Pemberton is desirous that the war should be con- 
ducted on the principle of humanity and civilization, all he has to 
do is to issue an order to stop guerrilla warfare. 

He can exercise his judgment with regard to any retaliatory 
measures he may think proper to institute. I presume our soldiers 
and sailors could easily prepare themselves for any ordeal they 
might be subjected to, and we might hope to see our country aroused 
at last to a sense of the injuries inflicted upon it. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Major-General C L. Stevenson, 

Vickshurg, Miss. 



letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Fer|riison> C. S. Army, to officer commanding 
TJ. S. Forces near Greenville, complaining of violation of usages of war in re- 
lation to the flag of truce. 

Headquarters C. S. Forces, 
Washington County, Mississippi, March 8, 1863. 
Sir: I have been informed that two men of my command, left by 
my order at Greenville, Miss., with flag of truce, for the purpose of 
delivering a letter addressed to Captain Sutherland, U. S. Navy, 
on official business, were taken off from that point on the 6th instant 
by the forces of the United States. In consequence of this, I send 
an officer under flag of truce to Greenville to deliver this letter. 
If my information proves correct, I would request to be informed 
on what grounds, and by whose authority, this violation, as I must 
consider it, of the rights and usages of war has been committed. 
I am the more urged to make this request, as the same men were 
a day or two before taken, disarmed, and carried on board the United 
States vessel Curlew, where their dispatch was opened and read. 
With the hope that this matter may at once receive the attention 
of the United States authorities, 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. W. Ferguson, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding. 

To the OiTicER IN Command of U. S. Forces near Greenville. 



Beport of Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, C. S. Army, regarding violation of the 
usages of war in relation to the flag of truce. 

Camp on Deer Creek, 
Washington County, March 13, 1863. 
Major: I have the honor to make the following report: On the 
15th of February ultimo I received, by the hand of a citizen, a letter 
from Captain E. W. Sutherland, U. S. Navy, a copy of which is 
herewith forwarded. 



368 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

The Department was at once informed of the result of that inter- 
view, and furnished with the notice of Admiral Porter, then com- 
municated by Captain Sutherland, who expressed his willingness 
to communicate at any time that it should be necessary by flag of 
truce. On the 25th of the same month I received instructions from 
Liuetenant-General Pemberton, which I was ordered to communicate 
to Captain Sutherland, or any other Federal officer. I at once 
sent by flag of truce a letter, a copy of which is herewith for- 
warded. After keeping the party with the flag of truce at Green- 
ville for several days in the further effort to communicate, the 
ravages of the abolitionists on Lake Washington compelled me to 
withdraw the party, except a sergeant and one man, whom I left 
at Greenville with the flag and letter. I accidentally learned from 
a citizen that on or about the 4th instant a gunboat, the Curlew, 
landed a party, who met the flag of truce, disarmed the bearers, 
and took them on board, where they were rudely treated and their 
dispatch broken open and read. It was then returned to them 
with the remark that Captain Sutherland should be informed the 
letter was for him. About the time this news reached me, and before 
I could communicate with the sergeant referred to, I heard from a 
citizen that a gunboat had landed and taken off two men. I at once 
dispatched another party with a flag of truce and letter, a copy of 
which please find enclosed, as well as a copy of the answer I received 
to it. I can not learn by what boat they were taken, and have not 
received an answer from Admiral Porter. Their horses and horse 
equipments I found at Greenville. Since the receipt of Captain 
J. M. Prichett's letter, I have posted a picket at or near Greenville, 
but from the 23d instant to that time I had no troops nearer than 
20 miles, except the party with the flag, and I need not add that 
the assertion of Captain Prichett in regard to flags of truce is 
utterly false, and that none but those mentioned herein have been 
sent or been seen there. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. W. Ferguson, 
Lieuienant-Colonel, Commanding. 

Major J. J. Reeve, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Letter from the Confederate Secretary of War to Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 
C. S. Army, regarding the reference to the President of Acting Kear-Admiral 
Porter's order regarding retaliation. 

War Department, 
Richmond, Va., March 20, 1863. 
General: Your letter of the 23d ultimo, forwarding copy of 
notice purporting to proceed from Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. Navy, 
and a copy of retaliatory notification which you caused to be issued, 
has been received, and, on reference to the President, he replies that 
the course adopted by you is concurred in, rendered necessary by 
the barbarity of the enemy, as evinced in the order to hang troops 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATERS. 369 

who should be captured when assailing the enemy's lines of commu- 
nication to prevent the forwarding of supplies and reinforcements. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. A. Seddon. 

Lieutenant- General J. C. Pemberton, 

Commanding, etc., Jackson, Miss. 



Letter from the Confederate Secretary of War to Lieutenant-General Pemberton, 
C. S. Army, transmitting the opinion of the President of the Confederate 
States. 

War Department, 
Richmond, Va., March 28, 1863. 
General: The correspondence between General Stevenson and 
Admiral Porter, resulting from the capture of the Indianola, was 
submitted to the President, and has been returned by him with an 
endorsement, of which I enclose a copy for your guidance in any 
future correspondence. 

Your obedient servant, J. A. Seddon. 

Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton, 

Commanding, Jackson^ Miss. 

[Enclosure.] 

March 21, 1863. 
Secretary of War: Eead and returned. The misstatements and 
evasions of the naval commander do not appear to have been exposed 
and brought out with such distinctness as would seem to have been 
practicable, and he presents by his showing a defense to which he 
can not be entitled. When the river's banks are marked by burned 
houses and devastated estates, it is mockery to proclaim a purpose to 
abstain from injury to private property; and when the river is the 
enemy's line of communication, upon which both his supplies and 
troops are transported, it was worse than idle to prevent the use of 
unarmed boats as dedicated to humane and charitable purposes. The 
enemy have no plausible pretext for objecting to the dress of our 
troops. They may not be in uniform, may have no other than citi- 
zen's dress, without in any degree subjecting themselves to the charge 
of being disguised. To avail themselves of cover, and thus to effect a 
surprise, is the ordinary and recognized practice of war. The reports 
we have, even through the Northern papers, show why their boats 
land at plantations, and it is to be regretted that they have so often 
plundered with impunity. To destroy their transportation and to 
capture their foraging parties is the fit service of partisan corps, and 
the enemy's epithets can not deprive them of the rights of prisoners 
of war if captured or change the nature of their acts. When or where 
could he allege the crimes named were committed by men in our 
service ? 

J[efferson] D[avi8.] 

711°— N w B— VOL 24—10 2A 



370 NAVAL FOBCES ON WESTEKN WATEKS. 

Order of lieutenant-General Pemberton, C. S. Army, to Major-General Stevenson, 
C. S. Army, calling attention to the President's endorsement. 

Headquabteks Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 

Jackson, April 7, 1863. 
General: The lieutenant-general commanding directs me to send 
you the enclosed copies of communications from the War Department, 
and to say that he regrets that the tenor of your correspondence with 
Admiral Porter was not in accordance with his instructions; that 
hereafter your communications with the enemy will be guided by the 
considerations set forth in the endorsement by the President. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. C. Pemberton. 
Major-General [C. L.] Stevenson, 

Commanding, etc., Vichsburg. 



Second detached expedition to Red River hy TJ. S. ram Queen of the 
West, supported hy U. S. S. Indianola, including passage of Vicks- 
hurg tatteries hy the latter, February .13; capture of Confederate 
steamer Era No. 5, and of TJ. S. S. Queen of the West, Fehru- 
ary H; also sinking of U. S. S. Indianola hy the G. S. ram William 
H. Webb, captured ram Queen of the West, and steamers Dr. Beatty 
and Grand Era, February 84-, 1863. 

Order of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, ¥. S. Navy, to Colonel EUet, commanding 
Bam fleet, regarding time of departure. 

Febritart 10, [1863]. 
Colonel: I would like you to get away to-night as soon as it is 
dark. Be particular that the furnaces on the De Soto are screened, 
so that no lights can be seen. 
Hoping soon to hear a good account of you, 
I remain, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral. 
Colonel Charles Eivers Ellet. 

Don't be surprised to see the Indianola below. Don't mistake her 
for a rebel; she looks something like the Chillicothe. 



Beport of Colonel Ellet, commanding Bam Fleet, explaining cause of delay in 

departure. 

U. S. Eam Queen of the West, 
Below Vickshurg, Miss., February 10, 1863. 
Admiral: The reason I failed to get away last night, as I had 
intended, was the delay caused by the broken steam pipe of the 
De Soto. I did not get it until late this morning, and your positive 
orders not to pass Warrenton by daylight prevented me from going 
then. I shall certainly start this evening. 



NAVAIi FOKCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 371 

The enemy has, I think, removed his guns from the heights imme- 
diately opposite our present landing. Not a man can now be seen 
there, and the cannon have disappeared. 

I shall take every precaution to avoid coming into collision with the 
Indianola. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Rivers Ellet, 
Colonel, CoTnmanding Ram, Fleet. 
Acting Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississifpi Squadron. 



letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Major-Oeneral Sherman, 
V. S. Army, requesting the services of the steamer Se Soto. 

U. S. Ram Queen of the West, 

Below Vicksburg, February 6, 1863. 
General: On returning to the Queen this morning I understood 
from Captain Conner that you had been kind enough to offer me the 
two 30-pounder Parrott guns at the mouth of the canal. I shall gladly 
accept them, and with your permission will take them on board at 
once. As they will be of immediate service, I should like to obtain 
an order for them as speedily as possible. 

I would also respectfully request that if the steamer De Soto is not 
needed just at present, she might be given to me. 

I propose to employ her in supplying the Queen with coal. She is 
very small, tolerably fast, of little intrinsic value, draws but little 
water, and can easily be protected with cotton. If you will give her 
to me, I will, with Admiral Porter's permission, run up to-night and 
bring down a barge of coal. 

I will only take eight or nine men, and if sunk, we can all escape in 
a boat. 

Very respectfully, Charles Rivers Eltjit, 

Colonel, Comm/mding Bam Fleet. 
Major-General Sherman, 

Com,manding Fifteenth Army Corps. 



Letter from Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, TS. S. ITavy, to Colonel Ellet, command- 
ing Bam Fleet, regarding measures for procuring coal. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 5, 1863. 
Colonel : You can do as you like about the De Soto, though I fear 
a failure. I don't think she can make 4 miles an hour upstream, 
which will put you under fire forty minutes or an hour at least. If 
you do try it, it must be done when very dark. I have a tug that I 
picked up to-day that will go through the canal and carry a thousand 
bushels of coal ; or to-morrow night it might float a barge down, and 
you could stand by to go a little above the canal and pick her up. 
Make what arrangement you like best. 

Yours, truly, David D. Porter, 

Acting Rear-Admiral. 



372 NAVAL POBCES ON WESTEKN WATEES. 

Letter from Uajor-Oeneral Sherman, U. S. Army, to Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, 
V. S. Navy, regarding coal for the ram. 

Hjiadquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 
Camp before VicJcshurg, February 5, 1863. 

Dear Sir: I did not get to my quarters till near midnight last 
night, when I found your note of yesterday about the coal. * * * 

Again, a barge could be carried by night, and turned loose and let 
her pick it up. This latter plan was suggested by the officer of the 
ram Queen of the West when I was on board of her yesterday after- 
noon. Colonel EUet seems to be full of energy and resources. . If he 
will devise a practical method of getting coal to his boats, and needs 
assistance which I can give, tell him to call on me. 

W. T. Sherman. 
Admiral David D. Porter, 

Gom7nandin,g Mississippi Squadron. 



letter from Uajor-General Sherman, V. S. Army, to Colonel Ellet, commanding 
Ram Fleet, transmitting order for guns. 

Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 

Camp Before Vicksburg, February 6, 1863. 
Dear Sir: Captain Breese tells me you want the two 30-pounder 
Parrott guns now in position at the foot of the canal. I enclose 
you an order for them and the ammunition. Each gun has 100 
rounds, and when it is determined how to send your coal I can send 
you 200 rounds more. 

Congratulating you on. your brilliant success, and advising you 
to see me before you make another trip to Red River, I am, with great 
respect, 

Your friend and servant, 

W. T. Sherman, 
Major-General, Cormnanding. 

Colonel Ellet, 

Cormnanding Ram Queen of the West. 
I was recently a resident of Alexandria, La., and know many 
people there and thereabouts. 

Sherman. 



Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Acting Sear-Admiral Porter, 
XT. S. Navy, regarding measures for sending coal to the ram. 

U. S. Ram Queen of the West, 

Below Vicksburg, Februanj 6, 1863. 
Admiral : I have just received an order from General Sherman for 
the two 30-pounder Parrott guns, and will take them on board as 
speedily as possible. 

I have written to General Sherman, requesting him to give me 
the little steamer De Soto. I think that I can bring down a barge 



NAVAL FOKCBS ON WESTEKN WATEES. 3Y3 

of coal with her without any difficulty. She only draws 2J feet when 
loaded with cotton, can make 6 miles upstream per hour, is very small, 
and can easily be protected with cotton. 

Her guards are quite broad, and I can secure her boilers without 
difficulty. 

I shall huff the left-hand shore going up, take only nine or ten men 
with me, and if they sink her get off in a boat. The De Soto is worth 
nothing anyhow, and the importance of getting coal at once to the 
Queen justifies, I think, the risk. I will be able, also, to bring down 
the ammunition for the two 30-pounder guns. 

In case General Sherman will let me have the boat and you should 
give me orders to start, I think I can have everything ready to start 
to-morrow night. 

Very respectfully, 

Charles Rivers Eixet, 
Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

CoTrvmanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Beport of Colonel Ellet, commanding Bam Fleet, regarding the urgent need of 

coal. 

U. S. Ram Queen or the West, 

Below Vicksiurg, February 7, 1863. 
Admiral: Your communication of February 5 has just been 
received. 

I wish that the tug you mention could be run through at once. 
A thousand bushels would be a great help. It is needed in the hold 
more than for fuel, as the Qiceen is very heavily laden above with cot- 
ton and needs ballast. If you will float a barge down to-night and 
let me know by signals or otherwise when it is coming, I will run up 
in the De Soto and get it. I shall set to work at once to prepare her. 
It is very important that I should obtain coal at once. The rebels 
are putting up new guns opposite my present landing; and if they 
drive us away, we will have to go below Warrenton. 

The barge ought to be a very full one, as she will then be much 
less visible. I think it can be floated within reach without much 
difficulty. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Rivers Ellet, 
Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet. 

Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Kam Fleet, announcing arrival of coal barge 

below Vicksburg. 

U. S. Ram Queen op the West, 

Below Vickshurg, February 8, 1863. 

Admiral: I have the honor to report to you that the coal barge 

reached me in good condition at half past 11 o'clock last night. I 

secured it without difficulty, and removed it this morning into the 

slue, where it is entirely out of danger from the enemy's shot. I 



374 NAVAL. POECES ON WESTERN "WATEES. 

shall coal immediately. I have mounted one of the 30-pounder Par- 
rott guns on the De Soto. I hope to be able to procure cotton enough 
down the river to thoroughly protect her. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Eiveks EiiLET, 
Colonel, Commanding Ram, Fleet. 

Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Com^manding Mississippi Squadron. 



Instructions of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, IT. S. Navy, to Colonel EUet, com- 
manding Ram Fleet, for the expedition. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, Fehruary 8, 1863. 

Colonel : When you have taken in your coal, you will proceed, at 
night, after dark, with the De Soto and. the coal barge down the river, 
showing no lights. When you get near Bed River, wait until daylight 
above the mouth. From there you will be able to see the smoke of 
any steamer over the trees as she comes down E,ed River. When 
you capture them, do not burn them until you have broken all the 
machinery, then let go the anchors and let them burn, under your 
own eye, at their anchors. There will be no danger then of any part 
of them floating down to the enemy. 

There is one vessel, the Weih, that you must look out for. If you 
get the first crack at her, you will sink her, and if she gets the first 
crack at you she will sink you. My advice is to put a few cotton 
bales over your bow about 15 feet abaft the stem, and if she strikes 
you there, there will be no harm done. It is likely that an attempt 
will be made to board you. If there is, do not open any doors or 
ports to board in return, but act on the defensive, giving the enemy 
steam and shell. Do not forget to wet your cotton before going into 
action. 

Do not lose sight of the De Soto, unless in chase and under cir- 
cumstances where it will be perfectly safe. When your coal is all 
out of the barge, you can take the De Soto alongside. You can help 
each other along. Destroy her at once when there is the least chance 
of her falling into the hands of the enemy; she is now, though, a 
government vessel, and should be brought back if possible. 

Destroy all small boats you meet with on the river; also wharf 
boats and barges. If you have a chance, and have plenty of coal, 
take a look at Port Hudson and give them a few rifle shots, but do 
not pass by. Communicate with the squadron below by signal if 
possible. 

The great object is to destroy all you can of the enemy's stores and 
provisions and get your vessel back safe. Pass all batteries at night 
if the canal is opened. I will keep you supplied with coal. Keep 
your pilot house well supplied with hand grenades, etc., in case the 
enemy should get on your upper decks. Do not show your colors 
along the river unless necessary in action. 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Colonel Chas. R. Ellet, 

Commanding Mississippi Ram Fleet. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEBS. 375 

Seport of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, acknowledging instructions for 
the movements of the dueen of the West. 

U. S. Eam Queen of the West, 
Below Vickshurg.) February 8, 1863. 
Admiral: Your orders relating to the f\iture movements of the 
Queen have been received and wul be executed as far as lies in my 
power. I sent you early this morning a communication informing 
you of the gratifying success whi^h attended your efforts to pass coal 
to me. The barge came exactly to the right spot and was secured 
without difficulty. 

The hand grenades you speak of are all on the Monarch and 
Switzerlavd. I should like to have them sent to me. 

I have already informed you of the necessity of having the broken 
jBange of the steam pipe of the De Soto repaired. If a coppersmith 
could be sent to me at once he could have it done before I had finished 
coaling. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Rivers Ellet, 
Colonel, Com/manding Ram Fleet. 
Acting Eear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



IiCtter from Acting Kear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, to Ilajor-General Grant, 
U. S. Army, in preparation for the running of Vickshurg batteries by the 
U. S. S. Indianola. 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 1!S, 1863. 
General: I shall send the Indianola down to-night to run the 
batteries at Vicksburg. She will show two red lights when she gets 
near your pickets below. If you would let your people at the canal 
show a light I would be much obliged. I want Captain Brown to 
send me a report. Will you please order it sent over * 
Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter. 
General Grant, Cormnanding. 

[Endorsement.] 

Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 

February 12, 1863. 
General Grant has referred this to General Sherman. He directs 
that you take secret, but effectual, measures to instruct your people 
at the canal and along the levee. I have notified General Steele. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. H. Hammond, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 
General David Stuart. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Wavy, announcing the passage by 
the TT. S. S. Indianola of the Vicksburg batteries and transmitting copy of 
instructions to commanding officer. 

No. 109.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 14, 1863. 

Sir: I ordered the Indianola, Lieutenant-Commander George 
Brown, down the river, and she ran the batteries last night, under a 



376 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATEBS. 

heavy fire, without, I believe, receiving any damage. She carried 
with her two coal barges, enough to last two months. 

This gives us entire control of the Mississippi, except at Vicksburg 
and Port Hudson, and cuts off all the supplies and troops from Texas. 
We have below now 2 Xl-inch guns, 2 IX-inch guns, 2 30-pounder 
rifles, 6 12-pounders, and 3 vessels. They have orders to burn, sink, 
and destroy. I send you a copy of my instructions to Lieutenant- 
Commander Brown, and have the honor to remain. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Davu> D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welies, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. Mississippi Squadron, Fehiiiary 12, 1863. 

Sir : You will take two coal barges alongside that have been some- 
what lightened of coal and stand by to run past the batteries at Vicks- 
burg and join the vessels below. 

The object in sending you is to protect the ram Queen of the West 
and the De Soto against the Wehh, the enemy's ram; she will not 
attack you both. 

I do not wish you to go below Red River, but to remain there while 
Colonel EUet reconnoiters Port Hudson and prevent his being taken 
by vessels from Red River. 

Keep your guns loaded with solid shot, or, if you are attacked by 
vessels protected with cotton bales, fire shrapnel, which are good in- 
cendiary shell. If you can capture a good steamer, I want you to keep 
her. 

Go to Jeff. Davis's plantation and his brother Joe's and load up 
said steamer with all the cotton you can find and the best single male 
negroes. If you can not get cotton enough to protect the steamer you 
capture, obtain it at Acklen's Landing, and when you have filled the 
prize up with as much as she will carry and make good speed send 
her up to run the batteries and join me here. 

To do this, daub over her white paint with mud, so that she can 
not be seen in the dark. Dispose the cotton bags so that everything 
is well protected and no light can possibly show in any part of the 
boat. 

You must select dark and rainy nights for running the blockade, 
and don't show yourself below Warrenton as you come up. 

After you pass the batteries at Vicksburg, show two red lights on 
your bow that our people at the canal may know you. 

If you receive any damage from the batteries, send me a short 
report from the other side and go on with care until you are the 
other side (some distance) of Warrenton ; lay by there until the moon 
is up and proceed to Red River. 

When the Queen of the West returns. Colonel EUet and yourself 
will go up Red River (provided you can get good pilots) and destroy 
all you meet with in the shape of enemy's stores. This part must be 
left to your discretion. Ellet and yourself will consult together what 
is best to be done, and whatever you undertake try and have no 
failure. When you have not means of certain success, undertake 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 377 

nothing ; a failure is equal to a defeat. Never leave your coal barges 
unprotected by the De Soto, and never leave her between you and 
the enemy. Don't forget that I had your vessel strengthened to 
perform the part of a ram ; don't hesitate to run anything down. 

When you have emptied the coal barges, either destroy them so 
that the enemy can not possibly use them or fill them with cotton 
and bring them back. Make your calculations to get back here with 
plenty of coal on board. 

Tell Colonel EUet when he gets to Port Hudson to send a commu- 
nication in a barrel (barrel to be marked "Essex"), and tell the 
commander in said communication that I direct him to pass Port 
Hudson on a dark night and join the vessels above. 

Have your casemates and sides well covered with tallow and slush 
before you start. 

Very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admiral, Cormnanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Lieutenant-Commander Geo. Brown, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding Indianola, Mississippi Squadron. 



Keport of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, XT. S. Navy, transmitting report of lieu- 
tenant-Commander Brown, V. S. Navy, commanding TJ. S. S. Indianola. 

No. 125.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February 2^, 1863. 
Sir : I have the honor to enclose you a communication from Lieu- 
tenant-Commander George Brown. We still hold the mouth of Red 
River. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Admired, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

[Enclosure.] 

U. S. S. Indianola, 
Mouth of Red River, February 18, 1863. 

I have the honor to report that, in obedience to your written in- 
structions, I left the anchorage in the Yazoo River at 10 : 15 p. m. 
on the 13th instant, having in tow two barges of coal, containing 
about 7,000 bushels each. The weather was all I could desire. At 
11 : 10 p. m. I was abreast of the upper batteries, which did not open 
fire. The rebel lookouts at those batteries could not have seen us. 
The first gun that was fired at us was at 11 : 22 p. m., from a battery 
abreast the point. 

At this time we were running very slowly, but at once started at 
full speed. Other guns opened on us in very quick succession, and 
rockets were sent up at the upper batteries. At 11 : 41 p. m. the last 
gun was fired. Eighteen guns were fired at us in the space of 
nineteen minutes, none of which struck us. They were generally 
good line shots, but all passed over us; every shot came from abaft 



378 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

the beam. When abreast of the lower end of the canal, I showed 
two red lights on the starboard side. At Warrenton two musket 
shots were fired at us. At 1 a. m., on the 14th instant, we anchored 
about 4 miles below Warrenton. At 5:20 a. m. we got underway 
and proceeded slowly down the river. Nothing of importance tran- 
spired until the morning of the 16th, being at anchor about 8 miles 
below Natchez, when a steamboat was heard approaching from below. 
I got underway at once and stood across the river, when the fog 
lifted, and I made the steamboat Era No. 5. I hailed her, and 
learned that she was in charge of Colonel Ellet, having on board 
the few officers and men who were saved from the Queen of the West. 
The particulars of her capture will be reported to you by Colonel 
Ellet. 

I again anchored, and, after consulting with Colonel Ellet, con- 
cluded to proceed on down the river, as soon as the Era could be put 
in running order. At 4:30 p. m. we started down, the Era ahead. 
At 5 : 10 a steamer was seen abreast of Ellis Cliff, which I at once 
recognized as being the rebel gunboat Weil). At the same time the 
Era's whistle was blown, indicating that she saw danger ahead. I 
cleared for action, and was going ahead at full speed, when the Weih 
turned and started down. I fired two Xl-inch shot at her, both of 
which were good line shots ; one struck within at least 50 yards of her. 
Both guns had all the elevation that the ports would admit of. The 
Wehh at this time was making most excellent speed, and soon disap- 
peared behind the point. As we rounded the point the fog set in so 
thick that not even her smoke could be seen. On account of the dense 
fog we anchored for the night under Glasscock Island. Thinking it 
probable the Weih might get ashore in the fog, and knowing that if 
she did that we would drift by her without seeing her, I thought it 
best to remain at anchor until I could run with safety and be certain 
of seeing everything on either side of the bank as we passed. At 1 
p. m. on the 17th instant, the fog lighting up, we got underway and 
proceeded on down the river as far as the mouth of Eed Eiver, oppo- 
site which place we anchored about 5 p. m. I sent on shore for 
Colonel Acklen, who informed me that three boats had accompanied 
the WehT) in chase of Colonel Ellet, but that they had all turned back 
and gone up Red River. I was informed that Colonel Lovell, who 
commanded the Wehi and the expedition, said that he would make 
a stand at Norman's Landing, where he could have the assistance of 
the fort at that place. I was also informed that the Queen of the 
West had been hauled off and towed up to Norman's (sometimes 
called Gordon's) Landing; that she was injured only in her steam 
and escape pipes, which could easily be repaired. That the rebels 
will make use of her to attack us, I do not doubt, but I feel prepared 
to meet both the Queeri and the Webb. A deserter from the Webb 
reports that she has no iron on her bow, but that the machinery below 
the spar deck is well protected by cotton. On account of her walking 
beams, which are not at all protected, she will not come within close 
range of our guns. Two boats are being fitted up with cotton at Port 
Hudson, for what particular service I am unable to learn. My only 
trouble is to look out for the coal barges, which I can tow upstream 
at a very slow rate, and I can not run the risk of losing sight of 
them, unless in case of some pressing emergency. I keep the coal 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEEN WATEKS. 379 

bunkers full at all times, so that in the event of my losing the barges 
we will have plenty of coal to take us to Vicksburg. Colonel EUet 
thinks it is important that he should go up the river at once and com- 
municate with you. I am convinced that I can remain alone in this 
vicinity for some time, but at the same time I consider it important 
that there should be at least one other serviceable vessel with me. If 
the river rises 1 foot more, of which there is a strong probability, Port 
Hudson will be unapproachable by land, so you can readily under- 
stand the importance of the stoppage of all river communication. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Geo. Brown, 
Lieutenant- Gommwnder, V. S. Navy. 

Acting Rear- Admiral Davdj D. Porter, 

Gom/manding Mississippi Squadron, Yazoo River. 



BepoTt of lieutenant-Commander Brown, V. S. Navy, regarding the loss of the 

U. S. S. Indianola. 

Washington, D. C., May 28, 1863. 

Sir : At this, my earliest opportunity, I respectfully submit to the 
Department a report of the operations of the U. S. S. Indianola, while 
below Vicksburg, Miss. ; also the particulars of the engagement with 
the rebel armed rams Queen of the West and William H. Weib, and 
armed cotton-clad steamers Dr. Beatty and Grand Era, in which the 
Indianola was sunk and her officers and crew made prisoners. 

In obedience to an order from Acting Rear- Admiral Porter, com- 
manding Mississippi Squadron, I passed the batteries at Vicksburg 
and Warrenton on the night of the 13th of February last, having in 
tow two barges containing about 7,000 bushels of coal each, without 
being once struck, although eighteen shots were fired, all of which 
passed over us. 

I kept on down the river, but owing to dense fogs made but slow 
2)rogress until the morning of the 16th, when about 10 miles below 
Natchez I met the steamboat Era No. 5, having on board Colonel 
Ellet, of the Ram Fleet, and a portion of the officers and crew of the 
steamer Queen of the West. I then learned for the first time of the 
loss of that boat, and after consulting with Colonel Ellet I con- 
cluded to continue on down as far as the mouth of Red River. On 
the afternoon of the same day I got underway, the Era No. 5 lead- 
ing. On nearing Ellis Cliffs the Era made the prearranged signal 
of danger ahead, soon after which I made out the rebel steamer 
William E. Webb. Before I got within range of the Webb she had 
turned and was standing downstream with great speed. I fired two 
shots from the Xl-inch guns, but both fell short of her. -She soon 
ran out of sight, and in consequence of a thick fog setting in I could 
not continue the chase, but was obliged to anchor. 

I reached the mouth of Red River on the 17th of February, from 
which time until the 21st of same month I maintained a strict block- 
ade at that point. I could procure no Red River pilots, and therefore 
did not enter that river. The Era No. 5 being unarmed, and having 
several prisoners on board, Colonel EUet decided to go up the river 



380 NAVAL FORCES ON WESTEKN "WATERS. 

and communicate with the squadron, and sailed at noon on the 18th of 
same month for that purpose. 

On learning that the Queen of the West had been repaired by the 
rebels and was nearly ready for service, also that the William H. 
Webb and four cotton-clad boats, with boarding parties on board, 
were fitting out to attack the Indianola, I left the Bed River for the 
purpose of getting cotton to fill up the space between the casemates 
and wheelhouses, so as to be better able to repel the boarding parties. 

By the afternoon of the 22d of same month I had procured as much 
cotton as I required, and concluded to keep on up the river, thinking 
that I would certainly meet another boat the morning following, but 
I was disappointed. I then concluded to communicate with the squad- 
ron as soon as possible, thinking that Colonel EUet had not reached 
the squadron, or that Admiral Porter would expect me to return 
when I found that no other boat was sent below. 

I kept the bunkers of the Indianola filled with coal, and would 
have sunk what remained in the barges, but knowing that if another 
boat was sent below Vicksburg, that I would be expected to supply 
her with coal, I concluded to hold on to the barges as long as possible. 
In consequence of having the barges alongside, we could make but 
slow progress against the current, the result of which was that I did 
not reach Grand Gulf until the morning of the 24th of same month, 
at which point and at others above, we were fired on by parties on 
shore. As I knew that it would be as much as I could do to get by 
the Warrenton batteries before daylight the next morning, I returned 
the fire of but one party. 

At about 9:30 p. m. on the 24th of same month, the night being 
very dark, four boats were discovered in chase of us. I immediately 
cleared for action, and as soon as all preparations were completed, I 
turned and stood down the river to meet them. At this time the lead- 
ing vessel was about 3 miles below, the others following in close order. 
As we neared them I made them out to be the rams Queen of the West 
and WilliaTn H. Webb, and two other steamers, cotton-clad, and filled 
with men. The Queen of the West was the first to strike us, which 
she did after passing through the coal barge lashed to our port side, 
doing us no serious damage. Next came the William H. Webb. I 
stood for her at full speed ; both vessels came together bows on, with 
a tremendous crash, which knocked nearly every one down on board 
of both vessels, doing no damage to us, while the William, H. WebVs 
bow was cut in at least 8 feet, extending from about 2 feet above the 
water line to the keelson. At this time the engagement became gen- 
eral, and at very close quarters. I devoted but little attention to the 
cotton-clad steamers, although they kept up a heavy fire with field 
pieces and small arms, as I knew that everything depended on my 
disabling the rams. The third blow crushed the starboard barge, 
leaving parts hanging by the lashings, which were speedily cut. The 
crew of the Indianola not numbering enough men to man both bat- 
teries, I kept the forward guns manned all the time, and fired them 
whenever I could get a shot at the rams ; the night being very dark, 
our aim was very uncertain, and our fire proved less effective than I 
thought it at the time. The peepholes m the pilot house were so 
small that it would have been a difficult matter to have worked the 
vessel from that place in daylight, so that during the whole engage- 



NAVAL FOECES ON WESTERN WATERS. 381 

ment the pilots were unable to aid me by their knowledge of the river, 
as they were unable to see anything; consequently they could do no 
more than obey such orders as they received from me in regard to 
working the engines and helm. No misunderstanding occurred in 
the performance of that duty, and I was enabled to receive the first 
five blows from the rams forward of the wheels and at such angles 
that they did no more damage than to start the plating where they 
struck. 

The sixth blow we received was from the William R. Webb, which 
crushed in the starboard wheel, disabled the starboard rudder, and 
started a number of leaks abaft the shaft. Being unable to work 
the starboard engine placed us in an almost powerless condition, but 
I continued the fight until after we received the seventh blow, which 
was given us by the William H. Webb. She struck us fair in the 
stern, and started the timbers and starboard rudder box so that the 
water poured in in large volumes. At this time I knew that the 
Indianola could be of no more service to us, and my desire was to 
render her useless to the enemy, which I did by keeping her in deep 
water until there was 2^ feet of water over the floor, and the leaks 
were increasing rapidly as she settled so as to bring the openings 
made by the WUliam, H. Webb under water. Knowing that if either 
of the rams struck us again in the stern, which they then had excel- 
lent opportunities of doing, on account of our disabled condition, 
that we would sink so suddenly that few, if any, lives would be saved, 

1 succeeded in running her bows on shore by starting the screw en- 
gines. As further resistance could only result in a great loss of life 
on our part, without a corresponding result on the part of the 
enemy, I surrendered the Indiarvola, a partially sunken vessel, fast 
filling with water, to a force of four vessels, mounting 10 guns, and 
manned by over 1,000 men. The engagement lasted one hour and 
twenty-seven minutes. I lost but 1 killed, 1 wounded, and 7 missing, 
while the enemy lost 2 officers and 33 men killed, and many wounded. 
Before the enemy could make any preparations for endeavoring to 
save the IndiaTwla her stem was under water. Both rams were so 
very much crippled that I doubt whether they would have tried to 
ram again had not their last blow proved so fatal to us. Both signal 
books were thrown in the river by me a few minutes before the sur- 
render. In conclusion, I would state that I have very reliable in- 
formation that the IX-inch guns of the Indianola were thrown over- 
board, and the Xl-inch guns damaged by being loaded with heavy 
charges and solid shot, placed muzzle to muzzle, and fired by a slow 
match, so that they were rendered useless; this was done in conse- 
quence of the sham monitor sent from above, having grounded about 

2 miles above the wreck of the Indianola. 

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

Geo. Brown, 
Lieutenant-Comma'nder, U. S. Navy. 

Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washinffion, D. G. 



382 NAVAL. FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 

Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, regardlntr escape of the crew of 
the "U- S. ram Queen of the West on the captured steamer Era No. 6. 

U. S. S. Era, No. 5, 
Below Vicksburg, February 21, 1863. 
Admiral : I have to report to you that the steam pipe of the Queen 
of the West was cut by a battery at Gordon's Landing, up Bed River, 
after the pilot had run her aground. The officers and majority of 
the men escaped on the Era No. 5, which I had captured. We were 
pursued by the Webb and three other boats, but they were driven 
back by the Indianola. One hundred shots were fired at the Era 
yesterday by three batteries at Grand Gulf, Carthage, and Warren- 
ton. I bring up 170 bales of cotton. I shall report to you in person 
as soon as I can obtain a horse. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles RrraRS Ellet, 
Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet. 
Acting Rear- Admiral David D. Porter, 

Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 



Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, V. S. Navy, announcing the loss of U. S. 

ram Queen of the West. 

No. 120.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February 22, 1863. 

Sir: The best calculations are liable to be upset, and mine have 
been disarranged by the capture of the Queen of the West, up Red 
River. That vessel grounded under the guns of a battery, which 
she foolishly engaged, and received a shot through her boilers and 
steam drum, which drove most of her people overboard. Many es- 
caped in a prize, the steamer Era No. o, but most of the deck hands 
and contrabands fell into the power of the rebels. The officers and 
Colonel Ellet were then chased up the River Mississippi by the Webb 
and some two or three other vessels until they met the Indianola, 
which vessel saved them and drove the rebels back. This is all I caii 
learn of this affair. 

The colonel arrived here safe with the Era No. 5, having run the 
batteries all along the river, and had 120 shots fired at him with- 
out being hit, bringing up 170 bales of cotton. It is said that he left 
the Indianola and Webb engaged. I hope to get a report from him in 
a day or two. He is on the other side and sick, and the road is almost 
impassable. 

Had the commander of the Queen of the West waited patiently, he 
would, in less than twenty-four hours, have been joined by the In- 
dianola, which he knew. That vessel was detained eighteen hours by 
a fog at the mouth of the Yazoo. This is a serious disappointment to 
us all here, as we calculated certainly on starving out the garrison at 
Port Hudson by merely blockading the mouth of Red River. My 
plans were well laid, only badly executed. I can give orders, but I 
can not give officers good judgment. The Indianola is now there by 
herself. Whether the commander will have the good sense not to be 
surprised, remains to be seen. He should return for the present. 



NAVAL FORCES ON WESTERN WATERS. 383 

The intrinsic value of the Queen of the West is nothing. She paid 
for herself five times over by the destruction and capture of rebel 
property, only she has a national character. It was a loss without 
any excuse, and if not destroyed by the Indianola she will fall into 
rebel hands. 

She was grounded 100 miles up the Red Eiver under the batteries 
of Fort Taylor, which batteries would have fallen into our hands 
had the Queen of the West waited for the Indianola with her heavy 
guns. 

I would not have employed this class of vessel on this service, 
but am obliged to use such as I have. I had nothing else to send 
that could stem the current. 

We are sadly in want of a good class of fast ironclad rams on this 
river. The reoels have a number fitting out, and I should like to 
have something to meet them. The EUet rams are fit for nothing but 
towboats. 

I have nothing but the Indianola that will make more than 2 
knots against the current, and shall have to depend on that vessel 
alone for carrying out my cherished plan of cutting off supplies 
from Port Hudson and Vicksburg. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

David D. Porter, 
Acting Rear-Adm,iral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. GroEON Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. G. 



Beport of Acting Bear-Admiral Porter, TT. S. Navy, transmitting report of the 
loss of the IT. S. ram Queen of the West. 

No. 123.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, 

Yazoo River, February ^3, 1863. 

Sir: Colonel EUet has arrived on this side of the river. He in- 
forms me that his ram was not destroyed, but fell into the hands of 
the rebels. He could not destroy her without sacrificing his wounded. 

She will not be worth anything for some time to the rebels, and is 
much used up; will not do to ram with any longer, being too weak 
and shattered. I am going to try it again with another one. The 
ram committed great havoc on Ked River; destroyed many stores 
also along the river. She destroyed and captured altogether over 
$100,000 of Confederate property. He returned with cotton to the 
value of $70,000 and a boat worth $18,000. I enclose herewith 
Colonel EUet's report. 

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David D. Porter. 
Acting Bear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron. 

Hon. Gideon Welles, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. 

r Enclosure.] 

U. S. S. Era No. 5, 
Below Vicksburg, Miss., February 21, 1863. 
Admirai- : I have the honor to report to you that I left the land- 
ing feekw Vicksburg, in obedience to your written instructions, on 



384 NAVAL FOECES ON WESTEEN WATEES. 

the night of the 10th instant, taking with me the De Soto and coal 
barge, and proceeded down the river. We passed Warrenton without 
interruption and reached Ked Eiver on the following evening. I 
destroyed, as you directed, the skiffs and flatboats along either 
shore. 

I ascended Red Eiver on the morning of the 12th as far as the 
mouth of the Atchafalaya. Leaving the De Soto and coal barge in 
a secure position, I proceeded down this stream. Six miles from 
its mouth I met a train of 12 army wagons returning from Simmes- 
port. I landed and destroyed them. On reaching Simmesport I 
found that two rebel steamboats had just left, taking with them 
the troops and artillery stationed at this point. They had left on 
the bank 70 barrels of Government beef, which I broke open and 
rolled into the river. I pursued another train of wagons for some 
distance, but they retreated into the swamps and escaped. One 
of their wagons loaded with ammunition and stores, fell into our 
hands and was destroyed. 

On her return at night a party of overseers and other civilians 
fired into the Queen from behind a levee and immediately fled under 
cover of the darkness. First Master James D. Thompsonj a gallant 
and efficient officer, was shot through the knee. Anchoring at the 
mouth of the Atchafalaya, I waited until morning and then returned 
to the spot from which we had been attacked. All the buildings on 
three large adjoining plantations were burned by my order. 

I started up Red Eiver the same day and reached Black River by 
night. On the morning of the 14th instant, when about 15 miles 
above the mouth of Black Eiver, a steamboat came suddenly around 
a sharp bend in the river, and was captured before she could escape. 
She proved to be the Era No. 5, laden with 4,500 bushels of corn; 
she had on board 2 rebel lieutenants and 14 privates. The latter 
I at once paroled and set ashore. 

Hearing of three very large boats lying with steam down at Gor- 
don's Landing, 30 miles above, I decided on making an effort to 
capture them, intending to return if I should find the battery at that 
point too strong and ascend the Washita [Ouachita]. I left the 
Era and coal barge in charge of a guard. We reached the bend just 
below Gordon's Landing before dusk. The dense smoke of several 
boats, rapidly firing up, could be seen over the tops of the trees as 
we approached. I ordered the pilot to proceed very slowly, and 
merely show the bow of the Queen around the point. From the sharp 
bend which the river makes at this place, there was no apparent diffi- 
culty in withdrawing out of range of the enemy's guns whenever it 
might be desired. 

The rebels opened upon us with four 32-pounders the moment we 
came in sight. Their guns were in a fine position, and at the third 
shot I ordered Mr. Garvey, the pilot, to back the Queen out. Instead 
of doing so, he ran her aground on the right-hand shore. The posi- 
tion at once became a very hot one ; 60 yards below we would have 
been in no danger. As it was, the enemy's shot struck us nearly every 
time. The chief engineer had hardly reported to me that the escape 
pipe had been shot away, when an explosion below and a rush of 
steam around the boat told me that the steam pipe had been shot in 
two. Nothing further, of course, could be done. I gave orders to 



navaij fobces on western watees. 385 

lower the yawl at the stem of the Queen, to carry off Captain Thomp- 
son, who lay wounded in my stateroom. Some person had already 
taken the yawl, however, and it was gone ; the other yawl was on the 
De Soto, a short distance below. Fortunately the cotton bales with 
which the Queen was protected afforded an avenue of escape, and the 
majority of the men and officers succeeded in reaching the De Soto. 
I ordered this boat to be brought up as far as it was practicable with- 
out being struck, and sent her yawl to the Queen. Lieutenant Tuthill 
and Third Master Duncan bravely volunteered for this purpose. I 
remained with the De Soto over an hour, picking up men on cotton 
bales. Lieutenant Tuthill bravely succeeded in escaping from the 
Queen, the rebels boarding her in skiffs as he escaped. Mr. Duncan 
stayed too long and was captured. The Queen could easily have been 
burned, but this could not be done while Captain Thompson was on 
board, and it was impossible to remove him; all the passages had 
been blocked up with cotton, the interior of the boat was intensely 
dark, full of steam, and strewed with shattered furniture. The dis- 
play of a light enabled the batteries to strike her with unerring cer- 
tainty. To have brought the De Soto alongside would have insured 
her destruction, as the light from the latter's furnaces rendered her a 
conspicuous mark. 

A dense fog sprang up as we started down in the De Soto, and she 
lost her rudder by running into the bank. Drifting down 15 miles, 
I took possession of the Era and scuttled and burned the De Soto 
and barge. Knowing that the rebels would lose no time in pursuing, 
I pushed on down through the fog, throwing off the corn to lighten 
her. We reached the Mississippi at dawn. Opposite Ellis Cliffs, Mr. 
Garvey ran the Era, a boat drawing less than 2 feet of water, hard 
aground, actually permitting her wheels to make several revolutions 
after she had struck. It was with the utmost difficulty that she could 
be gotten off. The disloyal sentiments openly expressed by Mr. Gar- 
vey a few hours previous to this occurrence rendered it necessary for 
me to place him under arrest, and forced upon me the unwilling con- 
viction that the loss of the Queen was